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Izu Islands(Izushoto)The Pacific Ocean(Philippine Sea)Tokyo OfislandsIt is a department. There are also manned islands, and the southern islands are under climatic conditions called everlasting spring. Each island has different characteristics and is famous for island sushi, ashitaba, dolphins, fishing, surfing, hot springs, mountain climbing, and astronomical observation.
Izu PeninsulaSoutheast ofizu-OshimaからLot's WifeOver 100 in betweenislandsConsists of. SouthernmostBayonnaise Rocks,Smith Island,Torishima, Lot's WifeIzu Islands(Zunanshotou) "is also called.Administrative divisionAs anyTokyoHowever, from the historical background, "Izu IslandsThe name is well established. Also, apart from these geographical and administrative names,Izu NanashimaThe name (Izushi Chito) is commonly used.
Currently, the number of islands (manned islands) where people settle is nine. Besides OshimaToshima-Niijima-Shikinejima-Kozushima-Miyakejima-Mikurajima-Hachijojima-AogashimaThat is the eight islands of. Long time agoUdoneshima,Hachijo Kojima・ There was a permanent resident in Torishima, but nowUninhabited islandIt has become. Also,Jinai Island-Hayashima-Onohara Island-Inambajima-Bayonnaise Rocks-Smith Island-Lot's WifeIsRecorded historyIt has been an uninhabited island since then.
The straight line distance from Tokyo to Lot's Wife is about 650km. mostNorthOshima, located in, is the southernmost tip of the Izu Peninsula.IrozakiTo the north ofSagami NadaIt is an island off the coast of Izu Peninsula and east of the Izu Peninsula, and has the largest area of the Izu Islands (on sunny nights, you can see the lights of cars running along the coast of the Izu Peninsula). From here to the southwest, alongside Toshima, Niijima, Shikinejima, and Kozushima,ZenisuContinue until. This rise that continues below sea levelZenisu RidgeIs called. 40 east-southeast of KozushimakmMiyakejima is about 60km south-southeast of Oshima, and Mikurajima is about 20km south of Miyakejima. Located about 100km south of MikurajimaGourdThe shaped island is Hachijojima, and Aogashima is about 70km south of Hachijojima. Aogashima is the southern limit of manned islands in the Izu Islands, and the islands south of this (Bayonnaise Rocks, Smith Island, Torishima, Lot's Wife, etc.) are uninhabited islands.
Since the Izu Islands are long from north to south, they are sometimes divided into northern and southern parts in terms of weather and fisheries. In that case, the northern part of the Izu Islands is from Oshima to Kozushima, and the southern part of the Izu Islands is from Miyakejima to Aogashima. When expressing it in more detail, it may be expressed as "Southern Izu Islands" Miyakejima region.
KuroshioIs 50-100km wide and has a flow velocity of 7 near the passage through the Izu Islands.knot(Approximately 13km / h). Usually, it often flows between Miyakejima and Hachijojima,MeanderThen, it may pass through the south of Hachijojima and the sea near Oshima.
All the islands of the Izu IslandsVolcanoOrcalderaformulaSubmarine volcanoThe outer ring of the mountain is higher than the sea level. In particular, Aogashima is a typical double volcano that is rare in the world and can be seen at a glance, and there is a small volcano called Maruyama in the crater. There are old and stable islands like Mikurajima,1983 と2000 Miyakejima1986 Some islands, such as Oshima, have repeated active volcanic activity.
The administrative divisions are all islandsTokyoAs a local agencyTokyo Metropolitan GovernmentIs a sub-organization ofOshima Branch,Miyake Branch,Hachijo branch officeIs placed. Of TokyoislandsArea isTokyo islandsIt is called, but in Tokyo there is a "嶼"Common kanjiBecause it is outside, it is written as "Island".
in Japantown,village ThecountyWith the exception of the Izu Islands, there are no counties. Therefore, the official address will be displayed as "Oshima-cho, Tokyo". In Hachijo Town and Miyake Village, the notation "Hachijo Town, Hachijo Island, Tokyo" is commonly used.
The jurisdiction of each branch office is shown below. The numbers in parentheses are the major islands in each town / village area.
- Oshima Branch
- Miyake Branch
- Hachijo branch office
other than this,Bayonnaise RocksThe islands from to Lot's Wife are under the direct jurisdiction of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government due to the affiliation dispute between Aogashima Village and Hachijo Town. These uninhabited islands are one of the few exceptions that do not belong to the municipalities, which are the smallest units of local autonomy in Japan.
Historically, the Izu IslandsSuruga countryLaterIzukuniBelongs to中 世Until Izu ProvinceKamo-gunIt was in Mishima Township. Following the trend since modern timesShizuokaIt does not belong to, but belongs to Tokyo. In fact, once I belonged to Shizuoka prefectureTokyoIt has been transferred to (at that time). There is a theory that this is because Tokyo's finances were more affordable than Shizuoka, but as will be described later.Edo PeriodThe route is fromEdoIt is said that the biggest reason is that Edo (Tokyo) was closer to both physical and human exchanges (""#historySee section). In addition, it should be notedMeijiWhen it was incorporated into Shizuoka Prefecture during the era, there was a movement centered on islanders and merchants to plead for belonging to Tokyo Prefecture.
Izu IslandsPhilippine Sea PlateOn the eastern edge of the Philippine Sea PlatePacific plateSinksIzu/Ogasawara TrenchRuns north and south off the eastern coast of the islands. That is, the Izu IslandsIzu, Ogasawara, Mariana Island ArcIt forms part of an island arc called. plateIn the fire activity accompanying the subduction ofVolcanic islandAn island arc consisting of was developed. The rocks that make up the islandsIzu Oshima Miharayama,Miyakejima OyamaOn behalf ofbasaltHowever, Niijima and Shikinejima are rare in the world.Koga stoneTo give birth toRhyoliteAnd KozushimaobsidianConsists of rhyolite with.
|image||Island name||Area (km2)||Population (people)||Summit (m)||Peak name||Coordinate|
|izu-Oshima||91.06||7,411 people (end of December 2020)||764||Mihara|
|Toshima||4.12||304 people (2007)||508||Miyatsukayama|
|Udoneshima||0.4||Unmanned[Table Note 1]||210|
|Niijima(WhenJinai IslandとHayashima）||23.87||2,420 people (2007)||432||Miyatsukayama|
|Shikinejima||3.9||600 people (2007)||109||Kamibikiyama|
|Kozushima||18.48||1,914 people (2007)||574||Tenjosan|
|Miyakejima||55.44||2,382 people (2007)||815||Mt. Oyama|
|Mikurajima||20.58||313 people (2007)||851|
|Hachijo branch office|
|Hachijojima||62.52||8,363 people (2007)||854||(alias:)|
|Hachijo Kojima||3.08||Unmanned[Table Note 2]||616.8||Ohirayama|
|Aogashima||8.75||192 people (2007)||423||(I.e.|
|Torishima||4.79||Unmanned[Table Note 3]||394|
The population of the Izu Islands is declining more slowly than the average in Japan.
|Years||Izu Islands||Remote islands of Japan||Japan total|
For the northJomon PeriodThere are traces of people living in Tsunoshima, and Jomon archaeological sites have been discovered on each island. Furthermore, the Yayoi ruins have been discovered on Miyakejima, suggesting that settlement had begun during this period.Yayoi PeriodcharacteristicRice cultivationAs for culture, it will flourish after the ruins are built.
Edo Period TheHeavenwas. Although it is an area of the former Izu province, buying and selling of products etc.EdoIsland placed onClubhouseBecause it was done through, it has a strong connection with Edo, which was incorporated into Tokyo Prefecture in 1878.Kanto regionIt becomes a factor to be incorporated in a part of.
Old timesIzu GoshimaorIzu YashimaIt seems that it was sometimes called, but by the end of the Edo periodIzu NanashimaThe name was well established. Since then, this has become commonplace and is often used as a term to refer to the entire Izu Islands. However, it does not match the situation of counting 9 islands only on the islands where people settle.
- 674 - Hemp kingChild to OshimaExile.
- 680 - Suruga countryIn the form of separating fromIzukuniIs provided. At that timeKamo-gunBelonged to.
- 724 (TurtleXNUMXst year) --Izu ProvinceDistant currentDetermined as the land of.
- 1156 (HomotoFirst year)- Source morningExiled to Oshima.
- Kanto area(Yamauchi Uesugi Family) Go under control.
- Mr. Sagami MiuraUnder the control of.
- Mr. GohojoUnder the control of.
- Edo ShogunateIt will be under the direct control of.
- 1606 (Keicho11 years)- Ukita HideyaExiled to Hachijojima. Officially the first Hachijo Ryujin.
- 1698 (Genroku11 years)- Eiichi ButterflyExiled to Miyakejima.
- 1709 (Hoei6 years)- Tokugawa TsunayoshiDied and replaced the shogunamnestyYes. Hanabusa Itcho is forgiven and returns to Edo.
- 1714 (Masanori4 years)- Ejima Ikushima IncidentByKabuki actor OfShingoro IkushimaIs on Miyakejima (1742 [Generosity2 years]Forgiveness),Samurai doctorWas exiled to Mikurajima.
- 1729 (Kyoho(14) --- Thanks to the efforts of Okuyama Kotakein and others, Mikurajima, which has been treated as a genus island of Miyakejima, achieves "independence".
- 1780 (Ernst & Young9 years)- 1785 (Tenmei5 years) --Eruption in Aogashima. Especially in the April-May eruption of Tenmei 5, 4 people were rescued from Hachijojima.EvacuationHowever, it is estimated that all 132 people who missed the evacuation died. After this, the islanders will return1835 (TempoAogashima will be an uninhabited island for 6 years until 50 years).
- 1827 (Bunsei10 years)- Tokugawa Fudai OfFlag book-Shigezo KondoMorishige's eldest sonTomizo KondoHowever, he was exiled to Hachijojima for murdering seven of his father's family members. This was the last fluent person.
History since modern times
- MeijiAs of the first year, the entire area is under the jurisdiction of the Izu DaikanShogunateMet. (24 villages)
|Chiyuki||(I.e.||Number of villages||Name of the village|
|Shogunate||(I.e.||Village 6||Okada Village, Motomura, Izumizu Village, Nomasu Village, Sashikiji Village, Hauki Port Village|
|Niijima||Village 2||Niijima Honmura, Wakago Village|
|Miyakejima||Village 5||Izu Village, Kamitsuki Village, Igaya Village, Ako Village, Tsubota Village|
|Hachijojima||Village 5||Okago Village, Mine Village, Kashidate Village, Nakanogo Village, Sueyoshi Village|
|Hachijo Kojima||Village 2||Toriuchi Village, Utsugi Village|
- Keio4 May 6(1868 May 8) --The whole areaNirayamaWill be under the jurisdiction of.
- 1869 (Meiji2 years)- Mr. Ukita(Descendants of the Ukita Hideie) are pardoned. Some of the descendants who give the surnames of "Ukita" and "Kita" still remain as Hideie's grave keeper.
- Meiji 4May 11(1871 May 12)-By the first prefecture integration,AshigaraWill be under the jurisdiction of.
- 1876 (9th year of Meiji)May 4 --Due to the second prefectural integrationShizuokaWill be under the jurisdiction of.
- 1878 (11th year of Meiji)
- 1880 (Meiji 13) --Tomizo Kondo is pardoned. After that, as a guardian of Ichikannon-do on Hachijojima1882 Return to the island1887 Died at the age of 83.
- 1888 (21th year of Meiji)- Tamaki HanemonObtained permission from Tokyo Prefecture to borrow Torishima for free羽毛For the purpose of collectionAlbatrossStart overfishing.
- 1902 (Meiji 35) --A large eruption occurred in Torishima, killing all 125 residents at that time, including the people of Tamaki. Tamaki himself with his family1893 I moved to Tokyo, so I was safe.
(41th year of Meiji)
- May 4 --To OshimaIsland township systemEnforcement.
- May 10 --Island town and village system enforced on Hachijojima.
- 1923 (Taisho12) October 10-Toshima, Niijima, Kozushima, Miyakejima, Mikurajima island towns and villages enforced.
- 1940 (Showa15 years) April 4-Island town and village system is normalMunicipal systemMigrate to. At the same time, the ordinary town and village system was enforced on Aogashima.Aogashima Village(Extant) Enforces a single village system.
- 1943 (18)May 7 - Tokyo Metropolitan GovernmentBy the enforcement ofTokyoWill be under the jurisdiction of.
- May 1 - GHQ (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers)By the directive of JapanAdministration[Annotation 1] Is stopped.
- May 3 --The suspension of Japanese administration over the Izu Islands, which had been suspended by GHQ, will be lifted.
- October 10-Izu Village, Kamitsuki Village, and Igaya Village mergedMiyake-muraWas launched. (22 villages)
- 1947 (22)May 5 - Local government lawBy enforcement,Toriuchi Village,Utsuki Village(Currently Hachijo Town) is established.
- 1951 (Showa 26) --The albatross, which was thought to be extinct, is rediscovered in Torishima.
- 1952 (Showa 26) July 4- Mokuhoshigo crash, All 37 passengers and crew died.
- 1954 (29)
- 1955 (30) April 4 (1 towns and 2 villages)
- 1956 (31)May 2 – Miyake Village, Ako Village, and Tsubota Village merged and renewedMiyake-muraWas launched. (2 town, 6 villages)
- 1963 (Showa 38) July 8- Fujita Airlines(In November of the same yearANAAbsorption merger)De Havilland Heron 1B, Hachijojima bound for Haneda crashed into Hachijo Fuji immediately after takeoff, killing 19 people (Fujita Aircraft Hachijo Fuji crash accident).
- 1965 (Showa 40)- Swarm earthquakeThe Torishima Meteorological Observatory was closed.
- 1969 (Showa 44) June- life lineThe migration of islanders from Hachijokojima to Hachijojima started due to the strict living conditions such as, and was completed in June of the same year."The first complete migration of all islanders in Japan"It was noticed as. After this, Hachijo Kojima will become an uninhabited island. Then the wild goat (cf.)'S large breeding becomes an environmental problem (for details, see the separate section "Hachijo Kojima #Biota"checking).
- 1983 (58) --The Ako district was opened by the eruption of Miyakejima and Oyama.Lava flowIs swallowed by.
- 1986 (61) November 11-Oshima and Mt. Mihara erupted. After this, she evacuated the entire island on November 15 (about one month).
- 1993 (Heisei5 years) --Tokyo Island Promotion Corporation Connecting Oshima, Toshima, Miyakejima, Mikurajima, Hachijojima, and Aogashima with the cooperation ofヘ リcommuterRoute "Tokyo Air Land ShuttleStarted operation.
- 1992 (4) April 4-Niijima Motomura changed its nameNiijima VillageBecomes
- 2000 (12) September 9-Evacuated the entire island due to the eruption of Miyakejima and Oyama that had continued since July.
- 2001 (13) April 8- HachijoStarted capturing wild goats on Hachijo Kojima.
- 2003 (15) October 10-Around 7:8 am,Hachijojima AirportFrom Haneda, which entered the landing attitudeAir Nippon(ANK) Flight 821Boeing 737(62 passengers and crew) at the sea east of HachijojimaJMSDFAtsugi baseBelongingP-3CPatrol aircraftWith (9 crew members)Near miss(The closest distance, only 30m). ANK on October 10thMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismReported to.
- 2005 (17) February 2-1: 15 The evacuation order for Miyakejima, which has been in effect for 12 years and 4 months since 5, will be lifted.
- 2008 (20) April 4-The air route between Haneda and Miyakejima, which had been interrupted for 26 years and 7 months since the eruption and 8 years and 3 months after the evacuation order was lifted, will be resumed.
In the Izu IslandsMiku Miyamiya Stag,Plestiodon latissisSuch asEndemic speciesThere are also many.Healthy vegetablesAttracting attention asAshitaba (Ashitaba)Is said to have originated in the Izu Islands. In the seaDolphin,A whaleYou can also seeTorishima TheAlbatrossKnown as.
However, it is very different in biota from the Ogasawara Islands in the south... The biota of the Ogasawara IslandsEndemic speciesThere is a large number of adaptive radiations in certain taxa, while there are several biotas that are largely lacking.Ocean islandIt has the characteristics of biota that are often found in. On the other hand, that of the Izu Islands is rather close to the biota of mainland Japan. For example, there are no snakes in the Ogasawara Islands, but in the Izu Islands.Striped snake,Rat snake,Jim Guri,MamushiEtc., all of which are considered to be the same species as those in Honshu.. The lizards of the Izu IslandsPlestiodon latissisIt was a different species from that of Honshu, but it was recently discovered that it is distributed from the Izu Islands to the Izu Peninsula. However, this cannot always be regarded as evidence that it has been geographically separated from the Izu Peninsula-type Honshu. In recent years, it has been confirmed that other lizards in mainland Japan are also divided into two species, north and south. There are other endemic species, but many have species closely related to Honshu.
In any case, the biota of the Izu Islands is closely related to that of the Izu Peninsula, and has a very strong affinity with other parts of the mainland. For example, in the volcanic gravel of the Izu Islands, there are grasslands dominated by Japanese knotweed and Japanese knotweed, and both of these species are endemic to the Izu Islands (the former is a subspecies and the latter is a species). , Shimatanukiran is very closely related to Kotanukiran, which grows from the deciduous forest zone to the alpine zone in Honshu, and the Japanese knotweed, which is a basic variant of the Japanese knotweed, is also distributed from the Japanese archipelago (Amami Oshima in the southern limit) to China. is there.. Such grassland plant communities are believed to be derived from plant communities above the temperate regions of Honshu. To explain this, at some point in the past, the Izu Islands and Honshu were on the same land, and at that time the Izu Islands were covered with summer green broad-leaved forests due to the cold climate, but later seawater. It is safe to see that the surface has risen to become an island and speciation has progressed due to isolation. This way of thinking has been raised from the research of insect fauna and terrestrial shellfish fauna, and a huge peninsula including from the Izu Peninsula to Aogashima in the Izu Islands is assumed, and the name Koizu Peninsula is given. Has been done.
It depends on the island, butFishery:-Agriculture:-TourismIs the center. In the same areaFishing villages and rural areasThere are some islands that should be considered to coexist. In the past in TorishimaAlbatrossCapture and bird droppings (guano) Was also collected.
- Kusaya : In many Japanese perceptions, it represents the area synonymouslySpecial product.
- Ashitaba (Ashitaba) : Native to the Izu Islands, also known as AshitabaAeri familyplant. It is one of the most well-known local products.
- Island sushi
- Shima Shochu: "Island Shochu" in a narrow sense[Annotation 2].. Local specialtyDistilled spiritsIs called by this name and is flourishingbrewingHas been done. Since each island has different characteristics, there are many fans mainly in Japan.
Mainly from the following ports to each islandTokai KisenEtc.Freighter(HydrofoilBoeing 929 "Jetfoil") Has a regular route.Temporary routes may be provided depending on the season.なお、青ヶ島の定期航路はIn addition, the regular route of AogashimaIzu Islands DevelopmentOnly the ferry from Hachijojima operated by.伊豆諸島航路には下田航路を運用するOperate the Shimoda route for the Izu Islands routeFerry AzeriaExcept forCar ferryDoes not exist, so vehicles can only be transported as cargo.
- Tokyo Port(Takeshiba Pier): Origin of many cargo and passenger ships.
- (Seasonal operation of jetfoil ship)
- On HachijojimaHaneda airportCan go back and forth between空港There,All Nippon Airways Operates as an (ANA) flight. Previously, flights connecting Oshima and Miyakejima to Haneda Airport were also operated by ANA, but Miyakejima flights were abolished on March 2014, 3 and transferred to New Central Airservice. The Oshima flight was also abolished in October 31.
- (I.e.,Niijima,Kozushima,MiyakejimaToChofu Airfield(TokyoChofu City) To and fromCommuter aviationFlightNew Central AirlinesIt is operated by.
- Tokyo Air Land ShuttleAogashima ⇔ Hachijojima ⇔ Mikurajima ⇔ Miyakejima ⇔ Oshima ⇔ Helicopter that goes back and forth between Toshima and each island (helicopterBy commuter airlines)Toho AirlinesIt is operated by. Helicopter every morningHachijojima AirportImmediately after the first flight from Haneda Airport (ANA1) departs, it will fly from Hachijojima Airport to Aogashima, and after returning, it will depart again to Mikurajima. After that, each island will be operated by the above route, and the day's operation will be completed by returning from Mikurajima to Hachijojima in the evening. Of these, Aogashima and Mikurajima may be operated on special flights before and after the regular flights on the day when requested by the village office due to reasons such as the cancellation of shipping services due to bad weather. The fare is not cheap, but for Toshima, Mikurajima, and Aogashima, which originally have no airport, it is the only means of transportation other than shipping, especially because there are no direct flights to and from Tokyo, and the service rate of connecting ships is very low. Therefore, it has become a valuable presence for travelers between Hachijojima and Aogashima (Toshima is also often canceled in winter).
There is no railroadTransit Bus,Taxi,Car rental, Bicycle rental is the main means of transportation. If the island does not have a fixed-route bus, contact the accommodation you booked in advance and a car will be arranged at the port.
- Oshima passenger car(Oshima Bus)
- Niijima Village Fureai Bus
- Kozushima Village Bus
- Miyake Village Bus
- Hachijo Town Bus
- ^ a b c d "What is the Izu Islands?”. Kotobank. 2018/3/31Browse.
- ^ *From the area map of the official website of Fuji Hakone Izu National Park, Ministry of the Environment
- ^ a b Gotoh, H .; Maeno, Y .; Takezawa, T .; Murata, T .; Takahashi, N. (2010). “Infrastructure maintenance and disaster prevention measures on isolated Islands: the case of the Izu Islands near tokyo”. In Favro, S .; Brebbia, CA. Island Sustainability. WIT transactions on ecology and the environment (Vol. 130). WIT Press. ISBN 978-1-84564-434-5
- ^ "Japanese Historical Place Names 22 Place Names in Shizuoka Prefecture" Heibonsha, 2000.ISBN 4582490220.. Item of "Izu Province" (P75.).
- ^ 4th year of Meiji 594th Declaration No. XNUMX - National Diet LibraryModern digital library
- ^ 9th year of Meiji 53th Declaration No. XNUMX -National Diet Library Modern Digital Library
- ^ 11th year of Meiji 1th Declaration No. XNUMX -National Diet Library Modern Digital Library
- ^ a b "Government Bulletin" No. 7352, December 40, 12 "Ministry of Interior Ordinance No. 28 of 40"
- ^ "Government Bulletin" No. 3281, July 12, 7 "Taisho 7 Interior Ministry Ordinance No. 12"
- ^ Overview of Tokyo Island Promotion Corporation
- ^ Below, Shiba (2016)
- ^ Uchiyama et al. (2002)
- ^ Satake et al. (1982), p.24
- Masahiro Shiba "Did the Izu Peninsula come from the south?", (2016) ,: Journal of Fossil Research, Vol.49 (1): p.35-43.
- Ryu Uchiyama et al. "Definitive Japanese Amphibian Reptiles", (2002), Heibonsha
- Tokyo islands
- Ogasawara Islands
- Izu/Ogasawara Trench
- Works set in the Izu IslandsCategory: Works set in the Izu Islands, Or see the individual island or municipal page.