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🚗 | Rolls-Royce "Phantom" improved model, shining "Pantheon grille" adopted, scheduled to be released in the United States


Photo Rolls-Royce Phantom "Series II"

New Rolls-Royce Phantom to be unveiled in the U.S. with glowing Pantheon grille

 
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This disc wheel is available in stainless steel polish and black lacquer finish.
 

Rolls-Royce Motor Cars is pleased to announce that the Quail Motorsport Gathering will be held on August 8th in the United States. → Continue reading

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    Wheel

    Wheel(Sharin,British: wheel) Is(I.e. Ofring[1].under the vehicleRoundwith an object ofaroundrotationThen,groundintended to allow easy movement over[2].

    Overview

    Used to move cars and vehicles with little force.

    The wheel is the oldest and most importantinventionIt is said to carry heavy objectsSledgeand put it underAroundis believed to have evolved fromEventually, the rollers were fixed under the sled, and the axle and the rotating part were separated, resulting in the current shape.[3].

    Without wheels, you have to 1. move the object while lifting it, or 2. push or pull the object while it is in contact with the ground or floor. In the case of 1, a large force is required to lift (continue to lift). In the case of 2.sliding frictionYou will have to push or pull with more force.

    On the other hand, the friction acting on the wheel is "Rolling friction, which issliding frictionIt is much smaller than , and can be moved by simply pushing (pulling) it with a much smaller force.

    For example, even a standard-sized car (generally weighing more than 1 ton) has wheels and the brakes are released.If it didn't have wheels, one man wouldn't be able to lift and move a ton.Also, a 1-ton iron box without wheels on normal ground cannot be pushed or pulled by a single man.

    In addition, the axle is passed through the disk-shaped plate wheel.rotationThe structure that allows(I.e. OfinventionIt is said to be one of the greatest of all.

    Generally speaking, "wheel" "wheel" "wheel" is groundedタ イ ヤ(made of rubber, soft iron, etc.) andtubeRefers to all rotating parts up to .may be categorized depending on the field and situation.While the term "wheel" refers to the hard part alone in the automotive field, "wheelspin", which indicates the spinning of a wheel, includes the tire on the ground. (In this article, there are places that only refer to hard parts.)

    The katakana notation of Wheel varies depending on the industry, and it is called "Wheel" for automobiles and motorcycles, and "Wheel" for skateboards and roller skates.american mini carHotWheels (trademark of miniature car)is called "Hot Wheels" or "Hot Wheels" due to fluctuations due to distributors in Japan.

    Still morepyramid OfStoneis a round timber (Around.It was transported by laying a round piece of wood without a shaft underneath it, and it is believed that the origin of the old one dates back to the Neolithic period.[4].

    History

    Origin and propagation

    The origin of the wheel is ancientMesopotamia OfSumeriansIn[5], as a time (in one theory)3500 BCbe killed[5].Sumerian wheels are made of woodDiskTowas inserted[5].As for the time of invention, MesopotamiaUbaid periodFrom the ruins ofPotter's wheelWheels developed from[6]There are several theories, such as a wheel excavated in Slovenian ruins around 3100 BC.[6].

    In addition, Poland's personal web page says ""WheeledVehicle(Here is a four-wheeled vehicle with two axles.)[Needs verification]``believed'' to be around 3500 BC from southern Poland. Bronocice pot It was claimed that it was painted in[7].

    According to the new edition of Gwynne Dyer's book War (2004), the wheel was built in the 4th millennium BCEurope,Southwest AsiaSpread to3th millennium BCToIndus civilizationIt is said that it reached up toChugokuThen around 1200 BC they used wheelstankis known to have existed[8].On the other hand, according to Barbieri-Low (2000), there were wheeled vehicles in China around 2000 BC.

    NubiaA potter's wheel and a water wheel were used in the ancient ruins of[9][10].Nubian waterwheelWater wheeland is believed to have been turned using cows[11].Also in NubiaEgyptIt is known that horse-drawn chariots were also imported from[12].

    OlmecAnd otherWestern hemispherecultureThen,Inca civilizationdid not invent the wheel until around 1500 B.C.childrenFortoyI think that therockA wheel-shaped object made of steel has been excavated, and it is believed that it was close to the invention of the wheel.[13]. this isMaya civilizationThe same is true for wheeled animalsClay figurineAlthough the wheel itself was known, as was excavated by[14].Wheels were not put to practical use in the New ContinentBeastIt is believed that one of the reasons for this is the absence of livestock[15].

    vehicles with wheels家畜It exerts its power for the first time by pulling it.The emergence of carts in Mesopotamiaロ バ OfDomesticationis about the same time as[16].By the 24th century BC,Don River,Volga riverInstead of a donkey in the basin(I.e.started pulling carts on[17].

    For wheels to become widely used, flat道路was needed[18].On bumpy roads, it is easier for humans to carry the load on their backs.Therefore, in undeveloped areas without flat roads, wheels were not used as a means of transportation until the turn of the 20th century.in JapanHeian periodToOx cartWas used,HeianjingIt was spread only in flatland urban areas such as.In rural areas, cargo is carried on the backs of oxen and horses.Dachin-umakasewas common, butEdo PeriodWhen entering, it depends on human powerDaihachi car,beka caralso came to be used[19].Carriage,rickshawIt was after the Meiji era when the road network was developed.

    evolution of the wheel

    Early wheels were wooden discs with a hole in the center for the axle.woodDue to the nature of wood, a horizontally sliced ​​tree trunk lacks strength, and a round board cut vertically was necessary.If one tree did not have enough wood to make a wheel, three half-moon boards were made and joined together to form a wheel.[20].

    soften the impact from the groundspokeAs for the invention of a wheel, the earliest known example isAndronovo culturedated to around 2000 B.C.[21].Shortly after thatCaucasusFor three centuries local equestrian tribes used spokes to make wheelsChariotcan now be pulled by horses.they also ventured into地中海interacted with the people ofCelticwas found on the outside of a chariot wheel in the 1st millennium BCbegan to wind.

    19st centuryA change came to the wheels when I entered.steam locomotiveWith the invention of the iron wheels to support the weight,Trainetc. has come to be used.

    1870Around the time, the pneumaticタ イ ヤand wire spoke wheels were invented[22].This first began to develop around that timeBicycleIt began to spread from the end of the 19th century after being used inAutomobile, which greatly improved the performance of the wheels.

    The invention of the wheel is not a means of transportationTechnologyIt was also important to the general public.for example,Water mill,gear(Antikythera mechanismreference),spinning wheel,Astrolabe,Torquetumetc. are closely related to wheels.More recently,propeller,Jet engine,Flywheel(Gyroscope),Turbineetc. developed with the wheel as a basic element.

    Structure and function

    A wheel is a machine (mechanism) that allows an object to move efficiently along the earth's surface when there is a force pushing the object against the earth's surface.

    with wheelsare always used in combination, either with a wheel rotating about an axle, or with an axle rotating (with the wheel) within a body.Both are mechanically the same.

    The reason why the drag force when using wheels and axles is less than when simply dragging an object can be explained as follows (friction):

    • The normal forces on the frictional contact areas are the same.
    • When the wheel rotates once due to one rotation of the shaft, the friction distance corresponding to the outer circumference of the shaft causes the wheel to advance by the outer circumference of the wheel, which greatly reduces the distance in which friction occurs.
    • Since the frictional contact surfaces are all within the mechanism, the coefficient of friction can be much lower than with ground friction.

    to reduce friction on friction surfacesbearingis used.The simplest and oldest bearings were simply round holes through which shafts were passed (Plain bearing).

    Example:

    • 100 kg 10 m Suppose you pull.frictioncoefficient μ = 0.5 andvertical forceIs 981 N will be donework(NeededEnergy) is “work = force × distance”, so 981 × 0.5 × 10 = 4905 Jules.
    • Now attach four wheels to the same object. The normal forces between the four wheels and the axle are the same (in total) as before, 4 N.Assuming that the wheel and shaft are made of wood, the coefficient of friction is μ = 0.25.of wheelsDiameteris 1000 mm and the shaft diameter is 50 mm.If this is moved by 10 m, the distance that the friction surface rubs is 0.5 m.So the work done is 981 × 0.25 × 0.5 = 123 Joules.Therefore, it is 1/40 of the case of directly dragging an object.

    Additional energy is lost on wheel contact with the ground.This is mainly deformation loss,Rolling resistanceCalled.

    If the wheel diameter is large enough for the unevenness of the ground, it also has the advantage of being able to move easily over uneven ground.

    A wheel by itself is not a machine, butand bearings,WheelsetTo saySimple machinebecome.A vehicle wheel is also an example of a wheelset.

    wheel material

    wheel elements

    • Cast wheel
      • disc wheel
      • comstar wheel
    • Spoke wheel
    Component

    automotive wheel

    Shape

    In terms of design classification, it is classified into the following shapes[23].

    • Radial - The inner rim dish of the wheel is radial[23]
    • Spiral - Spiral on the inner rim dish of the wheel[23]
    • Disc-like - The inner dish of the wheel rim is flat and plate-like[23]
    • Mesh - Mesh on the inner rim dish of the wheel[23]

    Mounting standard

    In general, there are many bolts and nuts specifications such as 4 holes and 5 holes.Racing car,Porsche,Ferrari,Lamborghini,McLarenAmong such things, only a few supermarketssports car,Hyper carcan change tires quicklycenter lockThere are also specifications.

    Size notation, standard

    For example, if it is written as "16 x 7J 5H PCD100 +38"

    • "16" outer diameter ... 16inch
      • The diameter of the bead bearing surface is expressed in inches.
    • “7” Rim Width…7”
    • "J"Flangeshape.Classified by the height from the rim surface to the top of the flange, the thickness of the flange, and the radius of the bead contact surface of the flange.
      • Typical shape for passenger cars (height/thickness/radius in mm)
        B = 14.0/10/7.5
        J=17.5/13/9.5
        JJ = 18.0 / 13.0 / 9.0
        K
      • common shape on trucks[24]
        B, F, E, GS, J, JJ, K, S, SW, SWA, T, V
      • General shape for special automobiles and agricultural machinery[25]
        A, B, D, E, F, G, I, J, JA, JJ, K, LB, MT, P, R, S, SP, SW, TG, V, W, WI
      • common shape on bikes
        J, K, MT, W *Divided Type rim if DT is added after shape symbol
      • common shape on bicycles
        B/E, H/E, W/O
      • Other
        L etc.
    Since there are many "J" in the flange shape of aluminum wheels for passenger cars, this symbol, which is often seen, is misunderstood as a unit of rim width. Calling it a wide wheel or saying "J number is large" for a wide wheel are all misuses.
    • "5H" mounting bolt holes... 5 holes 3 holes to 12 are used.Vehicles with greater weight and loads have more bolts and larger diameters.
    • "PCD"Mounting hole diameter…100 mm
      • "PCD" stands for "Pitch Circle Diameter". (100 mm, 110 mm, 114.3 mm (4.5 inches) are common for Japanese passenger cars, and 101.6 mm (4 inches) for foreign cars. There are also multi-PCD wheels that support multiple diameters.)
    • "+" inset (formerly known as plus offset in Japan).Distance from the hub surface to the center of the rim (tire width): 38 mm in the positive direction (inside the vehicle). Some manufacturers write it as ET (the unit is mm, which is an abbreviation for German "Einpresstiefe" and is synonymous with English Offset).
      • Inset is when the center of the rim is inside the hub surface, and outset is when the center of the rim is outside the hub surface.

    For more information,Steel wheel,ア ル ミ ホ イ ー ルSee.

    various wheels

    Where wheels are good, where they are bad

    Wheels are widely used as a way to move things.However, there are places it is suitable (places it is good at) and places it is not suitable (places it is not good at).

    pavementsurface,TrainThe top surface of the wheel, hard ground, flat and smooth floor, etc. roll well and are suitable for wheels.

    Places where wheels are not suitable are snowy fields (snowy areas),湿 地・ ・DesertA road with obstacles, etc.

    Some of the things that are used instead of wheels in places where wheels are not good are as follows.

    wheel as a symbol

    on the wheelsCulturalThere is also a meaning,Chakra,Reincarnation,陰陽There is also an aspect of a mysterious metaphor of cycles and regular repetition.Therefore, the terrain is steep and unsuitable,TibetOnce upon a time, vehicles with wheels were forbidden.

    The winged wheel is a symbol of progress,Coat of arms of Panama, Ohio State Highway Patrol It can be seen in various scenes such as the logo of

    Wheels with spokes (Chariot) appeared in the Middle Bronze Age and came to symbolize a kind of authority.Sun cross ThePrimitive religionThis is often seen inSun godIt is said to represent the technological innovation that came to ride a chariot.

    Indian flagThe wheels seen inspinning wheelIt is said,LawIt is also said to represent dharma.RomaThe flags of the Indian people also use wheels, which is said to indicate their origins in India and their history of exile.

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    Source

    1. ^ Daijisen [Wheel]
    2. ^ Lexico, definition of wheels
    3. ^ "Illustrations: The History of Humanity: Ancient Science and Technology 70 Great Inventions that Created the World" p134-135 Brian M. Fagan, edited by Yoshihiro Nishiaki, Asakura Shoten, May 2012, 5 First edition, first edition
    4. ^ The Birth of the Wheel, and the History of Evolution and Development
    5. ^ a b c 3500 BC Invention of the wheel
    6. ^ a b "World history that things connect" (MINERVA world history series 5) p25 Responsible editor Shiro Momoki Hideto Nakajima editorial cooperation Minerva Shobo March 2021, 3 First edition 30st edition issued
    7. ^ Waza z Bronocic (in Polish)
    8. ^ Dyer, Gwynne, "War: the new edition", p. 159: Vintage Canada Edition, Randomhouse of Canada, Toronto, ON.
    9. ^ CRAFTS; Uncovering Treasures of Ancient Nubia; New York Times
    10. ^ Ancient Sudan: (aka Kush & Nubia) City of Meroe (4th BC to 325 AD)
    11. ^ What the Nubians Ate
    12. ^ The Cambridge History of Africa
    13. ^ Ekholm, Gordon F (1945). “Wheeled Toys in Mexico”. American Antiquity 11. 
    14. ^ "Encyclopedia of Maya Civilization" p46 Kazuo Aoyama Tokyodo Publishing November 2015, 11 First edition published
    15. ^ "Illustration of the History of Humankind: Ancient Science and Technology 70 Great Inventions that Created the World" p137 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First edition First edition
    16. ^ "The Origin of the City: Digging into the Ancient Developed Region of West Asia" p158 Ryuto Koizumi Kodansha March 2016, 3 10st printing
    17. ^ "World history that things connect" (MINERVA world history series 5) p26-27 Responsible editor Shiro Momoki Hideto Nakajima editorial cooperation Minerva Shobo March 2021, 3 First edition 30st edition issued
    18. ^ How The Wheel Developed
    19. ^ "Logistics Business and Transportation Technology [Revised Edition]" (Traffic Theory Interesting Seminar 6) p25-26 Kishiro Sawa, Seizando Bookstore, February 29, 2 Revised first edition issued
    20. ^ "Illustration of the History of Humankind: Ancient Science and Technology 70 Great Inventions that Created the World" p135 Brian M. Fagan ed. Translated by Yoshihiro Nishiaki Asakura Shoten May 2012, 5 First edition First edition
    21. ^ "World history that things connect" (MINERVA world history series 5) p27-29 Responsible editor Shiro Momoki Hideto Nakajima editorial cooperation Minerva Shobo March 2021, 3 First edition 30st edition issued
    22. ^ bookrags.com -Wheel and axle
    23. ^ a b c d e Design classification definition card (G2) Patent Office
    24. ^ wiz tube wheel - Topy Industries(Update date unknown) Retrieved October 2018, 1
    25. ^ Carried Products - Nakamaru Rubber Industry (update date unknown) viewed January 2018, 1

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