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View of the world

View of the world(Sekaikan,alone: Weltanschauung,British: world view) Means the world as onemeaningView[1].. In general,View of lifeInclusive of a wider range[1]It is more than just an intellectual understanding, it includes a more emotional evaluation.[1]Affects, emotional aspects, and independent momentum are emphasized[2].

In modern JapanComic,Anime,Video gamesIt is often used to mean the setting of the world where fiction works are set.

Overview

The view of the worldmeaningFor example, "What kind of world is this for me?meaning"What is this world like?"roleIs it expected to fulfill the goal?" "In the worldA humanWhat kind of role does it make sense?” and so on. Therefore, the view of the world can be regarded as the attitude toward the world and its expression, and is associated with the view of life and the actual way of life. Against the background of "world view",ideal"Or"goodWill be given practical guidelines such as willingness and behavioral principles.

World view哲学Not onlymyth,Religious,literature,ArtAlso found in areas such as[3].. For exampleLore,Annual event,Festival,Oral literature,A paintingAlso appears in. To give a specific example, for example,ア イ ヌ 民族The worldview peculiar toEucalyptus,WeepekereIt also appears in oral literature such as. The view of the world has been formed historically, and also has the opportunity to change in the life of each individual.社会Even in this, various aspects such as integration, confrontation, selection and division are included, and the world view itself has a history.

The first example of the word "worldview" was used in modern philosophy.German idealismTo be a great successor ofImmanuel KantBut"Criticism of judgment(1790)the term "De-Weltanschauung.ogg Weltanschauung[HELP/File]Translation of "(German) (British: world view, Buddha: Weltanschauung,dew: World view)Met. Therefore, the explanation below will be made with the view of the world in modern philosophy in mind. Note that in GermanWeltanschauungIt was in the early 20th century that the term "world view" was frequently used as an academic term.[3].

In the explanation, it is impossible to compose (create) the view of the world because the world is beyond the scientific grasp.[4].. The emotional aspect is essential.JasperExplained as follows. "When we say the world view,ExperienceAnd powercreedAs an objectically formed world,PhilosophyIn any caseA humanMean the ultimate and holistic of.[4]'

Sort

(Because the emotional aspect is important)Optimism-Pessimism-Fate theory-ReligiousWorld viewmoralA position (classification) such as a physical world view[1].

"GreekTarget" / "キ リ ス ト 教Some researchers classify it as "target". "ア ポ ロTarget" / "DionysusSome researchers classify[4].

With history (history) as the key,Ancient timesTarget"中 世Target"ModernSome people classify[4].. (In the 20th century)BourgeoisTarget/proletarianWas often classified as[4]. Also,metaphysicsBased onIdealismTarget"MaterialismTarget"UnitTarget"DualTarget"PluralMay be classified as "target"[4].folkloreUsing eachPeopleIt is also being classified according to the culture of[4].. In other words, there are various methods of classification depending on what kind of discipline to bring out as issues and standards.

Other usages

JapanesePost modern OfLiterary criticismInLight novelSuch asfictionThe word "world view" is often used (with a slightly different nuance from the traditional philosophical and academic usage) to refer to the kind of world setting in the world. About thisView of the world in literary criticismFinally,

Philosophy and world view

World tour

WeltanschauungslehreOne of the pioneering appearances of (world tour) was (for the time being) Leibniz'sMonadologyCan be mentioned[3]. However,OverviewAs already mentioned in GermanWeltanschauungIt was in the early 20th century that the term "world view" was frequently used as an academic term.[3]

Dirty"The ultimate source of the world view isLiving(to live,人生,life)”[4].. And, "the different views of the world are due to the historical and relative appearance of life", it is said that there are multiple world views that contradict each other even if they are rooted in one common life. It is possible that philosophy has the role of understanding the internal structure and typology of various historical worldviews by going back to the point of origin.[4].. Usually, when we say "world observation", it is used in the meaning of this Dirty.[5].

Envisioned an academic system that integrates metaphysics and epistemology, and called it "worldview."[4].

Definition of philosophical world view

The world view tries to answer the following questions.

  • What is the meaning of this world?
  • How does the world begin and where does it go?
  • Do humans have their own destiny and fate? Do humans have freedom?
  • What is the nature and essence of the world and what does it mean?
  • What is nature? What is supernatural?
  • What is the world?
  • What am I?
  • What happens after death?
  • Are people blessed by the world? Or is it "working"?
  • How do people fight? What is a war?
  • What is good?

[Source required]The world view is derived from seeing the realityEpistemologyincluding. Criticism of the world view is made by another world view. Therefore, since modern times, it is said that the philosophical understanding of the world is inevitably accompanied by philosophical things, and even in modern times, the philosophical debate is mainly carried out in the form of a conflict of world views.

Formation process of philosophical world view

The view of the world mediates between human beings, nature, and society, which are absolute others. In addition, nature and societyValue judgmentIs in the background of a particular world view, more or less. The process by which such a view of the world is philosophically established is described below.

"I was thrown out to the worldatom[Avoid ambiguity]The world is an absolute other to the individual[Source required].. Even the relationship between an individual and another individual who is the same atom atom has the same absolute other-world relationship as the world. In this sense we will always appreciate the world as far as the relationship with others[Source required].. If the world is an absolute other, it is impossible for us to completely identify with the world. This is to admit a certain limit to the understanding of the world,AgnosticismAccompanied by. The world view is some projection image of the world at the level of human consciousness, which was set in order to solve the self-otherness between the individual and the world, which cannot be finally solved in such an agnostic position.[Source required].. This is also why the view of the world often includes anthropomorphism. "

The world view has an attribute of the world that is the other person for the individual, but is different from the world as an objective being, and in that sense exists within the individual. From the perspective of the world as an absolute other, it is an idea that is subordinate to an individual. This is the reason why there is controversy and confrontation over the view of the world, though the world, which is an objective existence, is considered to exist universally.

Formation of the world view in modern philosophy

Next, the historical background of the history of modern philosophy is described.

It reached its peak in the 18th centuryEnlightenmentSaid that it is possible, by reason, to consider the fundamental principles of the world that are universally recognized by all. This idea is something absolutetruthGuaranteeing that we can think independently by themselves (eg religion) without taking too much.Enlightenment Thenatural ScienceIt has been considered that it is meaningful to clarify such fundamental principles by reason in the fields of social science and philosophy as well. From this standpoint of rational universalism, reason itself is universal, immutable, and common to all, so there is no doubt that we have different views on something. It comes to the conclusion that it is due to the difference of. The mainstream of EnlightenmentBritish empirical theoryAnd is fundamentallyEpistemologyThe reason why the position of[Source required].

However, as a result of deepening this epistemology, the British empirical theory must admit that it is impossible for an observer individual to recognize the world as an absolute other person as it is. Since the individual is always finite with respect to the world of infinite existence, even if the reason has infinite possibility, as long as the individual is finite, the reason is at some stage temporally and spatially the world. Will be separated. Common sense tells us that we cannot live in the Edo period, and that we in Japan now cannot exist in America at the same time. To this extent, there is an eternal disconnect between the individual and the world.

[Source required]Before the Enlightenment, such issues claim absolute truth to the worldReligiousIt may have been solvable by taking more. But the Enlightenment has already expelled religion from the world of science. It can be said that it was the view of the world that modern philosophy came as a proxy for this religion. While such a world view brings a more radical attitude than modern reason to modern philosophy, it poses a troublesome problem of world view conflict. Modern philosophy relies heavily on the view of the world for its location, so conflicts of the view of the world are often regarded as the essence of philosophy. In this sense, the post-modern philosophy is considered to have lost universal values ​​such as reason in the Enlightenment.

Aspects of the philosophical view of the world

Here, a representative world view is appropriately classified and overviewed, and its characteristics are clarified.

Classification according to the nature of the principle

Materialism

MaterialismIs the idea that the fundamental principles of the world have some physical character.

Dialectical materialism
In contrast to the materialism of the past, which was mechanisticdialecticTarget, andHegelTheir dialectic is idealistic, whereas it is idealistic.the 1840sToMarxEngelsAdvocated by,LeninDeveloped. The idea of ​​using material existence as the fundamental principle of the world and preaching its superiority.
Mechanistic materialism
Non-dialectic materialism that takes a metaphysical way of thinking. Facing dialectical materialism.La metric"Human Machine Theory" is famous.Dollar backAnd so on.

Idealism

The idea that the fundamental principles of the world have some kind of mental character. SpiritualismOftenIdealismIt is synonymous withMonopolySometimes refers to.

Narrowly defined idealism (⇔ practical theory)
A way of thinking that completely rejects the outside world and uses pure ideas as the fundamental principle. Egoism.Berkeley,SternerAre classified in this position.
Simple realism
The external world exists independently of consciousness, and the phenomenon that is consciously perceived through sensory perception is the external world, which is considered to be a faithful copy or reflection of reality.
Phenomenalism
Either give up the recognition of the object itself and be satisfied only with the phenomenon experienced through sensory perception, or deny the existence of the object itself (being) behind the phenomenon and give an event to the consciousness (ie here A position that is recognized only as a phenomenon. Of course, it is central. Phenomenology.
A priori theory (transcendentalism)
The Kant and neo-Kantist criticism philosophy are called as follows. A position that argues that the underlying principle that precedes all senses exists on the side of the mind. Insist on extrasensory recognitionEmerson,HegelIs also included in this. Transcendental theory. A priori principle.

Dynamistic monism

Monad theory (monadology)
Claim monads as one principle that integrates the material and spiritual principles.LeibnizInsisted.
Atomic theory (atomism)
Philosophical atomic theory assumes that some atom-like particles are to be used, and that decentralization and dispersion represent all global phenomena.DemocritusIs famous.
Other dynamism
Other than that, it is not uncommon to think that the fundamental principle of the world lies in the possibility and the law of motion of some kind, and that this is the only principle that governs all things such as matter, movement, and existence.ア リ ス ト テ レ スIs especially famous.

Classification by mode and structure

Organism theoryWorld view (TeleologyWith the world view)
With a world view that views the entire world as living thingsア リ ス ト テ レ スIt has a tradition since then. It has been a dominant worldview in China and India since ancient times, and is generally a dominant worldview in agricultural societies.
MechanicsWorld view
A world view that sees the world as a combination of homogeneous partsRene DescartesIt was formulated by and spread to all over the world.

Methodological classification

In addition to the above classification based on the personality aspect of the principle, classification based on the research attitude of the principle is possible.

Empirical theory(Induction method)
The idea that the fundamental principles of the world can be empirically grasped by analytical research of events. Mainly takes the position of experimentalism and scientificism.bacon,On the rocks,BerkeleyBritish empirical theory such as is typical.
Sum theory(Deduction method)
The idea is that you can set a simple and clear basic principle, and from that, you can grasp the fundamental principle in theoretical construction. Take the position of mathematical theoreticalism and moralism.Cartesian,Leibniz,WolfIs famous.

View of the world in oriental thought

Sole theologyUnlike the world view of Western society, which was religionally and philosophically unified,Oriental thoughtIn many cases, a view of the world that changes with a certain historical stage is presented, and therefore the principle itself is historically fluid, and it is not so important to depict the world image in principle. It was not regarded as a philosophical problem, but the practical aspects were often emphasized. However, Oriental thought also has its own view of the world, so I will describe it.

World View in Ancient Chinese Philosophy
In ChinaSengoku periodToMoroko HyakuyaHe produced a variety of thinkers and called various ideas. Famous as a logic school in Chinese thoughtFamousInsisted on the truth of his name. According to them, "white horse" is "white" and "horse", and he advocated the idea that the idea of ​​"white" and the idea of ​​"horse" are the truth (Hakuba non-horse). In response to the claim of such a famous family,FajiaThen, insisting that it is the truth to match the "material" with the "material" of the actual material,ConfucianismSought the truth "actually" from an edificationist position. AlsoYin Yang HouseInsisted on a world view based on the harmony and confrontation of "yin" and "yang."When the rule of the Emperor was thoroughly practiced and Confucianism became a nationalist positionConfucianismHis pragmatism became increasingly dominant. It was believed that natural catastrophes could affect the actual policies of the emperor, and natural phenomena were often discussed politically. But at the same time, this pragmatism of ConfucianismYin Yang thoughtIt is also the one that respects the legal position and the legal position from a practical point of view. Was absorbed. This is basically ConfucianismPolytheismIt also depends on having taken the position of. Moreover, Confucianism had a historical view of the world, largely due to its retrospective character.
Rational dualism
Northern Song Dynasty-Southern Song DynastyThe dualistic view of the world that was popular in China. actuallyReasonAcknowledges superiority, and is not a strict dualism. Therefore, in China,Song Mingxue) Is called. Southern SongZhu Xi(Ako) is famous.Buddhism,TaoismIt was established in the form of developing from Yin Yang dualism under the influence of. In Yin-Yo dualism, the reason isspiritSince it was based on the influence of Yin and Yang, the philosophical problems were basically complete. But the theory dualism is the course of the theory (existence) that is the absolute law of the world.roadInsisted on the position of defining Qi Yin and Yang. However, this path originates in the theory itself, so if one considers Qi as a phenomenon, it will set the essence in the theory. Zhuxi has taken this position thoroughly,ReasonWas set as a kind of law existence higher than the material reality itself, so that the theory became an ideological existence rather than the existence itself, and the idealistic tendency was strengthened.
Rationality monism
LightTeenagerWang Yang MingThe monistic view of the world advocated by The position to respect the reasonZhu ZixueAlthough it is not different from,Promptness)) and criticized Suzaku for being knowledge-based and fundamentalist, and advocated pragmatism. "Chiichi GoichiIn other words, he insisted on the unity of action and knowledge. In ChinaPsychologyIt was called, but later it strengthened its monolithic position, evolved rapidly, and was politically suppressed.

View of the world in Islam

Islamic philosophyView of the world
In Islamic philosophyQuranSince the (Quran) clearly states that "the truth is a gift of God," there was little doubt of itself. But GreekFree willWhen the problem of is coming to Islam,AllahThere was a dispute over the expression of truth in (Allah).Respect that the reason that guarantees free will is the essence of AllahMuatazira faction AbbasidAlthough the heyday of the era is reached, the truth of Allah is found in the simple feeling of understanding.GatheryWith the advent of, the philosophical worldview controversy was settled. Islamic philosophy after himMysticismStrengthen the target tendency.
IslamView of the world
monotheismAmong them, it is particularly thorough and will be described later.Theological view of the worldThe view of the world described in is dominant. In addition, as a world view peculiar to Islam, Christians and Jews arePeople of the scripturesI have an idea. This is because Islam is a new "young religion" of the age. WhereMuhammadIs the biggest and lastProphetThe "Old Testament" and "New Testament" are regarded as "the scriptures" written by other prophets (such as Moses and Jesus) with the revelation from God.

Theological view of the world

monotheism(Monotheism)
A religion that recognizes and believes in one god, such as Islam and Judaism. The common opinion is that it only admits the "godly existence". This is a clear misunderstanding. The proof is that the God of Creation in the Old TestamentElohimIs plural, and even in IslamangelIs a subject of faith. Monotheism is not a religion that accepts only one god (hence the expression "one god" above), and the concept of one is the most important (or very closely linked) in the representation of God until one gets tired of it. Refers to the case).
Polytheism(Polytheism)
Unlike monotheism, it refers to a religion that worships multiple gods at the same time. Many of the primitive religions and ancient religions belong to this. Faith in gods who have personalized natural phenomena and gods with unique personalities and shapes that project various aspects of human life.
pantheism(Pantheism)
A position to identify God with the world. Whereas monotheism and polytheism are dualisms of material and spiritual principles, this is extremely unitary. In any case, it should not be understood as a position that recognizes more gods than polytheism. In ancient timesUpanishad] OrSocratesWhen the old Greek thought entered the modern ageSpinoza,ゲ ー テ,ShellingThis position can be seen in such thoughts.
Pantheism(Panpsychism)
A position that recognizes the heart of all beings. Leibniz's theory of monads, which integrates material principles and spiritual entities, is inevitably included in this.White headThe world deification theory can be recognized as one example. Physics.

Other conflicting world views

View of the world in literary criticism

EthnologyAs a usage different from the original "world view" used in[6]In the Japanese publishing industryComicThere is a "view of the world" as a term in postmodern literary criticism for light novels[Annotation 1].. Used in the sense of "world setting in fiction", changing from the original meaning[7].Eiji Otsuka,Hiroki AzumaIn particular, the light novel is called “” and includes “world view”MetafictionIt stipulates that it emphasizes the elements of the world and sets it apart from existing literature (however, it is completely misused from the correct usage of words. The "world view" is "existing" to the last. Since it is "how humans see the world" and "the master is the world and the subordinate is the human being", the words "the author's view of the world" and "the world view of the work" do not originally hold.)

The view of the world in this case is the setting of how the characters in the world of fiction see and accept the world in the story.[8].. Since it is not intended to directly affect the real world, it cannot be philosophically included in the world view. What is a philosophical view of the world?Aspects of the philosophical view of the worldThis is because the person who has the philosophical fundamental impulse described in (XNUMX) obtains it when trying to grasp the reality, and it is the one that acts regularly on the world. However, according to Eiji Otsuka, it is considered that the work world represents one side of the real world even if it is not equal to the real world, and it is meaningful to indirectly evaluate the real world through the work world. .. The reader sees the world of stories through the perspective of characters with values ​​rooted in the world of stories.[8].

This "world view" can be given the following characteristic characters.

  • It defines certain rules of character settings and actions.
  • It defines the terms (including virtual languages) in the work and their usage.
  • It defines the stage background, historical background, and certain laws of history in the work.
  • The law is defined in the story (for example, in Koto Mito, Komon-sama always uses Inro to solve the case).
  • It defines general world settings for works other than the above.

The view of the world in this sense is not limited to the world setting of the work itself, but is inherited and guaranteed by the world setting of the secondary works such as sequel works and derivative works. At the same time, beyond the world setting set by the author, it is possible to share the world setting with the readers of the work and all derivative works, and everyone involved in the work through such a world view participates in its construction and development. Otsuka shows the idea that he can go.

According to Otsuka, it was around the mid-1980s when people heard the phrase that used to be simply called “setting” as “world view”, but it was brought into the manga industry from the animation industry. On the other hand, treat these settings as publicationsTable talk RPGHave spread in the process of being brought into Japan[6].

Although the present (2020s) is already after postmodernism, the word "world view" is still used in the above sense.

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ Eiji OtsukaAccording to the definition, "'view of the world' is the'view' of the character's world" (Otsuka 2003, p. 220).Hiroki AzumaAccording to the report, "a non-genre-like or meta-genre database underneath" of "genre-like normative consciousness that regulates the style of a story" (East 2007, p. 48), "shared across genres" and "world setting" (East 2007, P. 31).

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