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🚗 | "Defender" predecessor, limited to 25 units to enhance off-road performance


Photo Land Rover Classic Defender Works V8 Trophy II

"Defender" predecessor, limited to 25 units with enhanced off-road performance

 
If you write the contents roughly
Underfoot, the 18-inch 'Sawtooth' alloy wheels in gloss black keep it firm.
 

On July 7, Land Rover launched the "Classic Defender Work" based on the previous "Defender". → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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ア ル ミ ホ イ ー ル

ア ル ミ ホ イ ー ル(British: Aluminum wheels) IsWheelIs a component ofrim,spoke,FlangeAll or most ofAluminum alloyManufactured usingAutomobile OfpartsIs.Similar thing in English alloy wheel (Alloy wheelsIn Japan, it is called in the catalog of imported cars.Alloy wheelIt may be described as.オ ー ト バ イForMagnesium alloyIncluding other materials such as "castSometimes called a "wheel".

Overview

It is the main component of wheels from the dawn of automobiles.steelTo, moreSpecific strengthBy using a lot of aluminum alloy, which is excellent in quality, it can theoretically be finished with the same strength and light weight as steel.This results in rotational inertia weight (Moment of inertia)WhenGyro effect,Unsprung weight"(suspensionThe part that is not loaded on the spring.wheel,brake, Total mass of suspension arm, etc.), and acceleration / decelerationsteeringReaction and road surface followability are improved.

However, although aluminum alloys have higher specific strength than steelFatigue limit(Steel has a fatigue limit)stressIf you continue to add, the strength will decrease infinitely.このため長期間の運用を前提とするTherefore, long-term operation is assumed.Passenger carWhen applied to, the design must be designed with a considerable margin of strength, and the weight advantage is less than expected compared to steel wheels.For genuine aluminum wheels made by automobile manufacturers,safety ratioMay be heavier than steel wheels due to its large size[1]..The main reason why automobile manufacturers use aluminum alloys as road wheel materials is the ease of various molding methods by casting.

In this way, it is premised on renewal with short-term useCompetitionExcept for products and some high-priced products, the genuine size has a small advantage due to weight, but as the diameter increases, the weight difference from steel gradually increases.Car supplies storeIn many cases, it is stated that aluminum wheels generally have the merit of weight reduction.Inch upIt should be noted that it is often actually heavier due to the increased weight of the wheels and tires.

Another characteristic of the material is that it is compared with steel wheels.corrosionDifficult points and aluminumThermal conductivityFrom the height and heat capacity ofbrakeThere is also the merit of being able to effectively exhaust heat (heat dissipation).At the same time, aluminum wheels also have the important role of making the car look stylish.On the other handAerodynamicsFrom the characteristicsToyota Prius(Station WagonEdition,MinivanEdition ofPrius αIncluding) andToyota SAIIn some specifications, aluminum wheels are fitted with plastic rectifying wheel covers.

There are one-piece, two-piece, and three-piece structures, and the latter is more expensive and lighter.製法にはIn the manufacturing methodcastingとForgingForging is lighter and stronger, but more expensive.The design is roughly divided into two types: the spoke type (including mesh type and fin type), which is lightweight and advantageous for cooling the brakes, and the dish type, which is smooth and has excellent aerodynamic characteristics but is heavy.過去pastOil shockThe dish type that emphasizes aerodynamic characteristics became popular during the period, and the spoke type that emphasized performance became popular during the period when the crude oil price was low, but it is expected that the dish type will revive as the crude oil price soars in the future.[Source required]..There are three types of surface treatment: cutting + painting, painting, and plating.

In Japan1966(ShowaIn 41, Enshu Light Alloy (currently)Enkei) Succeeded in producing aluminum wheels for export for the first time.

Wheels for passenger cars and light trucks

Aluminum wheels for commercial passenger cars are products purchased mainly for the purpose of dressing up.Even for the same model, "steel wheels + hubcaps (covers)" are standard specifications for lower to popular price range grades, but in many cases, "large diameter aluminum wheels + low profile tires" are used for higher grades.In addition to standard specificationsdealerIt is not uncommon for many options to be prepared with different designs and sizes.

Focus on functionalitysports carNot only adopted inLight carIs widely used, includingAutomobile supply storeMany aftermarket parts with various designs are on sale.かつてよりスポーツカーユーザー向けの軽量ホイールは存在していたが、近年では燃費性能の向上のため軽量ホイールを採用する車種が増えており、アフターマーケットではLightweight wheels for sports car users have existed more than before, but in recent years, more and more models are adopting lightweight wheels to improve fuel efficiency, and in the aftermarket.BridgestoneWheels that claim to improve performance by reducing weight, such as the ECOFORME series, have also appeared, and in winterSnow melting agentThere are also aluminum wheels that place particular emphasis on corrosion resistance for cold and snowy areas where water is sprayed.

In a general carSteel wheelWhen changing from to aluminum wheelsCar inspection certificateVehicles whose above uses are not "passenger" (cargo-Special species-For infants only)in the case of,Vehicle total weightIs over 3,500 kgMaximum loading capacityFor freight vehicles that weigh more than 500 kg, "Trucks andbus"Wheels that meet the technical standards for light alloy disc wheels (JWL-T standard)" are required, and it is necessary to confirm whether the aluminum wheels to be purchased can be used for freight vehicles.それら以外の場合はOtherwiseJWL-TA carved one is required.平成26年2月のFebruary XNUMXSecurity standardsUntil the revision, JWL-T was required for freight vehicles, etc., but it was eased as described above.

Wheels for large vehicles

Large carThen, the tires and wheels that support the own weight and the load weight of several tons are also relatively large and become a considerable weight, so that the merit of weight reduction is great.

22.5inch OfAlcoaMadeForgingAlloy wheels weigh about 14.27 kg per wheel compared to iron ring wheels.The strength is about 4 times,Spare tireThe weight reduction of 11 wheels includingFuel efficiencyIs improved by about 3%.[2]..In addition, it is superior to ring-type wheels in terms of wheel balance and roundness.

一般的な後2軸の大型貨物車に採用される295/80R22.5サイズのスチールホイールセット重量は1本あたり100 kgを超える場合があり、1台あたり約1 tがタイヤの重量である。このうちホイール重量は1本あたり約40 kgあり、これが同サイズのアルミホイールでは約24 kgとなり、1台で160 kg軽量化が可能となる。最大積載量や車両総重量、及びAutomobile weight taxWeight reduction is advantageous in the decision ofX-ray car,Library carIn some cases, it is possible to avoid restrictions on the driver's license for vehicles with special purposes such as.これらに加え、路面追従性の向上による荷痛みの防止やIn addition to these, prevention of load pain by improving road surface followability andAir suspensionPerformance improvement,brakeIt can be expected to improve the cooling performance of the system and prolong the life of tire wear.

largeSightseeing busIs adopted from the viewpoint of improving ride comfort, vehicle aesthetics and weight reduction, but only runs on general roads.Transit Bus,MicrobusThere are few cases where it is adopted (it is available as an option).また、軽量化のメリットがさほど大きくない最大積載量4トン級以下のIn addition, the merit of weight reduction is not so great, and the maximum load capacity is XNUMX tons or less.ordinary-SmallAluminum wheels are rarely used as standard in freight vehicles, but if you want to maximize the maximum load capacity as much as possible,ArtworkIt may be used for transport vehicles.

Incidentally,2010(Heisei22) Released22 exhaust gas regulations(Post new long-term regulation) From conforming models, wheel standardsJISからISOWas changed to[3].

Disadvantages of ultra-lightweight wheels

Light wheels are generally expected to improve kinetic performance, handling performance, road surface followability, fuel efficiency, etc. by reducing unsprung weight due to weight reduction, similar to the advantages of aluminum wheels mentioned above, but on the other hand suspension By activating the movement of the suspensionSpring constantとDumpingRiding comfort can be poor unless the characteristics are adjusted or modified for lightweight wheels.特にエアボリュームの少ない低扁平タイヤを装着した場合などに細かな振動を過剰に拾って素早い上下動をするようになり、サスペンションの動きが追いつかずEspecially when a low flat tire with a small air volume is installed, it picks up excessive small vibrations and moves up and down quickly, and the suspension movement cannot catch up.Motion sicknessInvite.When the damping characteristics of the wheel change significantly, road noise and pattern noise are easily transmitted, and the quietness also deteriorates.レース用などの超軽量ホイールでは耐久性や強度(特に衝撃や横軸からのモーメントに対する強度)が弱くなる点Durability and strength (especially strength against impact and moment from the horizontal axis) are weakened in ultra-lightweight wheels for racing etc.[4]Can be mentioned.Therefore, it is not suitable for general road surfaces with many steps.

Dangers of mirror-plated wheels

in recent years,Chrome platingSome aluminum wheels that have been surface-treated to reflect light extremely, such as, condense sunlight and irradiate combustibles, causing the combustibles to ignite.Astringent fireCases leading to fire and fire have been reported,National Life CenterEtc. are calling attention not to put combustibles such as newspapers and combustible garbage around the vehicle wearing concave plated wheels.[5].

Types

Cast wheel

castingAluminum wheels are molded by putting a melted aluminum alloy in a mold, cooling it, and molding it.Many cast aluminum wheels have a high degree of design because there are fewer design restrictions than forging and the degree of freedom in shape design is high.On the other hand, it needs to be thick in order to maintain sufficient strength, and there is little merit in weight compared to steel wheels.Casting is generally used for most of the aluminum wheels that are set as options.Also, the price tends to be cheaper than forging.

Forged wheel

ForgingAluminum wheels are forged (high pressure press, heating, dehiscence, compression progress, heat treatment, etc.) of aluminum alloy.It is expensive because it takes time and effort to produce, and there is a limit to the degree of freedom in design during molding.However, it has the advantage of being stronger and lighter than casting.Due to its hardness, it is strong in tensile strength but weak in bending strength.

Recently, alloy materials and manufacturing technology have advanced, and the cost has gradually decreased, and it is also used for line installation (genuine standard installation) in some luxury cars and hybrid vehicles that have been thoroughly reduced in weight.

Wire spoke wheel

It is formed by tensioning the center flange and rim made of aluminum alloy to the bias with stainless wire spokes.Although it is lightweight and highly rigid, it has the disadvantage that it is troublesome to manage the tension of the spokes.In the past, it was heavily used in competition vehicles, sports cars, and GT cars.However, magnesium alloy integrally cast wheels, which are not inferior in weight and have a short life but do not require much labor, were put into practical use, and were replaced by competition demand in the latter half of the 1960s and sports cars and GT cars in the 70s.

Related item

Source

reference

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ For example,Suzuki SwiftIn the case of, the mass of genuine 15X5.5JJ +45 steel wheel (with hubcap) is 6.9 per one kgOn the other hand, the weight of a genuine aluminum wheel of the same size is 8.2 kg.
  2. ^ However, in the case of transportation trucks, unlike general vehicles,highwayIt is necessary to consider various conditions such as the environment where constant speed driving is mainly performed for a long time.
  3. ^ New ISO wheel adopted for heavy-duty trucks and buses --Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association
  4. ^ For extreme ultra-lightweight wheels that are sung for the circuitMagnesium wheelsSimilarly, there is a risk of damage when a strong impact such as riding on a curb is applied while driving.Can't put it into words-YouTubeIn this case, the wheel cracked from the vicinity of the hub bolt during normal driving on the circuit, and the entire wheel came off together with the tire.
  5. ^ Beware of converging fires caused by aluminum wheels! -メッキ処理された凹面鏡のようなホイールについて-(商品テスト結果)_国民生活センター-About plated concave mirror-like wheels- (Product test results) _ National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan

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