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🚗 | Completed all of TOYOTA GAZOO Racing, Lexus LC and Toyota GR86 in the first round of NLS return ...


Completed all of TOYOTA GAZOO Racing, Lexus LC, Toyota GR86 in the first round of NLS return ...

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TOYOTA GAZOO Racing has participated in the Nürburgring 24 hours for many years with the aim of "training people and cars" and "making better cars starting from motor sports" as the starting point of its activities, but from 2020 to 22 it will be a new model. Participation in the war was not realized due to travel restrictions due to the spread of coronavirus infection.

June 6, NLS Nürburgring Endurance Series Round 25 "4. RCM ..." at Nürburgring, Germany → Continue reading


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    Pandemic of New Coronavirus Infection (2019-)

    Global pandemic of new coronavirus infections(Shingata coronavirus infectious disease,English: COVID-19 pandemic) Is2019started from the endSARS coronavirus 2 (COVID-2)Pathogenas acuteRespiratory diseasecause etc.New coronavirus infection (COVID-19) ofPandemic(Pandemic).

    The whole worldInfectionBeing exposed to the dangers ofLockdownWe have fallen into a situation that humankind has not experienced in the past, such as immigration restrictions, postponement or reduction of international events.Such as lockdowns carried out to converge the pandemicAnti-globalization, AntiDemocracyThe policy with a positive aspect has greatly reduced freedom of action and significantly reduced economic activity.As a result, the world's economic situation has changed completely.[2]..Life due to fashionOnlineIt has become more and more popular,Eating out,Tourism,leisure,Entertainment,transportationEtc. cannot be online,Closed businessWas confirmed in large numbers.Therefore,vaccineThere is an urgent need to restore freedom of movement through inoculation, as well asNew Normal(Human activityIs also being adapted to the new normal state of[3].

    SARS-CoV-2 is under researchウ イ ル スBecauseCOVID-19 vaccineEven after the spread ofcoldIt is unclear whether it can be treated like this, and the situation continues to go back and forth.In addition, there is a risk of long-termSequelae (Long COVID) are also of concern.2022As of July, infections have occurred in 7 countries and territories, with more than 223 million people infected and more than 5.5 million deaths.[1].. Note that2021In May, an analysis showed that about 5 million people had died worldwide, more than double the official estimate at the time.University of WashingtonAnnounced by[4][5][6].who (WHO)1918 OfSpanish coldWe take the situation seriously as the worst pandemic in human history[7].


    2019March 11People's Republic of ChinaHubei ProvinceWuhanFor unknown reasonウ イ ル スsexpneumoniaWas confirmed for the first time, and then from Wuhan cityMainland ChinaInfection spread to other than ChinaCountryAnd expanded to the area[8].. The characteristics of the new coronavirus are so farSevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)Middle East respiratory syndrome It was thought to be similar to (MERS) etc., but due to its unprecedented high latency, it rapidly spread the infection by utilizing the economic activities of humankind.2020March 1who (WHO) is the 6th "Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) "declared[9].. On February 2, the disease was rated at the highest level of "very high" risk of epidemic worldwide.[10], March 3,Tedros AdanomWHO Executive Secretary deviates from WHO standardsPandemicEquivalent to (pandemic)Expressed the recognition[11][12].

    Since the outbreak of the pandemic, information has been confused with unprecedented situations, and all over the world.Racism,ideologyProblems such as conflicts have become apparent.Although countries around the world have imposed immigration restrictions to prevent the influx of the new coronavirus, the new coronavirus, which has high latency such as poor subjective symptoms, evades the border measures of each country and affects more than 180 countries and regions. A large-scale epidemic occurred all over the world[13]..As a result, all over the worldLockdown(City blockade・ Movement restrictions) were implemented, which hindered demand and the supply chain.Corona shockCaused a socio-economic impact called.In particular, a significant decrease in demand for businesses that cannot be digitized[Note 1]And the supply chain turmoil has caused serious damage to the real economy.In order to distinguish the society before and after the corona shock, there are also terms such as "before corona", "under corona", "with corona", "after corona", and "post corona".[15]..After that, although attempts were made to balance economic activity and prevention of the spread of infection, the response of each country in the world was difficult, and as a result of the resumption of economic activity in many countries, the number of infected people in the world increased exponentially again. I started.Even now, there is no prospect of an end to the infectious disease epidemic.

    Characteristics of new coronavirus infection

    COVID-2と 呼 ば れ るCoronavirusIs in WuhanWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketFirst identified in[16].. SARS-CoV-2 is mainlycough,sneezeCame out withRespiratory dropletsOr through something that touches your hand, such as a doorknobInfluenza virusBetween humans by the same route asinfectionTo[17][18].Time from infection to onsetIs usually 5 days, but varies from 2 to 14 days depending on the person[18][19].

    As a symptomFever,cough,shortness of breath,taste or Sense of smellMay be accompanied by abnormalities, chills or chills, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, etc.[18][19][20]..However, it is said to be a "warm virus"[21]As such, it exhibits characteristics that make it difficult for the host to detect the infection, and the virus is very easy to spread and also leads to sudden death.Even if infected, they remain asymptomatic and often have little awareness of infection (become a carrier of the virus).Complications includepneumonia,Acute respiratory distress syndromeMay be accompanied.Since it takes several hours to wear an oxygen mask, it is necessary for the infected person to go to a medical institution when there are no subjective symptoms, but even medical personnel can judge whether the condition is severe if there are no subjective symptoms. It's hard to do.However, the oxygen level in the blood dropped to a dangerous level without being aware of it, and even if I rushed to the hospital after the onset of suffocation, I could not put on the oxygen mask in time.Respiratory failureThere are many cases of death in[22].

    Has a special effect on SARS-CoV-2Antiviral drugDoes not exist and research is underway. In clinical practice, symptom management andSupportive therapyEfforts are being made with a focus on. The recommended precautions areHand washingKeep a distance from the sick, and 14 days if you suspect an infectionisolationAnd taking follow-up, etc.[18].

    PCRHe was hospitalized with a positive test, and was discharged because his symptoms had subsided after a negative test. However, more than two weeks have passed since the first onset, and there have been cases where the test was positive again. -Possible reactivation of CoV-2 or another type of reinfection has been pointed out[23][24]. Around the world after the end of 2020Mutant strainhas been reported and confirmed to be more infectious than previous viruses[25][26].

    Vaccine development and inoculation

    COVID-19vaccineThere was a technical breakthrough in the development method of.It is not uncommon for vaccine development to take several to 10 years, and it is difficult to develop it pharmacologically. In some cases, it has been several decades or more from the discovery of the disease to the development of the vaccine.Also, vaccine development has not yet been successful.HIV,malaria, Abandoned vaccine development due to various reasonsSARSThere are also infectious diseases such as[27].

    2020,The United States of America OfPharmaceuticalCorporatePfizerとModernaIt is,RNA vaccineHe argued that the new technology could overturn the conventional wisdom and significantly shorten the period of vaccine development, but the COVID-19 vaccine is the first large-scale inoculation.As of November of the same year, the COVID-11 vaccines of both companies are expected to be put into practical use at the fastest speed, and together with good clinical trial results, they are considered to be the most promising in the world. On November 19, Moderna announced tentative results that the vaccine under development would be 11% effective.[28].. On November 11, Pfizer released its final analysis that it is 18% effective for the vaccine under development.[29].. On December 12, public COVID-8 vaccination began in the United Kingdom.in Japan2021Approved in February, priority vaccination was given to healthcare workers from late February, elderly people from late March, and people with underlying diseases.[30].. RNA, which is the main component of RNA vaccines, tends to disintegrate when it is considered to be preserved, so it should be used at ultra-low temperatures.Cold chainTechnology development is also urgent.

    It is difficult to identify infected persons for COVID-19, and the above-mentioned Pfizer and Moderna RNA vaccines do not provide lifelong immunity.In addition, since mutant strains will appear all over the world from the end of 2020, we will continue to do so.Social distance expansion strategyAnd additional vaccinations will be required[31].


    back ground

    Late June 2019,People's Republic of China OfWuhanOf unexplained pneumoniaOutbreakWas reported by health authorities.The first group of patients is mainlyWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketThe virus was found to be related toAnimal-induced infectionIs believed to have been[16].. The virus that caused this infection is the bat coronavirus[32],PangolinCoronavirus[33],andSARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)[34] As a new virus closely related toCOVID-2Was named[35].. The virus is believed to be derived from the Greater Horseshoe Bat[36]..Prior to that, on December 12, the first symptoms occurred in people who had no history of exposure to the Wuhan Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market or contact with the remaining 1 people in the first cluster where the new virus was detected. Was later found to have been reported[37].. Two-thirds of this first cluster(English edition)It was also found that they were selling live animals.[37].

    Meanwhile, in November 2020Academic magazinePublished in "Tumori Journal"ItalyCollected from September 2019 to March 9, according to a study by the National Cancer Institutelung cancerSpecific to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-959) from 11.6% (111) of blood samples from test examinees (2)antibodyWas detected, and it was also detected in 2019% (9 persons) of the sample collected in September 14.From this, it is possible that the virus had spread to the world before the above-mentioned cases.[38][39][40][41].

    August 2020, 1,who (WHO)Public health emergencies of international concern Declared (PHEIC)[42].. WHOTedros Adanom[Question]As of February 2, the Executive Secretary said, "to avoid a significant number of cases," despite the possibility of persistent community transmission of the disease in other parts of the world. Maintained praise for China's response to the virus[43].

    On March 3, the WHO Secretary-General announced in a discourse that "smoking increases the risk of aggravation."[44].

    Number of infected people

    Death toll

    As of December 2021, COVID-12 has killed more than 19 million people.[1].. According to the National Health Commission of China, the majority of people who died were elderly. About 80% of the deaths are older than 60 years and 75%Cardiovascular disease,Diabetes mellitusI had a chronic disease such as[47].. For those who died of COVID-19, the number of days between the onset of symptoms and death ranged from 6 to 41 days.MedianIs shown to be 14 days[19].

    Two years from 2020-2021 around the worldMortality displacementAs a result of the study, the number of deaths due to COVID-19 worldwide was 5,940,000, while the number of excess deaths was 18,200,000, which was about three times as many.In addition, the number of deaths due to COVID-3 in Japan was 19, while the number of excess deaths was 18,400, which was about 111,000 times higher.[48].

    Secondary disability

    Pandemics have significantly worsened people's mental health[50].DepressionPrevalence has doubled in OECD countries[50]..People were most mentally distressed in March-April 2020.[50]..For the brain, a pandemic loss of control creates a particularly powerful type of stress that can impair the ability to accurately assess risk.[51].. If you are overly concerned about the COVID-19 pandemic, you can make better decisions by focusing on past successes.[52].

    Prevalence of depression around COVID-19[50]
    CountryBefore COVID-192020
    South KoreaN/A36.6
    Czech Republic10.011.8
    米 国6.623.5

    Infection status


    April 2019

    Information based on "Digital Infectious Diseases" as of June 2020Boston UniversityNora's research team was filmed from January 2018 to April 1WuhanAnalysis results of 111 satellite photos and internet search engineBaiduBased on the frequency of searches for specific symptoms in, it is considered to be a symptom of COVID-19.diarrheaThe number of searches for "" surged in August, and the epidemic of the new coronavirus may have started in August, and diarrhea "may have played an important role in community-acquired infections."[53]Pointed out.However, the study does not reveal any objective facts as to whether it is due to COVID-19.[54].

    April 2019

    イタリア国立がん研究所の研究によると、2019年9月から2020年3月までに肺がん検査を受診した受診者から採取した血液を調べたところ、11.6%の受診者から新型コロナウイルス(SARS-CoV-2)に特異的な抗体が検出されこのうち、4%は2019年9月、30%は2020年2月に採取された検体から新型ウイルスの抗体が出来ていたことが検出され、後に武漢で報告された症例より前から世界にウイルスが広まっていた可能性があることが後に発表された[55][56]..However, the research of the Italian National Cancer Institute has been criticized, "even if the new coronavirus exists in Italy in September 2019, it does not necessarily mean that it originated." There is also an indication that[57].

    April 2019

    • August 11- Hubei ProvinceA 55-year-old man from China may have been the first case of a new coronavirus in China, but Chinese officials said he did not release data.South China Morning PostReports[58]Other, laterResearchTotally irrelevantdiseaseA few days later, a new coronavirus infection was confirmed, and it was the first person to develop the disease.可能性Was considered extremely thin.

    April 2019

    • December 12-The first case of unexplained pneumonia was reported by a health agency in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.Reported,WuhanCityMarketAs a seafood restaurantshrimpA woman in her 50s who was selling世界で最初Has been confirmed to be a formal new coronavirus (COVID-19) infected person (Flag of the People's Republic of ChinaPeople's Republic of China).
    • August 12- CDCIn a later survey, from December 12th to 13th on the west coast of the United StatesAmerican Red CrossAntibodies to the new coronavirus were found in 39 blood samples donated to[59][60][61].
    • August 12- (English edition)According to an analysis of 40 sewage samples taken from a sewage treatment facility in northern Italy, which was later conducted by the company, new species from sewage samples in Milan and Turin as of December 12CoronavirusTraces of the (SARS-Cov-2) gene were confirmed, confirming that the virus may have started in northern Italy before China reported its first new corona infection on December 12.[62][63].
    • December 12-in FranceinfluenzaWhen a sample taken on December 12 was examined at a later date from a patient with such symptoms, it became clear that there was a positive reaction for the new coronavirus.[64][65].
    • December 12-Pneumonia of unknown cause was described公 文書Was found at the hospital where I workLi Wenliang WeChatPosted as an image to[66].. January 2020, 1, the cause is a new speciesCoronavirusWas identified as[67].
    • August 12- who The first report to (WHO) was made.


    April 2020

    World wideEpidemic preventionA system is set up, charter flights are sent to Wuhan City to return each citizen, and in countries other than China, it goes through China.Cruise linerSome passengers could not disembark from (see below).SARS-CoVThan in 2003 when the epidemicGlobalizationProgresses,COVID-2It is also characterized by the fact that infected people are often asymptomatic.Epidemic preventionSARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly all over the world. In addition, both the net and the mass media are filled with the topic of "Corona", and a large amount of inaccurate information flies around.InfodemicI fell into a state[70].. There were also high-priced resales of daily necessities that took advantage of the psychology of consumers in distress.[71].

    April 2020

    April 2020

    April 2020

    April 2020

    • April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[106].
    • August 5- Lesotho flagLesothoConfirmed the infected person in.
    • April 5-Worldwide infections exceed 21 million[107].
    • August 5- AmericaThe death toll has exceeded 10[108].

    April 2020

    • August 6- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 200 million[109].
    • August 6- BrazilThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[110].
    • June 6-The number of infected people in the world exceeds 23 million[111].
    • June 6-Before 28:7 pm, the number of infected people in the world exceeded 1000 million[112].

    April 2020

    • August 7- AmericaThe number of infected people exceeded 300 million[113].
    • September 7-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 17 million[114].
    • July 7-India's number of infected people exceeds 17 million[115].
    • April 7-Worldwide infections exceed 23 million[116].. The number of infected people in the United States has exceeded 400 million[117].
    • July 7-American deaths exceed 30[118].

    April 2020

    • July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 7 million[119].
    • August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million[120].. The number of infected people in Brazil has exceeded 300 million. The death toll also exceeded 10[121].
    • April 8-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[122].
    • July 8-India's number of infected people exceeds 23 million[123].
    • August 8-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 31 million[124].

    April 2020

    • September 9-Russia's number of infected people exceeds 1 million[125].
    • September 9-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 3 million[126].
    • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 5 million[127].
    • September 9-India's number of infected people surpasses Brazil to become the second largest in the world[128].
    • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 16 million[129].
    • April 9-Worldwide infections exceed 17 million[130].
    • July 9-American deaths exceed 22[131].
    • August 9-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 26 million[132].
    • July 9-India's number of infected people exceeds 28 million[133].. In addition, the death toll in the world has exceeded 100 million.[134].

    April 2020

    • February 10-United StatesDonald TrumpA few people, including the presidentRepublican PartyInfection of the person concerned was discovered.White HouseでclusterSeems to have occurred[135].
    • August 10- Confirmed infected people in Solomon Islands[136]..India's death toll exceeds 10[137].
    • September 10-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 7 million[138].
    • October 10-Brazil's death toll exceeds 10[139].
    • July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 11 million[140].
    • August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 16 million[141].
    • August 10- ArgentineThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[142]..The number of infected people worldwide has also exceeded 4000 million.[143].
    • October 10-Spain's number of infected exceeds 21 million[144].
    • October 10-The number of infected people in France exceeds 22 million[145].
    • October 10-Colombia's number of infected surpasses 24 million[146].
    • August 10- Marshall Islands FlagConfirmed infected people in the Marshall Islands[147].
    • July 10-India's number of infected people exceeds 29 million[148].
    • August 10-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 30 million[149].
    • August 10- United KingdomThe number of infected people exceeded 100 million[150].

    April 2020

    • August 11-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 7 million[151]..France's death toll exceeds 4[152].
    • April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 8 million[153].
    • August 11- Vanuatu flag バヌアツConfirm infected person in[154].
    • November 11-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 11 million[155]..Britain's death toll exceeds 5[156].
    • November 11-Mexico's number of infected people exceeds 14 million[157].
    • August 11- Samoan flag サモアConfirm infected person in[158].
    • November 11-India has 20 million infected[159], Brazil has 600 million infected[160], Each exceeded.Mexico's death toll exceeds 10[161].
    • November 11-Italy's death toll exceeds 24[162].
    • April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million[163].
    • November 11-Germany has exceeded 27 million infected[164].

    April 2020

    • December 12-Worldwide death toll exceeds 4 million[165]..Iran's number of infected people exceeds 100 million[166].
    • August 12-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 8 million[167].
    • December 12-Turkish number of infected people exceeds 10 million due to statistical correction[168].
    • April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 11 million[169].
    • July 12-American deaths exceed 15[170].
    • July 12-India's number of infected people exceeds 19 million[171].
    • December 12-British infections exceed 20 million[172].
    • December 12-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 21[173].
    • August 12- Antarctic flagChilean military announces 36 infections at Chile's Ohigins base in Antarctica[174].. Infection is confirmed on all 6 continents.On the same day, the number of infected people in Peru exceeded 100 million.[175].
    • November 12-The number of infected people in Italy exceeds 24 million[176].
    • April 12-Worldwide infections exceed 26 million[177].
    • December 12-South Africa's number of infected people exceeds 27 million[178].
    • December 12-Russia's death toll exceeds 28 due to statistical corrections[179][Note 2].


    April 2021

    • August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 1 million[180].
    • October 1-Brazil's death toll exceeds 7[181].
    • April 1-Worldwide infections exceed 10 million[182].
    • August 1- Federated States of MicronesiaConfirmed infected persons in Federated States of Micronesia[183].
    • November 1-Germany has exceeded 15 million infected[184]..The death toll worldwide has exceeded 200 million[185].
    • July 1-American deaths exceed 20[186].
    • August 1-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million[187].
    • January 1-Indonesia's number of infected people exceeds 26 million[188]..Britain's death toll exceeds 10[189].
    • January 1-Worldwide infections exceed 27 million[190].
    • September 1-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 28 million[191].

    April 2021

    • October 2-Spain's number of infected exceeds 9 million[192].
    • September 2-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 19 million[193]..The death toll in Africa has exceeded 10[194].
    • July 2-American deaths exceed 22[195].
    • December 2-Worldwide death toll exceeds 26 million[196].

    April 2021

    • November 3-Italy's death toll exceeds 8[197].
    • March 3-Turkey's infections exceed 21 million and deaths exceed 300[198].
    • August 3-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 24 million[199]..Brazil's death toll exceeds 30[200].

    April 2021

    • April 4-France's death toll exceeds 15[201].
    • December 4-Worldwide death toll exceeds 17 million[202].
    • July 4-India's number of infected people exceeds 19 million[203].
    • April 4-India's death toll exceeds 28[204]
    • October 4-Brazil's death toll exceeds 29[205].
    • April 4-Worldwide infections exceed 30 million[205].

    April 2021

    • July 5-India's number of infected people exceeds 4 million[206].
    • April 5-India's death toll exceeds 12[207].
    • July 5-India's number of infected people exceeds 18 million[208].
    • April 5-India's death toll exceeds 24[209].
    • August 5- Palau flag ãƒ‘ラオConfirm infected person in[210].

    April 2021

    • July 6-American deaths exceed 15[211]..The number of infected people in Africa has exceeded 500 million[212].
    • October 6-Brazil's death toll exceeds 19[213].
    • January 6-Indonesia's number of infected people exceeds 21 million[214]..Colombia's death toll exceeds 10[215].
    • July 6-India's number of infected people exceeds 23 million[216].

    April 2021

    • April 7-India's death toll exceeds 2[217].
    • December 7-Worldwide death toll exceeds 8 million[218].
    • July 7-Argentina's death toll exceeds 14[219].

    April 2021

    • September 8-Brazil's number of infected exceeds 4 million[220].
    • January 8-Worldwide infections exceed 5 million[221].
    • December 8-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 6[222].
    • August 8-The number of infected people on the African continent exceeds 8 million[223].

    April 2021

    • December 9-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 1[224].
    • August 9-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 7 million[225].

    April 2021

    • July 10-American deaths exceed 1[226].
    • October 10-Brazil's death toll exceeds 8[227].
    • September 10-Russia's number of infected people exceeds 20 million[228].

    April 2021

    • December 11-Worldwide death toll exceeds 1 million[229].
    • April 11-Worldwide infections exceed 9 million[230].
    • December 11-British infections exceed 25 million[231].

    April 2021

    • August 12-The number of infected people in the United States exceeds 13 million[232].
    • July 12-American deaths exceed 14[233].


    April 2022

    • January 1-Worldwide infections exceed 7 million[234].

    April 2022

    • July 2-American deaths exceed 4[235].
    • January 2-Worldwide infections exceed 9 million[236].

    April 2022

    • December 3-Worldwide death toll exceeds 7 million[237].
    • March 3-The number of infected people in South Korea exceeds 23 million[238].

    April 2022

    • January 4-Worldwide infections exceed 12 million[239].

    April 2022

    • August 5- Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag DPR KoreaOfficially confirmed corona-infected persons in Japan[240]..The death toll in the United States has exceeded one million[241].

    April 2022

    • December 7-The number of infected people in Japan exceeds 14[242].

    Celebrity infection

    Honorific titles shall be omitted for both infected and dead.

    Celebrity dead

    (Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)

    Celebrity infection / disease

    (Alphanumeric / alphabetical order)

    Transmission route

    Recognized as the center of early infectionWuhan Hua South Seafood Wholesale MarketIs nominally a market dedicated to marine products, but according to a reporter's survey, it varies.Wild animalsWas also traded and processed in the same area[324].Zhong Nanshan,Chinese Academy of SciencesAccording to the research group ofSARSSame asSource of infectionIs a bat,Bamboo rat-Badger-ヘ ビ-PangolinIt is said that it was transmitted to humans through wild animals such as[325][326][327].Transmission routeIs like any other coronavirusSplash infection(conjunctivaIn some cases infected through[328])WhenContact infectionIn Although,aerosolThere seems to be a possibility of infection[329].

    But on February 2020, 2Chinese Academy of Sciencesなど中国政府系の研究機関が、発生源が武漢市の海鮮市場ではない可能性を示す研究結果を公表した。12カ国から集められたウイルスの遺伝子データの解析の結果、複数のタイプが見つかり、それぞれの拡散状況などから、ウイルスは他の地域で発生し、その後、武漢市の海鮮市場で拡散した可能性があるとし、2019年12月8日と2020年1月6日の2回、大きな拡散があり、2019年11月下旬か12月の初めには、すでにヒトからヒトへの感染が起きていた可能性を指摘した[330].. In addition, Hubei Wuhan officials said that the patient who had the earliest onset (December 2019, 12) wasWuchang DistrictIt was revealed that he lived in and did not go to the seafood market, which was pointed out as the source of infection.[331].

    XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,EpidemicWuhan Jinyintan Clinic, which accommodates patients in China, and a research group centered on clinical medical research on respiratory diseases in ChinaLancetPublished a paper studying the first 41 infected individuals. According to the paper, the pathogen virusHuman capitalInfection from human to human (human-human infection) is obvious, and there are cases where there are no symptoms of fever in the early stage of onset.[332].. In addition, 27 of them had been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market, but the first patient who developed the disease on December 12 had never been to the South China Seafood Wholesale Market.[333]..The mortality rate of the first 41 infected people is 15%, which is the same level as SARS.[334].

    According to a paper by Professor Yuen Kwok-Hwan of the University of Hong Kong on the same dateShenzhen City, Guangdong ProvinceAfter going to Wuhan City with 6 people living in the city, 5 people were confirmed to be infected. One of them further infected one of the locals in Shenzhen. In addition, one of these five infected children did not develop the disease while being infected, so it is highly possible that they unknowingly infected the people around them.[335].

    Outbreak, super spreader

    Examples of outbreaks includeSapporo Snow FestivalAtA stall[336], Housing Equipment Exhibition (HokkaidoKitami)[337], Hospital (Tokyo[338],Sagamihara City[339][340]), In Yuasa Town, Wakayama PrefectureNosocomial infection[341], Of Osakalive house[342][343][344], Live bar (Hokkaido)[345], Nagoya has clusters in sports clubs (36 infected) and welfare facilities (45 infected)[346].

    On March 2020, 3, it was found that in nine outbreaks in Japan, the number of infected people linked to it was 3 or more.[337]. This accounts for about 260% of the 30 infected people surveyed[337].

    In the case of the behavior history of infected people in Korea,Christian churchA mass infection occurred in one of the five people, one of whom had a meal at the cafeteria of a welfare facility for the elderly and five were infected. Furthermore, the infection of the welfare facility member was confirmed at the hospital, and nosocomial infection occurred at that hospital.[347].

    Patients who became the source of the spread of infection to more than 10 peopleSuper spreaderTo say[348]. KoreanMERSSome people in the epidemic were superspreaders, with 1 to 86 infected in some cases.[349].

    Although 8% of people infected with the new coronavirus in Japan have not infected other people, the remaining 2% ​​have infected more than one person, and cases of infecting 1 to 1 people (houseboat) and , There is also a case (sports gym) of infecting 9 to 1 people[350].InfectionSpecialistKenshi KennaSaid they should avoid crowded spaces to avoid becoming a super spreader[349].

    Nosocomial infection

    XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan University Hospital4% of the infected people detected inNosocomial infectionIt was announced that[351].. Of the 138 patients, 41% (57) were hospital-acquired, 17 were hospitalized, and 40 were medical staff.[352].

    South KoreaButGyeongsangbuk-doNosocomial infection occurred in a hospital[352][353].

    Makita General Hospital (Ota-ku, Tokyo)[338],[339],Sagamihara Kyodo Hospital[340],Saiseikai Arita Hospital(Wakayama PrefectureYuasa Town)[341],National Cardiovascular Research Center(Osaka PrefectureSuita City[354]), Etc. caused a nosocomial infection, and the patient was temporarily closed.

    Correspondence of each country

    Travel restrictions around the world as the infection spreads,quarantine,CurfewPublic health measures such as were taken. Areas such as Wuhan, which became the source of infectionLockdown(City blockade), various outing bans have been taken in various places, and a British-flagged cruise liner carrying passengers including infected peopleDiamond Princess"ButQuarantine in the waters near JapanReceived or even in ItalyMovement restrictions throughout the countryWas taken[355][356].. At some airports and train stations, screening methods such as checking body temperature and requiring the submission of a health report are beginning to be implemented.[357].. In addition, the issuance of cautionary / warning information (including self-restraint requests / cancellation recommendations) regarding travel to areas where community infection is ongoing, and the actual restriction / suspension of travel from infected areas, etc.Tightening travel regulations,furtherEUEtc国境TheBlockadeSome countries are doing[358][359].

    Social distance expansion strategy

    Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs), also called Community Mitigation, include the following measures and prevention:[366].

    Spaces such as schools, workplaces, events, meetings, etc., where groups are close together on a daily basis, are spaced from each other.
    • Closures
    Closure of places where people gather, such as schools, workplaces, events, sports, religious gatherings, festivals and conferences.

    Infection spreads because humans do not have immunity to the new virus, but when vaccines cannot be used, NPIs are an effective method to control infection[366]. According to the epidemiological analysis so far, the damage can be suppressed to a considerable extent by implementing the most effective combination of measures at the optimum timing.[367].

    Guidelines for infection prevention in Japan

    Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareMarch 2020, 3, Japan's past outbreak (cluster) In caseス ポ ー ツ ジ ム,Houseboat,buffetstyle'sDinner,Sparrow,Ski Ofguest house, There was a sealed temporary tent,ventilationIs bad, avoids going to a place where many people are in contact with each other or where a large number of unspecified people come into contact.Advised to[368].

    New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts Meeting The3/9The places where outbreaks have been confirmed so far are 1.Closed space with poor ventilation[Note 3]、 2.Many people are crowded、 3.Conversations at short distances (the distance you can reach if you reach out to each other)VocalizationIt is a place where the three overlap, and I recommended avoiding such a place[370]. The council strongly recommended the following to prevent outbreaks:[370].

    1. Open windows for ventilation
    2. Widen the venue and keep a distance of 1-2m from each other
    3. Avoid close conversations, vocalizations, and vocals
    Diligent hand hygiene, thorough coughing etiquette, do not use shared items, be careful when usingdisinfection[370]

    3/12,First-class infectious disease designated medical institutionIsMetropolitan Komagome HospitalDr. Kenji Imamura, Director of Infectious Diseases, said that the most important measure to control the epidemic in the current situation in Japan is cluster (infectious population) measures.[371]..If a person is found in the cluster that has spread to multiple people, the contact person (dense contact person) will be thoroughly investigated.[371]. There were cases where the number of positive contacts who went to the gym increased to about 1,400 people.[371].

    3/19The expert council is holding up at the moment, but at one time there is a sudden explosion of patients (“Overshoot)) Then, if medical care can no longer be provided,Lockdown measures (city blockade, store closures, refraining from going out, etc.)I was worried that I would have to take it[372]..On top of that, we will continue to maintain the early detection of outbreaks (clusters), the enhancement of intensive treatment for the severely ill, and the securing of the medical care provision system, and each region will hold events and gatherings in a closed space according to the infection situation ( While thoroughly avoiding high-risk infections such as (where the three conditions overlap), it is possible to gradually cancel activities with low-risk infections in areas where infection has not spread.[372].

    Based on the above views, the New Coronavirus Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Countermeasures Headquarters, in order to improve "a poorly-ventilated enclosed space" that is one of the risk factors, what kind of ventilation should be used in commercial facilities that are used by many people. While listening to the opinions of experts about what to do, consider literature, standards of international organizations, standards of domestic laws, etc., and as a recommended ventilation method,Ventilation method to improve "closed space with poor ventilation"Was compiled.

    3/28, The New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Headquarters announced the "Basic Policy for Countermeasures against New Coronavirus Infectious Diseases", in which it is important to control the number of infected persons and to maintain the medical provision system and social function. ,Avoid "three dense" (closed space, dense place, close scene), Containment of cluster outbreak promoted by epidemiological survey[373]..In addition, these three dense spaces are expressed as "three dense".[374]Has been publicized[375].

    Collective immunity

    JapaneseNew Coronavirus Infectious Diseases Control Experts MeetingOn March 3, "Infectious diseases, when the majority of people are infected, break the chain of infection, and a mechanism to protect uninfected people can function"Collective immunityMentioned the idea of[376].

    Collective immunity is seen as a sequestration policy before the spread of community-acquired infections and as a countermeasure in the absence of vaccines[376].

    It is the same coronavirus as the new coronavirus,Human coronavirus OC43There is a theory that collective immunity may be established[377]. The virus could be the source of a pandemic that killed 19 million people at the end of the 100th century[378], Now it's just a seasonal cold.

    Herd immunity in the UK

    On March 3, the British government announced that it would take measures with herd immunity.[376].

    On March 3, British scientists announced the "Immediate Implementation Recommendations for Social Distance Strategy", and the government's response was inadequate. Dramatically delayed and claimed to save tens of thousands of lives (14 signed by 3 March)[379][380]. Also at the momentCollective immunityIt was not effective to pursue[380].University of BirminghamProfessor Willem van Schaik (microbiology) says that in order to achieve the effect of collective immunity, 3600 million people must be infected and recover in Japan alone, but the human cost is unpredictable, He said that tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands will die, saying, "To prevent the NHS from puncturing, we have to extend the epidemic period so that millions of infections are sporadic over a long period of time."[380].

    UK Department of Health“Outbreaks are not part of our action plan, they are a natural by-product of an epidemic. We can save lives, protect the most vulnerable and reduce the burden on the NHS. ``It's a goal,'' he said, "the infection countermeasures have already passed the containment phase, and it is at the stage of delaying the spread of infection." did[380].

    Travel restrictions

    In response to the outbreakSchengen areaMost countries and regions within[381],andアルメニア[382],Australia[383],India[384],(I.e.[385],Indonesia[386],Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu[387],クウェート[388],Malaysia,Maldives,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,New Zealand,フィリピン,Singapore,Sri Lanka,Taiwan[389],Vietnam[390],andThe United States of America[391] Has implemented a temporary ban on Chinese citizens and those who have recently visited China, suspended visa issuance for Chinese citizens, and strengthened visa issuance requirements.[392].

    Samoa has been widely criticized for its legality by refusing to even enter its own citizens who have a history of staying in China.[393].

    European Union (EU)Schengen AgreementTemporarily suspendItalyRefused the idea of ​​introducing border control with[394][395].

    As of March 2020, 3, the number of countries that have immigration restrictions on travelers from Japan is 27 countries / regions, which is equivalent to about 176% of the world, which is 9 times the number of 2 countries as of February 25. Ta[396].. In addition, as of March 3, Japan has decided to designate the United States, Europe, China, and South Korea as countries subject to travel suspension recommendations and entry denials.[397].. When the "Omicron strain" became popular in 2021, foreigners from all over the world stopped entering the country.[398].

    From April 2020, South Korea issued visas only for investment, trade and humanitarian purposes and restricted entry. Issuance of tourist visas resumed from June 4[399], On the 8th of the same month, the quarantine measures that had been given to those who had not been vaccinated were lifted.[400].

    The United States enforced a 3-day immigration ban on 13 Schengen countries on March 26, and extended the restrictions to Ireland and the United Kingdom on March 30.[401][402].. On the 19th, it issued a recommendation to all Americans to stop traveling abroad.[403].. In October 2021, the United States relaxed immigration restrictions on condition of vaccination[404].

    North Korea stopped accepting tourists from China on January 1 (Wuhan's city closure was on the 21rd) and virtually closed the border.[405].

    Evacuation of foreigners

    Due to the blockade of public transport in Wuhan and Hubei, some countries have obtained takeoff and landing permits from Chinese authorities.Charter flightsIt was planned to evacuate its own citizens and diplomatic staff from the area to their home countries. Canada, the United States, Japan, India, France, Australia, Sri Lanka, Germany, and Thailand had early plans to evacuate their citizens.[406].. Meanwhile, Pakistan has stated that it will not evacuate its citizens from China.[407].. On February 2020, 2, Brazil evacuated 7 Brazilians and their families, as well as four Poles, one Chinese and one Indian. The Poles, Chinese, and Indians disembarked in Poland, where the Brazilian plane landed on its way home. Brazilians who have returned to their home countriesBrasiliaQuarantine at a nearby military base[408][409].. On the same day, 215 Canadians from Wuhan, China(English edition)へEvacuation(176名は第1便、39名は米国政府がチャーターした第2便)し、2週間検疫された。2月11日、別の便で185名のカナダ人が武漢からカナダ軍基地トレントンに到着した。オーストラリア当局は2月3日と4日に277名の国民を検疫施設に転用したCamp on Christmas IslandEvacuated to and waited there for 14 days[410][411][412].. A flight carrying New Zealand evacuees (including citizens of Australia and the Pacific) arrived in Auckland on February 2 and was quarantined at a naval base in Whangaparaoa, north of Auckland.[413].. The United States announced that it will evacuate Americans aboard the cruise ship "Diamond Princess"[414].. On February 2, an aircraft carrying 21 Canadians evacuated from the "Diamond Princess" arrived in Trenton, Ontario.[415].. The Indian government has announced that it will send the Air Force to evacuate its people from Iran.[416].

    City blockade (lockdown)

    • Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku: November 2020, 1,WuhanでCity blockadeDeclare.German Federal Ministry of Health, Health Minister Sparn,Robert Koch InstituteOn March 3, Wuhan's forced quarantine could be expected to prevent and slow the number of infected people, but it did not reduce the number of new infections and did not mean the disappearance of the virus. He said he couldn't expect too much[417][418].Charite Medical UniversityChristian Drosten said data from Chinese authorities were deliberately manipulated and unreliable, and predicted a re-emergence if Chinese social activity was restored.[418].. Wuhan roads and railroads began to be unblocked from March 3[419].University of London Graduate School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineKeisha Prem emphasized, "We should avoid the hasty relaxation of movement restrictions in Wuhan. The infection'second wave'may be accelerated."[420].
    • Japanese flag Japan: Requested event organizer to consider necessity on February 2020, 2[421].. On February 2, we requested the cancellation, postponement, and reduction of the scale of meetings such as sports and events for two weeks.[421]Requested a simultaneous closure from March 3nd[422].. An expert meeting on March 3th showed an explosive surge in infection (Overshoot) Then it is hardLockdownIt was recommended that measures (city blockage, store closure, refraining from going out, etc.) should be taken.[372]..However, the amendment passed on March 3New influenza measures special measures lawHas no penalties, so is it a legislation that provides penalties?Extra-legal measuresUnless you do政府And eachPrefectural governmentLockdown is not possible, and the limit is the request to refrain from going out (the final decision is left to the people).[423].
      • Hokkaido: February 2,EmergencyDeclared, requesting refrain from going out on weekends[424], Requested not to go to "a place where many people gather and poor ventilation" on March 3, the state of emergency ends on the 1th, and refraining from going out calls for 19 consecutive weeks[425].
      • Nagoya City: On March 3, the ordinance required citizens suspected of being infected to ban unnecessary going out.[426].
    • Italian flag Italy: November 2020, 2,Province of Lodi, Lombardy10 local governmentsVeneto OfVauxTheBlockade[427].. March 3, Jeonju, Lombardy,Emilia-Romagna,Marche,PiedmontExpanded to Veneto,Milan,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アAlso included, school until April 4Ski resortClosure,Sports-Ceremonial occasionな どEventsCancellation,bar-RestaurantsBusiness restrictions were ordered[428][429].. March 3th, limited to the northMovement restrictionsClosed, restaurants and coffee shops closed at night apply to all over Japan[430][431].. Also, from March 3th to 12th, all commercial activities will be suspended except for daily necessities stores and pharmacies.[431][432]..However, residents did not stop going out, and 8 violators came out in eight days, so on March 5, the government said that if they went out to hide the infection, they endangered the public with false declarations. , Severe punishment for up to 1000 years in prison[433].. Also in LombardyMobile phone OfGPSRevealed that it is monitoring the behavior of citizens[433].. March 3 The Governor of Lombardy said, "I want you to stop jogging and biking."軍隊Will be dispatched. "[434].
    • Republic of Korea flag South Korea : OisoOn March 2020, 3, a new religious movement "Shincheonji Jesus ChurchTwo buildings were closed because an outbreak of 46 people was confirmed in the building where the people concerned said.[435].
    • Spanish flag Spain: Declared a state of emergency on March 2020, 3.Restrict going out other than shopping and going to work.Borders are also virtually closed[436].
    • Philippines flag フィリピン: Blockade of Metro Manila from March 2020th to April 3th, 15[437], Blockade of Luzon Island on March 3[438].
    • Lebanese flag Lebanon: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[439].
    • Czech flag Czech Republic: City blockade implemented on March 2020, 3[439].
    • European Union flag EU: November 2020, 3,EUProposed a 30-day ban on unnecessary travel to the region. Restricted entry areas are 26 EU member states excluding Ireland,Schengen AgreementAssuming a total of 4 non-EU countries participating in the event, we will consider extending it depending on the situation.[440].European Commission President OfVon de Araien"The less movement you have, the more virus you can contain."[440].
    • German flag Germany: The school will be closed from March 2020, 3, museums, movie theaters, sports facilities, concert halls, bars, zoos, etc. will be closed from 16th, performances and various events will be prohibited, and the city will be virtually closed (lock). down)[441].. From the 18th, the restaurant will be open from 6 am to 3 pm, with a minimum table spacing of 1.5 meters and a maximum of 30 people entering the restaurant. After 3:XNUMX pm, takeout or delivery only[441].. Supermarkets, pharmacies, gas stations, banks, etc. can be opened, and it is open even on Sundays when it is normally closed.[441]..Furthermore, the border was closed[441].
    • French flag France: Restricted going out, excluding shopping and commuting, for 2020 days from March 3, 17, punishment for offenders[436].
    • Israeli flag Israel: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[439].
    • Venezuelan flag ベネズエラ: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[439].
    • Belgian flag Belgium: Implemented a stay-at-home ban on March 2020, 3[439].
    • Malaysia flag Malaysia: City blockade nationwide from March 2020th to 3st, 18[438][442].. All government and private offices and schools will be closed except for supermarkets, pharmacies, water, telecommunications carriers, prisons and defense.[442].. Large gatherings including Islamic events are prohibited, restaurants can only operate delivery services[442].. There are concerns about the impact on the supply chain due to the suspension of Japanese factories[442].
    • British flag United Kingdom: Announced that the school will be closed all at once from March 2020th and 3th, 18[443].City of LondonClosed up to 3 subway stations from March 19th,KhanMayor asks not to use public transport unless necessary[444].
    • United States flag The United States of America : CaliforniaIssued a stay-at-home order on March 2020, 3.Food stores, pharmacies, banks, etc. will continue to operate[445].
    • Indian flag India: November 2020, 3,National Capital Territory of DelhiClosed all restaurants, sports gyms, and shopping malls, and banned going out nationwide from 22nd[446].
    • Austria, the United Kingdom, Germany and Iran have not been banned from going out, but movement is restricted[439].
    • In Tunisia, Bolivia, Serbia, New Jersey, U.S. Dominion Puerto Rico, and Manila, the capital of the Philippines,Curfew[439].

    School closure (closed all at once)

    Schools and universities closed to prevent outbreaks around the world, affecting at least 15 billion children, students and students[447][448].

    In addition, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) fears that education will be interrupted due to school closures around the worldDistance learning programIs recommended[449].

    International aid

    • August 2020, 1,Gates FoundationAnnounced a $ 500 Million Donation[450], Announced on February 2th that it will donate an additional $ 5 million to WHO. Donations will be used to fund vaccine research and treatment efforts, as well as to protect "people in endangered Africa and South Asia."[451].
    • In the process of coordinating charter flight arrangements to rescue the Japanese people in Wuhan, Japan is the first unmanned outbound flight, a large number of masks that benefit not only the Japanese people but also the Chinese people. And promised to transport relief supplies consisting of protective clothing to WuhanToshimitsu MogiForeign Minister announced[452].. On January 1, a charter flight arrived in Wuhan and donated 26 million face masks to Wuhan.[453].. The relief supplies included 2 medical protective clothing donated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government.[454].. Aug. 1,MitoIs a friendly exchange city with 5 masksChongqingDonated to. February 2thOkayama CityHas 22,000 masks in sister citiesLuoyangSent to. Of the ruling partyLDPOn February 2th, it showed a symbolic action of deducting 10 yen from the March salary of all members of the Diet and donating the collected 3 million yen to China. Of the partyToshihiro NikaiThe secretary-general said, "For our country, when we see a virus pandemic in China, it seems that we are seeing our relatives and neighbors suffering. Japanese people are willing to help China, and this pandemic I hope it will end as soon as possible. "[455].Peace Winds JapanAnnounced that it will send staff to China to help distribute face masks and other supplies to the country.[454].
    • Humanitarian organization "Direct Relief"FedexWhile receiving transportation and logistics support in cooperation with, along with other personal protective equipment including gloves and patient gowns, 1 face masks requested for support by January 30 were urgently airlifted.(Chinese version)Delivered to[456].
    • On January 1, some Chinese students studying at an American university joined a joint group in the Greater Chicago area for 30 copies.N95 maskAnd sent 1,500 protective suits to a hospital in Hubei province[457].
    • On February 2, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that 5 countries, including Belarus, Pakistan, Trinidad and Tobago, Egypt, and Iran, had sent relief supplies to China.[458].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,United States Department of StateHas announced that it will airlift about 18 tons of masks, protective clothing and other infection control relief supplies to China, and will also provide up to $ 1 million in financial assistance.[459].Pittsburgh CityAnnounces that it will send medical supplies to its sister city, Wuhan[460], University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) also announced support plan[461].
    • Malaysia announced that it will donate medical gloves for 1800 million people to China[462].
    • (English edition)Also donated $ 140 million worth of Filipino face masks and shipped to Wuhan City.[463].. Turkey ships medical equipment[464], Germany has 10,000Chemical protective clothingDelivered various medical supplies including[465].
    • On February 2, the Singapore Red Cross announced that it would send $ 19 million worth of relief supplies to China.[466].

    Chinese government response

    Zero Corona Policy

    In China, we will try to completely contain it by restricting strict behavior.Zero Corona PolicyIs being implemented / continuing[467][468].

    Time series

    Discovery and Information Regulation: December 2019-January 12

    April 2019
    • December 12-26, Dr. Zhang Jixian, chief of the Department of Respiratory and Severe Medicine, Hubei Hospital of Integrated Traditional Medicine, discovered and reported pneumonia of unknown cause.[469].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wuhan City Central HospitalDr. Ai Fen, the chief of the emergency department, reports the virus test of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause.Social MediaPosted to chat group[470].. Of the hospital's ophthalmologyLi WenliangThe doctor is from the patientSARS coronavirusI happened to see the test result that was detected, and at 5:43 pm on the same day, my classmateWeChat(WaverBoth[471]) In the groupSouth China Seafood MarketOf 7 peopleSARSAn infected person has been confirmed. "lung OfCT examinationI also sent a photo of[471].. At 6:42 pm on the same day, "CoronavirusInfection has been confirmed and we are still investigating what type it is. "[472].
    • On December 12, the Chinese side reported to the WHO China office for the first time about the outbreak of new pneumonia.[473].
    April 2020
    • On January 2020, 1, the Wuhan Police Association saidインターネットI posted false information above, "said eight doctors.[474][475].. Dr. Lee was also called by the authorities before dawn on the 31st.False rumorWas forced to sign a "self-criticism"[471]..Dr. Ai Fen was informed by the Wuhan government via his hospital that "information should not be disclosed to the outside to avoid panic", and then hospital executives were accused of "shedding hoaxes". I was strictly ordered not to talk at all[470][476].. After that, Moxa was convinced of "human-to-human transmission" in early January, but could not speak.[470][476].. It wasn't until January 1th that the Chinese government recognized human-to-human transmission.[470].. Dr. Ai Fen later regrettably said, "If everyone was on the alert on January 1st (if the information was publicly available), there wouldn't have been many such tragedy."[477].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WuhanThe Public Security Bureau has given Li Wenliang an admonition as one of the "disturbers of social order" and "hoax proponent".[471][478].. According to some media, Chinese authorities first notified the United States of the new virus on the same day, and then provided information a total of 2 times by February.[479].
    • January 1-January 6, Wuhan CityBoth sessions("People's Congress", "Political Consultative Assembly"). There is also a view that the Wuhan government did not disclose infected persons during the two sessions from January 1th to 6th, because "successful peace" is the highest proposition during the two sessions and no negative information is reported.[471][480].. In addition, on January 1, Hubei Xinhua Clinic in Wuhan instructed the hospital not to leak information on the new pneumonia to the outside.[471][Reliability required verification].
    • On January 1, Chinese researchers reported that the pathogen of this infectious disease was a new type of coronavirus, and five days later, on January 7, the entire gene sequence of the virus was released worldwide.[473][481].
    • From around January 1th to January 10thChinese New YearGolden Week holidays (Spring luck) Has begun, and a total of 14.76 billion people have begun to move.[482].
    • January 1-11, Hubei Provincial Two Sessions. No infected persons were announced during the two sessions in Hubei Province from January 17th to 1th.[480].
    • On January 1, 18 people live in Wuhan's residential area "Hyakka-tei," where more than 18 households brought food to the party.[483].. Wuhan government left[471].. This event seems to have spurred the spread of the infection[483].

    Official Announcement and City Blockage: January 2020

    As of January 2020, China's measures are 1SARSAcclaimed by some foreign leaders compared to the epidemic[492].Playing cardsUS President[493] And in Germany(English edition)The Minister of Health praised China's hard work and its transparency as making a big difference from the time of SARS.[494][495].. SingaporeHarima JacobPresident,Lee Shen LongPrime Minister of RussiaPutinPresidents praised "quick and decisive response"[496][497].

    April 2020

    • February 2th, the Chinese governmentWeibo(Weibo)WeChat(WeChat),ByteDance(Byte jump)Vibrato(Doh-in) etc.Social mediaAnnounced enhanced censorship[498].
    • February 2th night, ChinaMediaReported the death of Dr. Li Wenliang (34 years old)[499][500][501][502].
      • On the same day, the current situation of WuhanSmartphoneUsingTwitter,YouTubeBeijing Qiushi, a Beijing lawyer who posted on the website, goes missing. Relatives are contacted by police as "isolated"[503].
    • February 2th, Fang Bin for Wuhan citizensForced deportationHas stopped since posting a video of a group rushing into the room[498].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO TheNew coronavirus The official name of the disease caused by (SARS-CoV-2) is "COVID-19Has been decided[504].. WHO is a new human in 2015Infection-ウ イ ル スThe policy stipulates that the name should not include geographical location, personal name, animal or food name, or name for a particular culture or industry.[505][506][507].. In deciding the name, a WHO official said, "Media reports use Wuhan and China, but we want to keep them from being stigmatized."[507].. Associate Professor Crystal Watson of the Johns Hopkins Health Crisis Management Center also said, "People are'China virusIf you start using names such as ”, there is a risk of causing dissatisfaction with certain people.”[506].. However, after that, there was an opinion that the name "Wuhan" should be included in the virus name in order to clarify the origin of the outbreak in the United States and Japan.[508].. The Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the state media are running to extinguish the fire every time a word like "Wuhan virus" appears.[509].
    • On June 2,Association to protect Japan's dignity and national interestsIs the representative secretaryAoyama ShigeharuA member of the House of Councilors said, "It is difficult to remember the" COVID-19 "decided by WHO, and it is difficult to understand the essence of the disease."Wuhan feverShould be called. "[510].. On February 2th, House of Councilors Aoyama said in a blog that there was a decisive problem that a reliable international research team could not enter the source Wuhan.CDCSaid that he tried to enter many times but was blocked by the Chinese government, and it was also China that WHO announced a policy of "not including place names in infectious diseases"Chen Feng Fu Chin Argued that it was after sending (Margaret Chan) to the Executive Secretary[511].
    • On the 14th, Somasu ShinNational Health CommissionIt is,Asymptomatic pathogen carrierAnnounced that it will not be subject to information disclosure. If the PCR test is positive and there are no symptoms such as fever or cough, isolation will be given for 14 days, and if no infectious symptoms appear during that period, the standard will be changed to not announce as an infected person.[512].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Hubei ProvinceBlocked the entire ministry, banned vehicles other than emergency vehicles, and took compulsory measures against unnecessary outings and gatherings.[513].. Collectively purchase and deliver daily necessitiesDistribution systemBecame[513].. Of the ministryXiaogan CityProhibits going out and notifies that violations will be detained for up to XNUMX days,MachengSaid to pay a subsidy of 7,800 yuan (about XNUMX yen) to the person who reported the symptoms of others[513].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,People's networkBut in JapanTV AsahiBut,CDCBelieves that of the 1 U.S. patients who died of influenza in the past few months, it may have included pneumonia due to a new coronavirus infection, which is already significant in big cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Reported that a review of the inspection system has begun[514].. This news isSina WeiboPublished in, among Chinese net users, the military athlete competition held in Wuhan in October 2019 ``Military world gamesIt was also pointed out that U.S. military personnel who participated in the event may have brought it to China.[514].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,China Central TelevisionFormer newscaster Li Zehua arrested live on Youtube[515].. I was released the next day,Red zoneHe explained that he was quarantined because he entered the area.[516].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Central Communist Party of the Chinese Communist PartyPublished the editorial "Great Power War" Epidemic "" and praised the "decision of the territory"Supreme leaderEmphasized the role of[517][518][519]..Although state media praised the book as demonstrating the outstanding advantages of the Chinese Communist Party leaders and the socialist system.[519]..However, there was widespread opposition on the Internet, such as "Children can't go to school and Wuhan can't go out, but they say victory (against infectious diseases)", and they couldn't buy it on March 3st.[517][520].
    • On the 27th, the National Health Commission of Zhong Nanshan said, "The source of the virus is not necessarily China."[517]..In China, he predicted that "infection will be almost suppressed by the end of April."[521].

    April 2020

    • March 3, 習近 TairaSo secretary said, "should make clear whether the virus came from somewhere."[517].
    • March 3, state-ownedXinhua News AgencyInsisted that "the world should thank China"[517][522][523].. In this article, when the pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, the United States treated China negatively, banned Chinese from entering the country, and isolated China from the world.[522].. The United States would be in trouble if China banned the export of masks and medicines to the United States, but China did not ban it due to human love.[522].. The epidemic of new pneumonia occurred in China, but the source may be outside of China[522].. China has no reason to apologize for the infection, even in countries that have no contact with China. China has succeeded in suppressing the virus. The world is grateful to China. The United States insisted that it should apologize to China but did not apologize[522].. In addition, Chinese media emphasized "the superiority of the Chinese system" by making the measures of the United States, Japan, South Korea, etc. incomplete.[517].
    • March 3, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaMa Zhaoxu"China's contribution to global public health has been recognized worldwide," he said.[517].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Wang ZhonglinThe Wuhan City Party Committee Secretary developed a "thank-you education" stating that "Wuhan citizens should thank General Secretary Xi Jinping and the Chinese Communist Party."[520][525].. However, this "gratitude education" caused dissatisfaction among the Chinese people, was criticized on the Internet, and changed its policy to "thank the citizens of Wuhan."[520][525].
    • On March 3, "Nagae Daily" reported on gratitude education, but it was deleted due to public criticism.[525].
    • March 3, Hubei Provincial Party Committee SecretaryCouragePraised the Wuhan people for "actively supporting and cooperating with the party's control measures."[525].. Authorities issued a gag order banning the media from mentioning the "gratitude education" case[525].. On the same day, "Nagae Daily" reported that the Wuhan government is sincerely grateful to the citizens of Wuhan.[525].. Journalist Sochoshin said the authorities are public servants of the people, but the people they serve are dead and sick.conscienceHe criticized that he would not force gratitude to Wuhan people if there was[525].. Died after whistle-blowing information hiding at Wuhan HospitalLi WenliangIn the case of doctors, Chinese social media also showed anger at the authorities[525].
      • 6th,Mike Pompeo"We must not forget that it was the Wuhan coronavirus that caused this," the US Secretary of State said.[526].. In response, Spokesperson Zhao is trying to impose responsibility on China by calling it the "Chinese virus" without evidence, "he said.[509][526]
    • On March 3, General Secretary Xi Jinping (President of the State) visited Wuhan City for the first time.[520].. General Secretary Xi said, "Wuhan citizens are heroes," and said, "I understand that waiting at home is long and I want to complain about it."[523].Ring and ball newsReported on his visit to Wuhan, "I felt optimistic and the spring atmosphere was lively."[520].
    • March 3, party newspaper "People's Daily"The name of Wuhan will be re-recorded in history as a hero," said General Secretary Xi in the headline on the first page.[518].
      • On the same day, WHO Executive Secretary Tedros announced that "it can be said to be a pandemic." "In the past two weeks, the number of infected people outside China has increased 13 times, and the number of countries has tripled."[528].
      • 11th,Robert O'BrienThe White House Chief of Staff argues that the Chinese government hid information during the initial infection stage and refused to send WHO or CDCs, delaying global response.[524][529][530].
    • On March 3, Chinese health officials declared that "China has crossed the peak of infection."[523].
    • March 3, 13, November 2019, 11Hubei ProvinceChinese data suggest that a 55-year-old man from China may have been the first case of the new coronavirus, but Chinese officials did not release the data.South China Morning PostReports[536][Reliability required verification].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,WHO OfTedros"Europe is now the center of the pandemic," the Executive Secretary said, recognizing that the main battlefield for infection control has moved from China to Europe.[537].
      • On the 13th, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ChinaGeng ShuangDeputy press director accused senior U.S. government officials of linking China to the virus as an attack on China[533].
      • 13th,Zhao LijianA spokesman said, "Japan's conspiracy theory is based on the US military conspiracy theory.TV AsahiIntroduced an article by Larry Romanov, who reported that "the outbreak of the new coronavirus is in the United States, not China."[514][538][539].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Nobel Prize for LiteratureOf the award-winning authorMario Vargas RyosaSaid that China was a free and democratic country, not a dictatorship, and that the world would not have faced such an outbreak without hiding information at the beginning of the outbreak.[540].. Chinese officials replied that it was "malicious"[541].. Aug. 3,Deputy Press Director OfGeng ShuangRebelled as "irresponsible speech"[542].
    • On the morning of March 3, the number of infected people in various parts of Europe and other regions exceeded mainland China for the first time.[537].
    • On the 16th, China's diplomatic directorYang KiyoshiChichiTalked to US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on the phone and protested each other[543]..Yang warned, "The scheme to smear China isn't what you want, and any act that undermines China's interests will inevitably result in a resolute counterattack," Pompeo said. It's not time, it's time for all nations to unite and fight a common threat. "[543][544].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Donald TrumpThe President of the United States said on TwitterChinese VirusPosted[544][545][546].
    • XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,South China Morning PostReported that as of the end of February, more than 2 infected people in China had been excluded from statistics because they were "asymptomatic."[547].. Asymptomatic people are estimated to be one-third of all infected people, and more than 3 people including symptomatic people are included in the official announcement in China at the end of February.[547].. Asymptomatic patients are said to have been placed under medical surveillance[547].
    • 3 month 25 dayG7At the Foreign Ministers' meeting, the US State Department insisted that it should be labeled as "Wuhan virus," but countries did not accept it and the adoption of the joint statement was postponed.[548][549].. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo criticized China for failing to share information early, even though China was aware of the risks the virus poses to the world.[549].
    • On March 3, President Xi Jinping (General Secretary)G20"The virus has no borders and the spread of infection is a common enemy," he said at an emergency video summit.[550]The G20 issued a joint statement stating, "The virus is borderless. We are strongly committed to establishing a joint front against this common threat."[551].. The South China Morning Post reported that the United States and China agreed to shelve the conflict and prioritize the establishment of infection control mechanisms.[552].
    • President Xi Jinping, who finished a telephone conversation with President Xi Jinping on March 3, posted on Twitter that "China has a good understanding of the virus. We are working closely together." It was called "Corona virus" instead of the conventional "Chinese virus".[553].

    Correspondence of international organizations

    WHO response

    WHOTedros AdanomThe Executive Secretary stated that he "trusted China's approach to epidemic control," called on the general public to "keep calm," and praised the Chinese authorities for their efforts to address and contain the epidemic.[554].. WHO in 2003SARSIn contrast to being accused of delaying efforts to prevent and contain the epidemic due to the secrecy of information by Chinese authorities during the epidemic, the central government "regularly provided information on the current crisis situation. By updating, we avoided panic before entering the Chinese New Year holidays. "[555].

    In response to the decision by central authorities to implement a ban on public transport in Wuhan on January 2020, 1, WHO's representative from China, Gauden Gallea, said it was certainly not recommended by WHO. "It was a very important instruction that we were actively involved in containing the epidemic in this region of the highest transport concentration," he said of the ban, "an unprecedented attempt in the history of public health. I called[555].. In addition, human-to-human transmission in China is mainly limited to healthcare professionals who treat family members and patients, and human-to-human transmission has not been confirmed outside of China. But at the moment "Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”, but requested the Chinese government to identify the source and route of infection in cooperation with WHO and others.[556].

    On January 1, WHO released its latest report,VietnamIt was revealed that human-to-human transmission seems to have occurred in this case. Also prevalent in the past with coronavirusMERSAnd SARS, likecough,sneezeWe are calling for countermeasures because there is a possibility of infection due to splashes scattered by such as or direct contact.[557].

    On January 1, WHO said on the epidemic after a human-to-human transmission was confirmed outside China and the number of infected people increased in other countries.Public health emergencies of international concern (PHEIC) ”was declared.2009 swine flu pandemicIt was the sixth PHEIC declaration since it was first activated. Regarding PHEIC, Secretary-General Tedros said, "It was not a motion of no confidence in China" in this case, but there is a risk of spreading the infection to low- and middle-income countries that do not have a particularly strong medical system worldwide. Therefore, it was revealed that the declaration was reached.[42][558].. "There is no reason to unnecessarily interfere with international travel and commerce," he said of the enforcement of travel restrictions. "WHO does not recommend restricting trade and movement."[559].. According to some reports, WHO has received a large amount of assistance from China for the birthplace of Executive Secretary Tedros.エチオピアTherefore, it is behind the scenes, such as praising China's measures and not recommending immigration restrictions.[560]In addition, it is an international organization that provides member countries with information on the prevention of infection by air.ICAOAlso(Chinese version)Since the Executive Secretary is from China, he was excluded by China's influence on international organizations along with WHO.Taiwan(Republic of China) Is reported to be an "air pocket" (blank area)[561].

    February 2, WHO epidemic of infectious diseases worldwidePandemicIncorrect information is spread like "InfodemicWas raised by piggybacking on the new coronavirus.[17].

    On February 2, a WHO spokesman announced that a team of multinational experts would be sent to China.[562].

    On February 2, WHO said that even if the virus appeared, it was an urgent task to establish a system for low-income countries that did not have a system to detect people infected with the virus, and strategic infections in those countries. He called on the international community to donate $ 5 million to the Prevention Fund. "Our strength depends on our ties with the weakest people," said Tedros. "Investing today, or you will pay more later." Announced a statement[563].

    On February 2, WHO announced at a press conference that it had named the disease COVID-11. In another statement released on the same day, Secretary-General Tedros of the United NationsAntonio GuterresAfter a brief talk with the Secretary-General, he revealed that he had agreed that he would take all possible measures from the United Nations. As a result, a UN crisis management team was set up to coordinate the response of the United Nations agency as a whole, and WHO said that the team would "focus on medical response, while other agencies would have that expertise. Can face the wide range of impacts of epidemics on global society, economy and development. "[564].

    On February 2, a joint mission team with China was set up under the leadership of WHO, and international WHO experts came to the site to support epidemic management in China and held a workshop to "disease." Assess "severity and contagiousness", meet with key national institutions, guide field visits, and "impact epidemic response activities at provincial and county levels, including urban and rural areas" Was evaluated[565].

    On February 2, WHO announced that it would not be called a pandemic.[566].

    On February 2, WHO declared that "the world should be more and more prepared for a possible new coronavirus pandemic," and it is too early to call the current epidemic a pandemic, but nonetheless, countries. Said that it was "in a phase to prepare" for it[567]..In response to the growing epidemic of the new coronavirus in Iran, WHO announced on the same day that it would send a joint mission team to Iran to assess the situation in the country.[568].

    On February 2, WHO officials announced that the global threat rating for the new coronavirus would be raised from "high" to the highest level of alert and risk assessment criteria, "very high." .. Mike Ryan, head of the WHO emergency program, said in a statement, "Here's a way to see the reality that every government on the planet should do. Wake up and get ready. (Governments) need to be prepared for this virus, which will be approaching. (You) have a duty to their own people and a duty to prepare for the world. "There is," he warned, saying that if the right measures were taken, the world could be saved and the "worst case" could be avoided.In addition, Ryan said current data do not provide a valid basis for public health officials to declare a global pandemic, which states that "as we originally admit, every human being on earth is a virus. Will be exposed to[569].

    March 3, with the new coronavirusInfluenza virusPublished a report summarizing the differences between[570][571].

    On March 3, WHO Executive Secretary Tedros talked about the epidemic.PandemicFor the first time, he expressed the view that it was equivalent to (a pandemic).[11][12].

    Correspondence of research institute

    Published in mid-January 2020Travel medicineIn the specialized magazine "Journal of Travel Medicine", an article was published that made a prediction of the infection spread route pattern by analyzing the international air passenger dynamics. according to it,International Air Transport Association Based on 2018 passenger dynamics data released by (IATA), among the 20 cities with the highest passenger traffic from Wuhan,Bangkok-Hong Kong-TokyoandTaipeiIs listed in the top four cities.Indonesia OfBaliIs considered to be the area with the lowest ability to respond to infectious diseases, with Tokyo in JapanOsakaAnd australiaSydneyとMelbourneIs considered the most responsive city[572][573].

    January 1 (US time), United KingdomLancaster UniversityとUniversity of GlasgowAndAmerica OfUniversity of FloridaBy February 2, a research team of researchers from Wuhan alone published a scientific paper showing the potential for more than 4 infected people (35 to 164,602).[574][575].. The research team also said that 5.1% of patients diagnosed with Wuhan were actually infected. This means that 95% of infected people are undiagnosed or unaware of the infection. In addition, the research team estimates that one infected person can spread to others from 1 to 3.6. Much more than the WHO forecast of 4.0 to 1.4.

    XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Tohoku UniversityProfessor of the Graduate School of Medicine and a doctorHitoshi OshiyaSpeculated that "China took the same measures as during the SARS epidemic as an initial response, but the infection may have spread due to different epidemiological characteristics," and at present, it is taking action to suppress damage rather than containment measures. The shift, criticisms of China and WHO are of no benefit and the international community should cooperate.[576].

    Socio-economic impact

    1929 OfWorld DepressionBig sinceWorld economyIs a retreatCorona shockHappened[577][578][579][580]..The financial impact is great,International Monetary Fund (IMF)2020world ofGDPAnnounced forecast for growth of -4.4%[581].. This negative growth rate2008 OfLehman shockFar more than -0.1% of the time, 1929World DepressionIt was the Great Depression since (the world GDP growth rate at that time was -15.0%), and it was also called the corona shock in various fields.[577][578][579][580].Financial marketThe Corona shock is worse than the Lehman shock, which is only confused, in the sense that the real economy is destroyed and bankruptcies, dismissals, hiring suspensions, wage cuts, and bonus cuts are occurring one after another in private companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises. Is said to be.As the spread of infection continues to accelerate, there is no prospect of economic recovery.

    Under this circumstance20st centuryIt has been maintained sequentially from the endOnlineUsing the environmentShut in economyThe practice of (economy to stay at home) has started, and when going outSocial distanceThe world economy, such as securingITChanged to make the best use of[582]..With the rapid progress of digitalization, the performance of IT companies that provide online services is growing, and the new coronavirus has unexpectedly become a game changer in the economy.For example, it is said to be the top company in the IT industry.GAFAMOfMicrosoft The2020In the April-June periodAzureRelated sales increased 47%,XboxRelated sales increased 64%,SurfaceRelated sales increased 28%[583].. In this income and expenditure report, the companyCEO OfSatya Nadella"COVID-19 has influenced every aspect of our work and life, and in the last two months we have two years worth.Digital transformationWas seen. "[584]..In addition, it has been reported that a high load has occurred on the Internet infrastructure, demonstrating the importance of the Internet infrastructure in an emergency.The largest in the worldContent delivery networkIt is said that it controls 15 to 30% of the Internet traffic.Akamai TechnologiesHas confirmed that Web traffic has increased up to twice the previous year, and although it is an inexperienced traffic volume, content can be delivered without delay.[585][Note 4]..This change in economic activity is in the political and business worldNew normalWas recognized as.


    For East Asian foreigners(Chinese version,English edition)Cases and[587][588],mainlySocial MediaIn online media centered onRelated misinformationCases such as[589].. Regarding this phenomenon, WHO saidInfodemic (infodemic) ”is proposed to call attention.[17].

    Fundamental changes in the social and economic system

    Depending on the time2019Before Corona[590],2020With corona until corona convergence[591], After corona after corona convergence[592] Changes in the economic system are predicted to be classified as. In the era of With Corona, society fell into a state of turmoil, but we saw this as an opportunity and changed the time of admission and joining the company, which takes time in normal times.[593], Simplification of procedure[594],Digital transformationThere is a movement to accelerate[595]..In addition, the emergence of a shut-in economy that did not exist in the past has been confirmed.[582].. In the shut-in economydeliveryAnd online-dependent economic activity, most of which physical factors are importantcultureWas in danger of survival[596].

    With changes in the corona era

    From the new coronavirusEmergency evacuationThe following changes occurred in the process of.

    Understanding the pandemic

    1918から1921It became popular in the worldSpanish cold"Pandemic flu: A record of the" Spanish flu "pandemic" was released for free on the Web until April 2020, 4, and was reprinted.[597].. The book isMinistry of Interior Health BureauWas created in 1921.

    Impact on the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
    Issuance of a state of emergency

    Recognizing that the world is in an emergency,PeopleThe behavior was restricted. First time in history in JapanEmergency宣言が発出される事態となった。当初は2020年4月7日(東京都など1都1府5県が指定され、4月16日に対象地域を全国に拡大)から5月6日までの1か月の期間を設定していたが、収束の傾向が見えず、vaccinebyCollective immunityHas not been established, so discussions on extending the period have started within the government.[598], October 4National Governors' AssociationAt the meetingTokyoMost of the governors, including the governor, have called for an extension of the state of emergency.政府 OfExpert meetingAt an informal meeting, they agreed that "the declaration should continue to be extended nationwide." On April 4, Prime Minister Abe announced at a press conference that he would extend the declaration, saying that it would be difficult to return to his former daily routine from May 30.[599]..The government will continue to make adjustments to extend the target area by about one month while keeping the target area nationwide, and after analyzing the current situation and clarifying the judgment criteria at the expert meeting on May 1, just before the declaration expires. On May 5th, the extension period was decided to be until May 1st and announced.After that, the state of emergency was partially lifted on May 5th and May 4st, and was completely lifted on May 5th.

    Works on the epidemic of the new coronavirus infection


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ In particular, sales in the travel, traditional culture, and event industries in Japan decreased by 2020% from the same month of the previous year in May 5.[14].
    2. ^ It is not reflected in the Johns Hopkins University tabulation.
    3. ^ In the view of the expert council, "a space with poor ventilation" is considered to mean that it does not meet the standard of the air environment of general buildings. In that senseBuilding Management Law StandardsVentilation required to adapt to (Ventilation required per person approx. 30 m3 If the hourly) is satisfied, it is considered that it does not apply to "a closed space with poor ventilation".[369]
    4. ^ Akamai TechnologiesIs a company that is not generally known, but it is said that it has all of the major websites that are used on a daily basis to its customers due to its overwhelming high-speed content distribution.インターネットIs the largest company in[586].


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