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🚗 | CO2 emissions in the transportation sector are reduced by 10.2%, and the spread of electric vehicles is increasing ... White Paper on Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 2020


Photo Toyota JPN TAXI (Hybrid)

CO2 emissions in the transportation sector are reduced by 10.2%, and electric vehicles are becoming more widespread ... White Paper on Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 2020

 
If you write the contents roughly
Of these, the introduction of hybrid vehicles is progressing for taxis, which increased from 2015 in 2 to 4000 in 2020.
 

On June 6, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced the "Reiwa 21th Edition White Paper on Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism".Hagiwara Hagiwara's motorcycle accident, recording the moment ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

    6 units

    Hybrid car

    Hybrid car(HybridBritish: hybrid car A hybrid car) has two or more power sources (Prime mover)haveAutomobile.. Abbreviation isHV(Hybrid vehicle).

    Overview

    A hybrid vehicle is two or more power sources (Prime mover) Is a common name for automobiles.Not limited to automobiles, vehicles with two or more power sources are HVs (hybrid-vehicle).Vehicles commonly called hybrid vehicles in JapanInternal combustion engine(engine)Whenelectric motor(motor) As a power source for electric hybrid vehicles (HEV, hybrid electric vehicle).Although there are differences depending on the vehicle type, there are some that run only with the engine, run only with the motor, and run using the engine and the motor at the same time depending on the driving conditions.Electric carExternal like (electric vehicle, EV)电源Directly fromChargingWhat you can doPlug-in hybrid carIt is called (PHV, plug-in hybrid vehicle).With a carElectric railwayAs an intermediate form ofOverhead wireCurrent collectortrolley busThere is also an overhead wire type hybrid trolley bus that combines the advantages of the hybrid bus and the hybrid bus. (Detail istrolley bus(See)

    In addition, "motorAs the words "motor sports" and "motor show" indicate, "" does not mean only electric motors in a broad sense,JapanThen, when it is generally used as a word to describe the type of prime mover, it is almost always "motor = electric motor" or "engine = internal combustion engine".[1], Cars equipped with only electric motors (Electric car) Is sometimes referred to as "a car without an engine" or "a car that runs on a motor".

    JapanNorth AmericaThen, in addition to using the rotational force of the engine directly as powerGeneratorThere are many types of hybrid vehicles that are used to turn.The power source for power generation is mainlyengineAnd supplementarilySecondary battery,Regenerative brakeTo use.

    Automobiles have begun to spread19st centuryIn the second halfRed flagby英国 OfSteam carDespite the stagnant development of gasoline cars, the performance of gasoline cars is steam cars andElectric carWas inferior to.In particular, you can store pressure in the steam reservoirLead acid batteryStart to store electricity intorqueIs large, needle valve andResistorsCompared to steam cars and electric cars that can shift steplessly by operationknockingThe drivability in the low speed range is low,accelerator-clutch・ Reduction gearpulleyThe operability of a gasoline-powered vehicle that is forced to switch simultaneously is poor, and it is a complicated precision machine.ト ラ ン ス ミ ッ シ ョ ンI was shunned because there were many breakdowns.

    20st centuryAppeared at the beginningaxleA car that rotates with electric power is not called a hybrid because it uses only an internal combustion engine as an energy source for movement.suspensionI wasn't able to make a mechanical drive system that matched the movement of the car, so I was moving the axle with an electric motor.World War IThrough this process, the reliability of the mechanical drive system has been improved and the cost has been reduced.Ford Model TIt disappeared from the market due to the rapid spread of gasoline cars due to the appearance of.

    Conductive plastic in the second half of the 20th centuryPolyacetyleneHigh-performance that originated in the discovery ofLithium ion secondary batteryAnd enables a small and powerful motorNeodymium magnetWas developed one after another in Japan, and the technology required for electric vehicles developed rapidly.

    Since the end of the 20th century, hybrid vehicles equipped with gasoline engines and large-capacity storage batteries have been sold mainly in Japan and North America.In addition to power generation by the engine, regenerative braking is also used, and by traveling mainly using electric power at low speeds, fuel efficiency is improved compared to traveling by the internal combustion engine alone.

    In the 2000s, it became the core of electric motorsIron lossDedicated with fewElectrical steelBecame used, and from the end of the same ageOutletCan be charged fromPlug-in hybrid car(PHEV) was sold in China and Japan. 2008Beijing Motor ShowThen, a Chinese manufacturer announced a plug-in hybrid car in 2010Geneva Motor ShowThen, European and American manufacturers announced hybrid cars one after another.Due to these advances in hybrid technology, vehicles with fuel efficiency of 60km for PHEVs and 40km for conventional hybrids, which are unthinkable before, are appearing one after another even in the middle price range.

    In addition, it is easy to be mistaken for the series hybrid described later.Electric driveThere is another concept.This is just an electric drive system (power train, power transmission mechanism).A mobile body that uses an internal combustion engine to turn a drive generatorGas electricOr "Diesel electric"Reciprocating engineother thanTurbine engineThose that useTurbo electricHowever, these are systems that do not have a battery to store the electric power obtained by power generation, but simply drive the motor directly with the electric power obtained by turning the generator by an internal combustion engine. Therefore, if the internal combustion engine is stopped, it cannot run.Therefore, it can be considered that the running depends only on the internal combustion engine, so it is not considered to be an HV.These are "gasoline enginesdiesel engine-TurbineEither engine drive or electric drive.

    Incidentally Rotary engineas well as the Gas turbine carIs not a vibe vehicle because it runs on an engine, but in recent years, methods using these as generators have also been considered (however,gas turbineVibe carStationary typeDifferent from)

    二種類の内燃機関を併載したもの(例:ディーゼル+ガスタービン)も広義のハイブリッド車だが、採用例が一部の特殊車両に限られるため一般にはハイブリッド車に含まれない。

    Types and characteristics of hybrid systems

    発電と駆動の方法により、「シリーズ方式」、「パラレル方式」、「スプリット方式」に大別できる。最も構造と制御が単純なシリーズ方式が世界的には主流である。なお、シリーズ方式とパラレル方式を融合した「シリーズ・パラレル併用方式」もあるが、Large carIncludingPrototype vehicleレベルでは存在するものの、市販車としてはいまだに登場していない[Source required].

    Parallel method

    The parallel method (parallel method) is a method that uses multiple power sources installed to drive the wheels.

    The output of the enginetorque × Due to the relationship of the number of revolutions, sufficient power cannot be obtained at low revolutions, and when the vehicle is stoppedIdlingThe efficiency is low, and the exhaust gas purification capacity is also reduced.On the other hand, many motors generate maximum torque at startup.Therefore, the engine is not good at starting or sudden acceleration.Thermal efficiencyThe parallel method is the one in which the motor takes charge of the range of bad and harmful emissions.AlsoMild hybridIs a type of parallel type.Generally speaking, "hybrid" often refers to a parallel type.

    In this case, many engines have an output comparable to that of conventional internal combustion vehicles, have a transmission with the same allowable capacity as internal combustion vehicles, drive wheels through it, and at the same time generate electricity (charge) using a motor. Also do.Regenerative brakeThe motor, which is also used as a generator for the engine, is in charge of everything from starting to medium speed.Vehicle total weightIt is smaller and has less output than.When the battery level is low, the vehicle runs only on the engine over the entire speed range, as in a conventional internal combustion vehicle.As described above, since the configuration is mainly composed of a conventional internal combustion vehicle, it is also called a motor assist system.

    In general, it is superior to the series method in terms of installation weight and volume, which can be realized with a single motor, and efficiency, such as being able to be directly driven by an engine.However, the structure and control to take advantage of the advantages of both power sources are complicated, and there is a drawback that it is not possible to generate electricity and drive at the same time because of one motor (the charging time becomes shorter as the frequency of use of the motor increases).In addition, the hybrid system itself does not have a function to control the speed, and it requires the same transmission as a normal automobile, which is a drawback not found in other systems.However, it is excellent in transmission efficiency that takes advantage of this point.MTThere are also hybrid vehicles with specifications.

    Direct connection between engine and motor on the same axis

    It is possible to drive only the engine when the motor is stopped, but it is not possible to drive only with the motor.[Note 1]..Because the motor works as a generator except when drivingAlternatorIs omitted.

    Engine and motor can be separated on the same axis

    It is also possible to drive the motor alone, and the motor is responsible for the range from start to low speed, so during this periodexhaustCan be eliminated.

    Engine and motor are separate axesDifferentialConnect to

    The engine and motor are arranged in parallel, and each can drive the axle independently.Since a large output motor can be attached, it is said to be suitable for large vehicles.

    Series method

    Series method (series method) uses the engineGeneratorA method that is used only to drive a motor and uses that electricity to drive a motor.In addition, surplus power generated by the engine andRegenerative brakeThe electric power generated by the above is collected in a storage battery and used.So to speak, "The engine was installed as a power source for power generation.Electric car].

    The method of generating electricity with an engine and running with a motor isGas electric,Diesel electricandTurbo electricThere is a method called, these have been around for a long timeRailway car,ShipでPracticalAlthough it is sometimes referred to as an already "dead" technology that has been transformed, the power generated by these is basically not through the battery.Early hybrid vehicles were based on this, and by adding a large-capacity battery between the generator and the motor, it became possible to reduce the size of both the engine and the generator and reduce the engine usage rate, improving efficiency. ..Under these circumstances, the system has the highest degree of freedom in engine selection if the increase in weight and volume (installation space) is ignored, and the system's largest is that it can also adopt a turbine system (micro turbine) that is inferior in terms of control. It is also a feature.Although tax maintenance is required as fuel for automobiles, it is not normally used for automobiles in turbine engines.keroseneSuch asKeroseneIt becomes possible to use system fuel.

    Also, even if the fuel runs out or quietness is required, if there is enough battery power, stop the engine and only the motor (EVIt is possible to run in mode).

    Since it is driven by a motor, output control is easy, which is essential for ordinary automobiles.ト ラ ン ス ミ ッ シ ョ ンIt is an advantage that the system occupies a large volume and weight because the internal combustion vehicle and electric vehicle systems coexist, and it occurs when the engine power is once converted to electricity.heatLots of energy lossRegenerative controlが働かないと効率が落ちることが欠点となる。この点を補うため、バッテリーの容量を縮小し、エンジンで随時発電を行う方式が開発された。エンジンの効率が著しく悪い低負荷ではバッテリーからの電力でEV走行し、ある程度以上の負荷では走行に必要な電力はエンジンの発電でまかなう。長い登坂や高速cruiseSometimes the best of the engineFuel consumption rateAlthough it will be used in areas other than the above area (fuel efficiency will deteriorate), the most efficient area can be used for the required output because it is not connected by the transmission.

    Nissan MotorFrom 2016The shape of a new electric vehicle」を謳い、「e-POWER」と称するシリーズ式ハイブリッドシステムを採用した車種を展開している。

    Each motorHubAttached to (In-wheel motor)

    Mount the motor on the car body (on the spring)

    Split method

    It is a method that simultaneously realizes the output of an engine x motor like a parallel type and the power generation and motor drive by an engine like a series type.TypicallyStrong hybridCalled.

    Torque from the enginePlanet gearsIt is divided (split) by the power split mechanism using, and is distributed to the generator (MG1) and the drive shaft.A motor (MG2) is directly connected to the drive shaft, and the driving force generated by this is combined as appropriate.Therefore, a certain percentage of the engine torque is always applied to the drive shaft including when the vehicle is stopped.

    By turning off the power to MG1 as needed and putting it in a free-run state, it creates a state similar to disconnecting the connection between the engine and the drive shaft.If you drive MG2 in this stateEV drivingHowever, regenerative braking can be realized by generating electricity. If both MG1 and MG2 stop energizing, they will be in a neutral state.EV driving with electricity stored in the battery when starting or running at low speed, during normal acceleration or steady running at medium and high speedsFuel consumption rateOperate the engine in a good rotation range.

    The engine speed is controlled by MG1. If the MG1 is rotated in the normal direction, the engine speed will increase and power will be generated at the same time.The generated power is sent to the battery or immediately used as driving force by MG2.Low gear for non-hybrid vehicles-equivalent to top gear.

    If the MG1 is stopped (restrained), the power split mechanism behaves as a mere speed-increasing gear, and the engine speed is proportional to the vehicle speed.At this time, all the power from the engine is transmitted to the drive shaft and MG2.Top gear for non-hybrid vehicles-equivalent to overdrive.However, in reality, it is slightly rotated forward.

    It is also possible to send power to MG1 and reverse it.By doing this, a stronger acceleration effect can be obtained, and the fuel efficiency of the engine alone is expected to improve, but the reverse power from MG2 to MG1 may reduce the efficiency of the entire system, so it really is. Only implemented when the computer determines that it is optimal.

    The advantage of the series type that the degree of freedom of the operating state of the engine can be increased by mechanically separating the engine and the drive shaft by such a mechanism, and the loss by providing a route for directly transmitting torque from the engine to the drive shaft. You can get the advantage of the parallel type that can suppress.

    As mentioned above, if the electric power generated by MG1 is sent to MG2, it plays the role of a transmission (shifting action), so a conventional transmission is not essential.In the transmission of Toyota's hybrid car"ElectricContinuously variable transmissionThe name "" is only called in the classification on the document, and it does not actually have a continuously variable transmission..

    Although flexible control is possible, it is necessary to pay attention to the restrictions on the number of revolutions of each element of the engine, MG1 and MG2.Especially for MG1, the speed is significantly increased when viewed from the axle when the engine is stopped, and there is an upper limit to the speed at which the vehicle can run with the engine stopped.In addition, since the direct transmission route of engine torque is mechanically accelerated, in the case of a vehicle equipped with a low torque engine aiming at fuel efficiency, in the normal speed range, driving by MG1 via MG2 takes up most of the driving force. Occupy.It is not possible to start with the engine alone, but this is also rational because the cleanliness of exhaust gas and fuel efficiency are not good in the range from idling to starting and accelerating.

    Energy conversion loss inevitably when electrically drivenheat) Occurs, but overall high efficiency is achieved by controlling using the high efficiency range of the engine.Compared to other methods, the number of parts is small and it is mechanically simple, but the control is very complicated andPatentDue to the entanglement of the above, the number of manufacturers adopted is a minority compared to the above method, so the biggest drawback of this system was that there were few choices of the models to be adopted at the beginning.Further, since the engine and the drive shaft cannot be separated due to the mechanism, the final reduction ratio affects the engine speed.For this reason, there is a weakness that the fuel efficiency deteriorates if the setting emphasizes the acceleration force, and the acceleration performance deteriorates if the setting emphasizes the fuel efficiency.The multi-stage hybrid system installed in the LC500h overcomes this weakness, and the conventional system is combined with stepped gears.Also, because of the original specificationsFrictionLossOne of the drawbacks is that the effect of this is easily linked to fuel efficiency, and there are many obstacles to improving output.However, if the control problem is solved, the advantages of cost reduction and weight reduction by omitting the transmission will come to life, so it is said that there are few disadvantages in commercialization compared to the parallel method.Initially the same displacementOtto cycleAlthough it was inferior in power performance to the engine car, it is better than the gasoline engine car that makes the best use of the characteristics of the motor by improving the output and control of the battery and motor.accelerateIs also possible.

    Regarding control and operation, "Continuously variable transmission # Electric power / mechanical combination type continuously variable transmissionSee.

    Other methods

    • Audi・ DUO-The base car isB5 series A4 Avant Quattro (Full TimeFour-wheel drive OfStation Wagon).City centerThen I charged it with a household power supplyLead acid batteryAnd run on a motor, in the suburbsInline 4 cylinder1.9 Ldiesel engineRun on.It is the world's first practical hybrid vehicle that is premised on the market, and has been in operation since 1997.leaseI was planning to sell it, but in the same yearNickel metal hydrideThe Toyota Prius equipped with a rechargeable battery was announced, and the commercialization of the duo was cancelled.The Audi Duo battery does not meet the definition of a parallel hybrid vehicle, as it is only externally charged and not charged by the engine.
    • e-4WDSystem- Hitachi, Ltd.Developed by, for a period of timeNissan Motorとマ ツ ダIt was used in small cars.Gasoline engineFront wheel driveA motor assist mechanism is added to the rear wheels of the car, but it is not included in hybrid cars because the assist range is extremely limited and it does not have a battery dedicated to the motor.
    • Range extenderWithElectric car - 走行距離を伸ばすために小Displacement・低出力で軽量コンパクトな発電用エンジンを搭載した電気自動車。一般にハイブリッドカーには分類されないが、技術的にはシリーズ方式ハイブリッド車のバッテリーを大容量化し、充電ポートを追加して外部電源から充電できるようにしたもの(シリーズ型のプラグインハイブリッド車)とみなせる[6]。このシステムの走行用の電力は外部からの充電を前提としているため、このシステムで外部から充電せず登載エンジンだけで運用すると、効率や燃費が悪くなる。

    Features

    Regenerative brake

    By using the electric motor as a generator during decelerationPhysical energyTheElectric energyConvert toSecondary batteryToelectricityTo store.Not limited to hybrid vehiclesElectric car,Solar carFor vehicles that run on secondary batteries and electric motors, "regenerative braking" can improve energy efficiency.ShinkansenlikeElectric railwayBut widely used, regenerative energyOverhead wireBecause it returns toPoweringToRailway car(Electric locomotive,Electric train), It could not be used effectively.Now, even in electric railways, it is planned to charge the stationary secondary battery of the substation and enable regeneration at any time.[Note 2].

    engine

    Because the electric motor supplements the outputVehicle total weightAgainstDisplacementIs lessoutputIs low orAtkinson cycleIt is possible to use a lighter and more efficient engine such as an engine.Also, the kind that could not be used because it was not suitable for automobilesThermal efficiencyHigh engine (Rotary engineResearch is also underway on combinations that can be used by making electric motors the mainstay.

    THS,i-MMDIn the strong hybrid represented by the above, stable high efficiency can be realized because charging can be performed at the same time while the engine is being rotated for driving.

    EV mode

    Stop the engine and use only the battery powerElectric carCan run in the same state asEV modeVehicles that combine the above can run with almost no fuel in low speed areas and low load areas (flat roads and roads with continuous downhills), so overwhelming fuel efficiency can be achieved.In addition, stopping the engine greatly contributes to comfort such as quietness and vibration, and is convenient for continuous conversation during driving and for driving in a quiet residential area at night.Whether or not this EV mode can be used well has a great influence on the practical fuel consumption, especially in the strong hybrid.

    With plug-in hybrids, it is possible to cover a distance of 50km or more only in EV mode by fully charging the plug.

    All-wheel drive

    By adding a motor to the accompanying wheel,Transfer Unit, Center differential,Propeller shaftIs no longer neededAll-wheel driveIt is also relatively easy to convert.

    Power outlet

    In the case of hybrids that can also use the engine as a generator, many cars are equipped with outlets that have standards that allow them to fully use home appliances.With this, not only outdoors, but also in emergencies such as power outages, disasters, and distresses.microwaveAnd kettle pot,rice cookerEtc. can be used.

    problem

    Weight increase and volume compression due to system installation

    ハイブリッド自動車は内燃機関およびその補機一式と電動機および駆動用バッテリーと燃料タンクを1台の車に搭載するため、従来は同程度の排気量のガソリン車と比較して15-20%ほど重量が増加していた[Note 3]..The increase in weight increases the damage to the vehicle body such as tires and brakes and the road surface in addition to the deterioration of fuel efficiency.However, in recent years, it has become smaller and lighter, and is about 5% -10%.[Note 4]Because it is packed up to, it is no longer at a level that can be said to be "heavy and disadvantageous".

    In addition, hybrids have to sacrifice cabin space to install drive batteries and motors, and many models have had to eliminate spare tires and third-row seats.[Note 5]..Especially if you have abandoned the spare tireRun flat tiresIf you don't have a size setting for, you're forced to use a puncture emergency repair kit (= you can't handle sidewall damage or bursts).However, in recent years, there have been many cases of disposing of unused vehicles from the time of new vehicles.SUVOther than specific models such as, the mainstream is models that have abolished the installation of spare tires.In terms of legislation, the abolition of vehicle inspection items equipped with spare tires has also boosted the movement, and there are some aspects that cannot be said to be a problem with tires.In addition, as mentioned above, the size and weight of the vehicle are becoming smaller and lighter, so it is becoming possible to convert to an HV without sacrificing space as much as possible.

    Instability of resource supply

    For motors and batteriesRare earth(Rare earth metal)cobaltMinerals whose production areas are biased (Rare metal) Is likely to rise in price, and if the world situation is in turmoil or tension, it may be difficult to secure stable resources. When political tensions between Japan and China increased in 2010, China restricted rare earth exports to Japan, but received supplies from the United States and Australia.[7].

    Increased environmental load

    Hybrid carsLow pollution vehicleIt is said thatengineIn driving withExhaust gasTo dischargeZero emission vehicleNot included inRechargeable battery-powered electric vehicleAnd conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV, gasoline vehicles andDiesel CarThe number of parts increases, which inevitably increases both the environmental load and cost of manufacturing and disposal.

    There is also the problem that the process is long even if the battery is recycled.Life cycle assessmentAs there is a concept, recycling itself cannot be done without environmental load.PV released by Toyota[Note 6]According to the recycling process, "once nationwideDemolition yardBattery fromAichi RikuunDismantle, prepare, crush, and then collectSumitomo Metal MiningRefining withPrime Earth EV EnergyAfter commercializing it in, it will be installed in the vehicle at Toyota's factory. "JapanNationwide →Aichi→Ehime→Shizuoka→ Aichi Prefecture → Nationwide, which is a larger flow than normal automobile recycling.And since the HV is also equipped with an engine, it will be necessary to recycle the internal combustion engine vehicle.However, the issue of this disposal part has already been studied by automobile manufacturers since the 90s in parallel with the pursuit of fuel efficiency.ToyotaAs of 2015, has recovered 91% of the used batteries of scrapped European vehicles, aiming to recover 100% in the future, and also making full use of rebuilding and reuse in factories and the sun. Diverted to storage batteries for optical / wind power generation, etc.[8]..In addition, the life of the battery itself is increasing, and the number of models that can run to scrap without replacing the battery is increasing.

    In any case, considering that it is worse for the environment than the internal combustion engine vehicle in terms of manufacturing and disposal, it is necessary to cancel it with fuel efficiency and low emission performance in order to establish HV as a low pollution vehicle, but that can be sufficiently achieved. Some people question whether it is.For example, it was broadcast in 2008Top gear In Series11 Episode1Toyota PriusWhen I picked up (2nd generation), the moderatorJeremy Clarkson"In the long runLand Rover DiscoverySome argue that it is worse for the environment than that. "On the other hand, in the long run, there is a difference in fuel efficiency even if the HV has the same mechanism due to technological innovation.[Note 7]There is a possibility that the reduction of the environmental load due to the spread has already exceeded the burden of disposal / replacement.The above discussion is one expectation / opinion for both affirmation and denial.None of them are backed by dataIt is necessary to pay sufficient attention to this point.

    Increased risk

    Since a gasoline hybrid vehicle is a combination of a gasoline engine and an electric motor, it is likely to cause an engine installed in a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle that invades your feet in the event of a collision, or an explosion or flame.Fossil fuelIn addition to the 12V battery, it is equipped with an HV battery that rotates an electric motor at a maximum of 600V.Especially installed in large machinesCapacitor(Capacitor) May lead to a fatal accident if you get an electric shock, so the manufacturer may publish a dedicated manual for rescue.[Note 8].

    Increased risk to pedestrians due to calm

    Since hybrid vehicles have low noise when running on an electric motor, pedestrians, especially sound, are used to judge approaching mainly at low speeds.Visually impairedHas been pointed out that there is an unavoidable danger due to delays in car recognition.[9]..In addition, snatching that abuses quietness has even occurred.Hybrid vehicle manufacturers and the government are making mandatory devices that artificially generate sound while driving, including electric vehicles.[Note 9], New models cannot be canceled from March 2018, 3, and continuous production vehicles from October 8, 2020.Vehicle approach notification deviceIs obligatory to wear[10]Therefore, the danger to pedestrians due to calmness is being addressed.

    High cost

    When comparing both gasoline and hybrid vehicles of the same model lineup, there is a gap in vehicle prices.When the technology was immature, the price difference sometimes doubled.[Note 10]..Even now, strong hybrids tend to make a difference of hundreds of thousands of yen, but mild hybrids can be purchased for less than 10 yen, which varies greatly depending on the manufacturer, mechanism, and model.

    Also, as mentioned in "Increased Environmental Load" above, hybrid vehicles incur costs that gasoline vehicles do not have, such as battery replacement costs (for driving).[12]Due to the nature of having both internal combustion engine and EV mechanisms, the cost of disposal is heavy.

    Adopt a general strong hybrid,C segmentsedan OfToyota CorollaTaking (E21 # type) as an example, when considering collecting the difference at the time of purchase only by the difference in fuel cost, the calculation of cost and period is shown in the table below.Each value in the table is2020At the time of May Manufacturer's published value Is based on.Costs related to various inspections and maintenanceEco-car tax reduction,OtherTax reduction-duty free・ We have not considered the discount system, but if we include them, the difference may be narrowed.

    gradeVehicle priceBody differenceFuel economy (WLTC overall)Gasoline unit priceAnnual mileageAnnual fuel costAnnual differenceNumber of years required to collect the difference
    hybrid
    (ZWE211)
    W × B (2WD)2,750,000 yen434,500 yen25.6km / l140 yen10,000km54,687 yen41,203 yen10.5
    gasoline
    (ZRE212)
    W × B (1.8L / CVT)2,315,500 yen-14.6km / l95,890 yen--
    Estimated with a gasoline unit price of 140 yen / L and an annual mileage of 10,000 km

    The comparison is just an example. The better the fuel efficiency of a gasoline car like a compact car, the more time and distance will be required to collect the difference. Conversely, the worse the fuel efficiency of a gasoline car like a large car, the more time and distance. The distance becomes shorter.

    History

    Internal combustion engineとElectric motor"Engine + electric hybrid vehicle" equipped with these two types of power sources has a long history, and in the early automobile era, engine technology was immature and it was difficult to manufacture high-power engines, so the lack of engine output is assisted by a motor. Hybrid cars were considered and were used in some[13].

    1896
    Ferdinand PorscheAnnounced in 1896. (Lohner Porsche)
    Early 1900s
    1900からAustria OfVienna"Mixtape car" manufactured by Rohner[Note 11]Was a series of hybrid vehicles that used an electric motor to drive the wheels and generated electricity from the engine.In addition, the drive motor was integrated with the hub to form a "wheel-in-motor."At that timePorscheIs interested in pure electric carsLohner PorscheI'm sorry to move to a hybrid car, but I am making it according to the instructions from the company[Note 12].
    The front part was driven by two motors.A four-wheel drive was also produced.The first four-wheel drive was a hybrid car.Porsche's hybrid car was reliable, but the vehicle price was high, so it did not compete with ordinary cars for sale.PorscheWorld War IThen, a hybrid of gasoline and electricity was made and evaluated with a 100-horsepower curved gun tow train.
    1905
    H Piper patented a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle with the idea of ​​using a motor to assist the engine. It took 40 seconds to accelerate to 30km / h, but now it takes 10 seconds.However, with the improvement of engine performance,This technologyIs no longer needed.
    1915
    In the United States, the company that mainly made electric vehicles (Woods Motor Vehicle: 1899-1916) used a 4-cylinder engine and a motor at (Dual Power) and a motor at 15mph (25km / h) or less. With the above, the engine was able to reach 35mph (55km / h). About 1918 units were sold until 600[14].
    1921
    In the United States (Owen Magnetic) 60-inch touring, the engine drove the generator and ran on a motor mounted on each of the rear wheels.[15][16].
    Hybrid carsElectric carThe short cruising range ofSteam carDifficulty in handling, effective output can not be taken out unless it is a constant rotation speedInternal combustion engineIt was created to overcome the shortcomings of the hybrid car, but the engine technology has made remarkable progress and the hybrid car has declined.[17].
    It is called an air engine.Air engineThere was also a hybrid car that used.
    1936
    Czechoslovak State RailwayFastLimited express trainFor the countryTatraCompany (Tatra) is a streamlined type that can run in multiple modesRailcarM290 type "Slovenská StrellaDeveloped (Slovenská strela). Equipped with two 170ps diesel engines, it is equipped with a power switching mechanism that generates electricity in the low speed range and runs on an electric motor, and drives the wheels directly with engine power in the high speed range of 2km / h or higher, reaching 85km / h in the speed test. Only two cars were manufactured and operated until 148, but the structure was too complicated compared to general diesel railcars, and no follow-up example appeared.
    1952
    London smogOccurrence,PollutionIt causes more than 1 casualties, the highest number in history.In modern timesEnvironmental movementWill be an opportunity.
    1959
    For speed controltransistorModern withElectric carAsHenney Kilowatt(Henney Kilowatt) was developed and put on the market, and this electronic control technology will be utilized in later hybrid vehicles.Henney Kilowatt ...RenaultIt was a joint development of.Although sales were sluggish at all, this achievement is considered a step in the history of electric driving technology.
    the 1960s
    ToyotaResearched from 1964 in the effort on the theme of "new engine and energy problem", and started the actual vehicle development in 1969.1971Was released as a prototype unit for buses.1969Introduced GM512 by General Motors[15][16].
    Early 1970s
    cityPart ofAir pollutionIs seriousHealthIt becomes a problem.Exhaust gas regulationsWas asked, but it didn't progress slowly.
    作家Herman WalkBrother (Victor Wouk)Henney KilowattAlthough he was involved in the development of, his activities from the 1960s to the 1970s are described as a hybrid godfather in the United States.Walk installed an electric hybrid drive prototype in 1972[18]..It participated in the United States Federal Government's 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program.General MotorsWas the one that went.The program was terminated by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 1976.
    1973
    Fourth Middle East WarWith the outbreakPrimary oil shockOccurrence.OPECIn addition to the increase in crude oil prices due to the above, fuel shortage due to embargo caused panic.As a result, automobile sales will fall sharply and automobile companies will be hit hard.Automobile companies are trying to survive and face the business crisis, and as one of these efforts, research and development of hybrid vehicles has begun.However, the stable supply of oil and the progress of exhaust gas measures improved the business condition, and after 1985, the research on hybrid vehicles was reduced.[17].
    1973
    Volkswagen TaxiManufacture a hybrid vehicle for use.The chief electrical engineer (David Arthurs)Opel GTIt was developed around 1978 with the existing parts.Regenerative brake With (The regenerative-braking hybrid), the voltage control part of the battery and motor (using the starter of the jet engine)DC generatorWas made by Arthurs. Recorded a fuel consumption of 75mpg. The 1980 version was 84mpg on Mother Earth News[15][16].
    Late 1970s
    Toyo KogyoBut,TitanDeveloped a diesel hybrid vehicle based on. It is said that 15 units were delivered to the newspaper company.[19]
    1975
    Toyota MotorGas turbine engineTheCenturyInstalled in1975The 21thTokyo Motor ShowIt was exhibited as a reference exhibit as "Toyota Century Gas Turbine Hybrid".It is a series system in which a turbine turns a generator to convert it into electrical energy, stores it in a battery, and drives a DC motor with electricity from the battery.Since the gas turbine is dedicated to power generation, it does not require advanced rotation control and is a simple single shaft type.The motors are on the left and right front axles and drive the front wheelsFront wheel drivemethod.At a maximum speed of 160km / h, up to 120km / h without the burden of the batterycruiseCan.For aircraft as fuelKerosene(AlmostkeroseneAnd the same ingredients) were used. (that's all[20])
    1977
    This is a project that Toyota Motor was working on in parallel with the above Century.Sport 800We made a hybrid vehicle equipped with a gas turbine engine, a generator, and a motor.1977Exhibited at the 22nd Tokyo Motor Show.
    1979
    Iran revolutionOccurrence.Stagnation of oil production in IranOPECWith the increase in crude oil pricesSecond oil shockOccurrence.
    Daihatsu industryBut,CharmantWith two motors based onMAX QuoreForAB10 type"Charman Hybrid" that combines a 2-cylinder 550cc engine1979Exhibited at the 23rd Tokyo Motor Show.It is a so-called parallel hybrid that uses an engine as a power source under certain conditions, and uses an 8-bit computer for system control.Eight 100Ah capacity lead-acid batteries are installed in the trunk.The maximum speed is 8km / h.
    1981
    Asahi Kasei OfYoshino AkiraBut,Hideki ShirakawaDiscovered byConductive plasticIsPolyacetyleneUsedLithium ion secondary batteryInvented
    1982
    Sumitomo Special Metals OfMasato SagawaByNeodymium magnetWas invented.Permanent magnet type synchronous motors using neodymium magnets will become the mainstream of motors for hybrid and electric vehicles, such as Prius generators and power motors, Insight power motors, and i-Miev power motors.
    1982
    Mercedes-Benz 1982From hybridPrototype vehicleHowever, none of them were produced in earnest.
    1988
    VolkswagenAlso produced a number of hybrid prototype vehicles.1988ToZurich20 parallel hybrid vehicles rented out to the general public for 3 yearsmonitorAn experiment was conducted.
    1989
    マ ツ ダ The1989RE13X Super Response Rotary / Motor Hybrid System at the Tokyo Motor Show[21]We exhibited the concept engine. RE13X is 13BRotary engineA motor / generator called ATCS (Active Torque Control System) was attached to the output side of the eccentric shaft.With a normal engineFlywheelIs the position where is attached. The purpose of ATCS is to cancel the torque fluctuation of the engine at low speed with the reverse torque phase of the electric motor.Even with a normal two-rotor rotary engine, the torque fluctuation is smaller than with a reciprocating engine with four cylinders or less, but Mazda engineers thought that it should still be smoother.No flywheel required and the engine itself is allAluminum alloyBecause it was made, it is lowMoment of inertiaIt was possible to realize the conversion and the response was excellent. The ATCS motor also functions as a regenerative brake, generating electricity when braking and charging the battery.In order to reduce the load on the engine, all the accessories of RE13X were electric. It is announced that the maximum output of RE13X is 220bhp and the maximum torque is 196N ・ m.
    1989
    Audi3rd generation 100Avant (Station Wagon) Based on, 100kW 2.3L Straight 5 The gasoline engine drives the front wheels and generates electricity, 9.3kW.SiemensThe same year, the Audi 100 Avant Duo, a parallel hybrid system that drives the rear wheels and regenerative power generation with an electric motor, was prototyped.IAAIt was exhibited in.This systemSuburbThen with a gasoline engineCity areaSo, the purpose is to run on an electric motor, and switching between engine and motor runningdriverIt can be done arbitrarily.54 on the floor of the luggage compartmentcell OfNickel-cadmium storage batteryIs installed to supply power to the motor and recover power during regenerative braking. 10 units have been prototyped.
    1991
    Audi again 100 Avant Quattro (Four-wheel drive) But at this time, a 2.0L 85kW engine and 21kWCage three-phase induction motorIt was a combination of motors.
    1992
    Paris SalonでVolvoIs a gas turbine-electric hybridECC(Environmental Concept Car) was announced.Next time1993It was also exhibited at the Tokyo Motor Show, and after that, a test drive event for media was held.[Note 13].
    1993
    9/29 Clinton administration in the United States in Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV)Chrysler,Ford,General Motors, USCAR (US Automobile Research Council) en: USCAR), Etc. were asked to develop the next generation of economical and clean automobiles.This was to prove that it could be put into production quickly as the second goal (Goal 2), and the third goal (Goal 3) was to be able to move to a pre-production prototype in 2004.The program was replaced by the Freedom CAR Initiative, which focused on hydrogen fuel under the Bush administration in 2001.
    1994
    Audi will market the Audi 80 duo.Passenger carIt became the first hybrid commercial vehicle.However, it was so expensive that it did not sell well.
    1995
    At the 31st Tokyo Motor ShowPriusIs exhibited for reference.
    1997
    Audi a4 At duo, 66kWTDICombining a diesel engine and a 21kW motor, 90 units were produced.The selling price is 6マ ル クwas.From the results so far, Audi has come to the conclusion that there is no market for hybrid vehicles and has turned to diesel technology.
    August-Toyota MotorMicrobus OfcoasterCommercially available "Hybrid EV" equipped with a series hybrid.This was devised for the purpose of extending the mileage per charge of an electric vehicle, and since it constantly generates electricity and charges while driving, it largely eliminates the disadvantages of a pure electric vehicle.However, the price was very expensive, about twice that of a diesel car (about 2 million yen).The engine is a 1,500L gasoline engine of the same type as the original Prius.
    June 10-Toyota Motor Corp.PriusAnnounced.Born as the world's first "mass-produced hybrid vehicle". (Released on December 12th)
    1998
    PanosQ9 hybrid24 Hours of Le MansAlthough he participated in the preliminary qualifying, he failed.
    1999
    August 9- Honda Motor Co., Ltd.But"InsightAnnounced[22]..Newly developed 1.0LInline 3 cylinderEngine +Honda IMA systemHonda's first hybrid vehicle equipped with. (Released on November 11st)
    2000
    August 3- Nissan Motor Tino Announced the hybrid car "Tino Hybrid" based on[23]..Equipped with the newly developed hybrid system "NEO HYBRID" (1.8L + motor).The number of units sold is 100, from April 4 of the same year.インターネット I accepted the purchase reservation at.
    10 month - Mitsubishi Fuso Truck/Bus Aero Star Non-Step HEVExhibited at the Tokyo Motor Show.
    2001
    ブ ッ シ ュThe administration launches the Freedom CAR initiative focusing on hydrogen fuel.
    June 6-Toyota Motor Corp.Estima hybridIs released[24]..Equipped with a hybrid system "THS-C" with a straight-four 4L engine and front and rear motors.The drive system uses the world's first electric 2.4WD system "E-Four".
    August 8-Toyota Motor, 23th generation "Crown "Royal" seriesAdded a mild hybrid vehicle to[25]..Equipped with a mild hybrid system (THS-M: TOYOTA Hybrid System-Mild) with a direct 6 3.0L engine and a motor.
    9 month - Hino Motors Blue ribbonCity HIMROne step busReleased.
    May 12-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Civic hybridAnnounced[26]..Newly developed 1.3L engine + newHonda IMA systemEquipped with. Released on December 12th.
    2002
    6 month - Nissan diesel Electric double layer capacitor(Supercapacitor) was usedコ ン ド ル Announced Capacitor Hybrid.
    October 10-Toyota Motor, "Crown sedanAdded a mild hybrid vehicle to[27]..Equipped with a mild hybrid system (THS-M: TOYOTA Hybrid System-Mild) with a direct 6 2.0L engine and a motor.
    August 10- Daihatsu industry Hijet CargoDeveloped a hybrid car[28].Light carThe first practical hybrid vehicle.In November of the same year, local governments started using monitors.
    2003
    April 1- Japanese sea bassBut"TwinReleased[29]..The first commercially available mini vehicle equipped with a hybrid system is available.
    June 7-Toyota Motor Corp.AlphardLaunched "Hybrid"[30]..All cars are equipped with 2.4L hybrid.
    September 9-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "PriusIs released[31].. All models are equipped with a 1.5L engine and the newly developed hybrid system "THS-II".
    November-Hino Motors DutroHybrid release.
    2004
    2 month - Mitsubishi Fuso Truck/Bus Aero non-step HEVReleased.
    December-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. North AmericaForAccord hybridReleased.
    12 month - FAWIs jointly developed with Mitsubishi MotorsRed flag"Hybrid car" announced.
    2005
    June 3-Toyota Motor Corp.Harrier hybrid"and"KrugerLaunched "Hybrid"[32]..All cars are equipped with V6 3.3L hybrid.
    6 month - Changan AutomobileAnnounced the introduction of a hybrid vehicle.
    August 8- Daihatsu industryBut"Hijet Cargo HybridAnnounced[33]..The first commercial hybrid vehicle for a light commercial vehicle. Equipped with a 1-motor "Daihatsu Hijet Hybrid System". (Released on September 9)
    September 9-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "Civic hybridAnnounced[34]..Newly developed 1.3L 3 stageVTECEngine +IMAEquipped with. (Released on November 11)
    September-with VolkswagenSAIC Motor TouranAnnounced that it will produce hybrid vehicles at.
    11 month - Shanghai Huawei MotorAnnounced that it will produce hybrid vehicles.
    November-Toyota Motor officially introduces hybrid vehicles in China.The company is Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (China FAW Group Ltd.Vehicle production withJoint Venture)ChangchunThe Prius has been produced at the factory since the end of 2005.
    2006
    August 3- LexusBut"GSReleased the hybrid model "GS450h"[35]..Lexus's first hybrid vehicle in Japan.Equipped with a newly developed V6 3.5L hybrid.
    September 6-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Estima hybridIs released[36]..All cars are equipped with 2.4L hybrid.
    October-Nissan Motors Installed Toyota Motor Hybrid System in USAltima HybridTheOrange CountyExhibited at the auto show and announced that it will be launched in 2007.
    2007
    2 month - Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityとPLATroops Beijing Feng-DaimlerChryslerBeijing Weekly Report reports that it has jointly developed a hybrid car that is a modified version of (currently Beijing Benz)[37].
    March-Toyota Motor Corp. has sold 3 Prius vehicles worldwide at the Geneva show, of which 65 are sold in Europe.Announced that the cumulative sales volume of all Toyota hybrid models is 5.
    May 5-Lexus says "LSReleased the hybrid model "LS600h" / "LS600hL"[38]..Equipped with a newly developed V8 5.0L hybrid.
    5 month - America-New York CityIs 13,000 cars running in the cityTaxi (yellow cab)Announced a plan to replace all of the above with hybrid vehicles by 2012.
    June-Toyota Motor Corporation announced that worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles have exceeded 6 million units.
    July-Toyota Motor Corp.Tokachi 24-hour raceA hybrid car designed exclusively for racingSupra HV-RParticipate in and win the championship.Water coolingCapacitorEquipped with.
    July-Remodeled Toyota PriusPlug-in hybrid carReceived ministerial approval from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and started public road testing.
    2008
    September 2-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "ク ラ ウ ンAnnounced[39].. Newly set "Crown Hybrid" equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid (released on May 5).
    6 month - Sumitomo Electric Industries world's firstBecomeSuperconductivityPrototype a hybrid vehicle with a motor.
    12 month - Hiadi Motor world's firstMass production typePlug-in hybrid carIsBYD F3DMReleased for government agencies. Approximately 1 units are sold in one year.
    2009
    May 1-Lexus says "RXIs released[40].. "RX6h" equipped with V3.5 450L hybrid is set.Released in April of the same year.
    September 2-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "InsightAnnounced[41]..All models are equipped with a newly developed 1.3L engine + IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) hybrid system. (Released on February 2)
    September 5-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "PriusIs released[42].. All models are equipped with a 1.8L hybrid.
    May 7-Lexus says "HSIs released[43].. Only the "HS2.4h" equipped with a 250L hybrid is available.
    June 10-Toyota Motor Corp.SAIIs released[44].. All models are equipped with a 2.4L hybrid. (Released on December 12th)
    2010
    May 2-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.CR-ZAnnounced[45]..The world's first 6-speed MT is set as a hybrid car. (Released on February 2)
    May 10-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.fitHybrid car "Fit hybridIs released[46].. 1.3L engine +IMAEquipped with.
    March 10-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.Fuga hybridAnnounced[47].. Equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid. (Released on November 11nd)
    2011
    May 1-Lexus says "CTIs released[48].. Only the "CT1.8h" equipped with a 200L hybrid is available.
    June 5-Toyota Motor Corp.Prius αIs released[49]..All cars are equipped with 1.8L hybrid.
    May 6-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Fit shuttleIs released[50].. 1.3L engine +IMAA hybrid vehicle equipped with is set.
    September 9-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "CamryIs released[51]..All cars are equipped with 2.5L hybrid.
    September 9-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Alphard"and"VellfireAdd a hybrid car to[52].. Equipped with 2.4L hybrid. (Released on November 11st)
    September 10-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "InsightAdded "Insight Exclusive" with 1.5L engine[53]..It was the first model of the same model equipped with multiple electrified powertrains. (Released on November 11th)
    May 10-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Fried"and"Fried SpikeAdd a hybrid car to[54].. Equipped with 1.5L engine + IMA. (Released on October 10)
    June 11-Toyota Motor Corp.Prius PHVIs released[55].. Based on the 1.8L hybrid system, it is equipped with a plug-in hybrid that uses a new lithium-ion battery. (Released on January 2012, 1)
    June 12-Toyota Motor Corp.AquaIs released[56]..All cars are equipped with 1.5L hybrid.
    2012
    January 1-Lexus is the 26th generation "GSIs released[57].. "GS6h" equipped with V3.5 450L hybrid is set. (Released on March 3)
    April 4-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. is the 25th generation "CimaAnnounced[58]..All cars are equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid. (Released on May 5)
    August 5- Daihatsu industryIs the 4th generation "ArtisIs released[59]..This model is sold by receiving OEM supply of the 9th generation "Camry" from Toyota Motor Corporation.All cars are equipped with a 2.5L hybrid.
    May 5-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Fit hybridAdded "Hybrid RS" to[60]..Equipped with an engine + IMA with a displacement of 1.5L.
    August 7- Mitsubishi MotorsIs the 2th generation "DignityAnnounced[61]..This model is sold by receiving OEM supply of the 5th generation "Cima" from Nissan Motor. Equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid. (Released on July 7)
    April 8-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. is the 1th generation "セ レ ナAdded "S-HYBRID" car to ""[62].. Equipped with "S-HYBRID (smart simple hybrid)" with 2.0L engine + motor.
    August 8-Suzuki is the second generation "RandyAdded "Smart Simple Hybrid (S-HYBRID)"[63]..This model is sold by receiving OEM supply of the 4th generation "Serena" from Nissan Motor.
    May 9-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.CR-ZMinor model change[64]..It is the first Honda hybrid vehicle in Japan to be equipped with a lithium-ion battery.The maximum output has been improved by improving both the motor and engine (released on September 9).
    September 12-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "ク ラ ウ ンAnnounced[65]..A straight-four 4L hybrid is available (production started in late January 2.5).
    August 12- Mitsubishi MotorsIs based on the "Outlander" and is equipped with a plug-in hybrid EV system.Outlander PHEVAnnounced[66]..All models are equipped with a "twin motor 4WD" equipped with front and rear motors and a "plug-in hybrid EV system" consisting of a 2.0L engine. (Released on January 2013, 1)
    2013
    April 4-Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd.MobiusIs released[67]..A model that receives OEM supply of "Prius α" from Toyota Motor Corporation and sells it.All models are equipped with a 1.8L hybrid.
    January 5-Lexus is the 16th generation "ISIs released[68].. "IS2.5h" equipped with a 300L hybrid is set.
    June 6-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the 20th generation Accord "Accord hybrid, "Accord Plug-in Hybrid" released[69]..Equipped with the newly developed "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD". It is a combination of a 2.0L engine, an electric CVT with two built-in motors, and a lithium-ion battery. The "Accord Plug-in Hybrid" is sold by leasing mainly to corporations and government offices. (Both released on June 2st)
    June 6-Fuji Heavy Industries (currentlySUBARU)ButSubaru XV HybridReleased[70]..The company's first hybrid model. Equipped with 2.0L horizontally opposed engine + motor.
    September 8-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Corolla AxioAnd the third generation "Corolla FielderAdd a hybrid car to[71].. Equipped with a 1.5L hybrid.
    September 9-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "Fit hybridIs released[72]..The hybrid vehicle is equipped with the newly developed "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD". It is a combination of a 1.5-speed DCT with a built-in motor in a 1L engine and a lithium-ion battery. (Released on September 7)
    September 9-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Crown MajestaIs released[73].. All models are equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid.
    October 10-Mazda is the third generation "Mazda AxelaAnnounced[74].. "Axela Hybrid" based on "Axela Sedan" is available.It is equipped with a 2.0L hybrid that was developed with technology licensed from Toyota Motor Corporation. (Released on November 11st)
    May 10-Lexus says "GSAdded "GS300h" to[75].. Equipped with 2.5L hybrid. The "GS" hybrid vehicle has a two-series configuration with the "GS540h."
    April 11-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. is the 11th generation "ス カ イ ラ イ ンAnnounced[76]..All cars are equipped with V6 3.5L hybrid[Note 14].. (Released at the end of February 2014)
    September 11-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "HarrierAnnounced[77].. A 2.5L hybrid vehicle is available (released on January 2014, 1).
    May 12-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Accord plug-in hybridStarted leasing sales for individuals[78].. (Released on October 12nd)
    May 12-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.VezelIs released[79].. A vehicle equipped with 1.5L "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD" is available.The engine isDirect injectionThe output is improved compared to the "Fit". (Released on December 12th)
    2014
    September 1-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Voxy"and"NoahIs released[80].. A 1.8L hybrid vehicle is available. (Released on February 2)
    June 7-Toyota Motor Corp.Crown "Royal" series, "Crown" Athlete "series" hybrid vehicles and "Crown Majesta4WD car added to[81]..A 4WD vehicle is added to the straight-four 2.5L hybrid. The "Crown Majesta" is the setting following the V4 2L hybrid installed in 6WD vehicles.
    May 7-Lexus says "NXIs released[82].. "NX2.5h" equipped with 300L hybrid is set.
    August 8-Suzuki is the second generation "Wagon RAnd the third generation "Wagon R StingrayEquipped with "S-ENECHARGE"[83]..A newly developed "S-ENECHARGE" equipped vehicle is available.
    August 8-Mazda says "FlareEquipped with "S-ENECHARGE"[84]..5th generation from SuzukiWagon RAnd the third generationWagon R StingrayVehicles that are supplied and sold by OEM.
    May 10-Lexus says "RCIs released[85].. "RC2.5h" equipped with 300L hybrid is set.
    June 10-Toyota Motor Corp.EsquireIs released[86].. A 1.8L hybrid vehicle is available.
    September 11-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "legendAnnounced[87]..Equipped with a newly developed V6 3.5L engine and a 3-motor hybrid system "SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD". (Released on February 2015, 2)
    May 12-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.GraceIs released[88].. All models are equipped with 1.5L "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD"[Note 15].
    2015
    September 1-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "AlphardAnd the third generation "VellfireIs released[89].. A 2.5L hybrid vehicle is available.
    May 2-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.JadeAnnounced[90]..All models are equipped with a direct-injection 1.5L engine + "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD"[Note 16].
    March 4-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.X-TrailAdd a hybrid car to[91].. It is equipped with a 2.0L engine combined with a hybrid system "Intelligent Dual Clutch Control" that drives and generates electricity with a single motor. Equipped with 1L hybrid. (Released on May 2.0)
    May 5-Suzuki says "HustlerAdded vehicles equipped with "S-ENECHARGE"[92]..Equipped with "S-ENECHARGE" that assists the engine with a motor.
    August 5-Mazda says "Flare crossoverEquipped with "S-ENECHARGE"[93]..5th generation from SuzukiHustlerVehicles that are supplied and sold by OEM."S-ENECHARGE" is adopted for the model equipped with a non-turbo engine.
    May 5-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.shuttleIs released[94].. A vehicle equipped with 1.5L "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD" is available.
    May 5-Suzuki says "SpaciaAnd "Spacia Custom" equipped with "S-ENECHARGE"[95].. "S-ENECHARGE" is installed in all models including NA and turbo.
    June 6-Fuji Heavy Industries (currently SUBARU) says "Impreza SPORTAnnounced the hybrid model "Impreza SPORT HYBRID" based on[96].. Equipped with 2.0L horizontally opposed engine + motor. (Released on July 7)
    September 7-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "SientaIs released[97].. A 1.5L hybrid vehicle is available.
    August 8-Suzuki is the second generation "SolioAnd the second generation "Solio BanditIs released[98].. A mild hybrid vehicle with a 1.2L engine and motor is available.
    January 10-Lexus is the 23th generation "RXIs released[99].. "RX6h" equipped with V3.5 450L hybrid is set.
    September 12-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "PriusIs released[100].. Equipped with a 1.8L hybrid.
    December 12-Mitsubishi Motors second generation "Delica D: 2 / Delica D: 2 CustomIs released[101]..3rd generation from Suzuki "SolioAnd the second generation Solio BanditVehicles that are supplied and sold by OEM. All models are equipped with a 1.2L mild hybrid.
    August 12-Mazda says "Flare crossover"S-ene charge" is installed in the turbo car of ""[93]..5th generation from SuzukiHustlerVehicles that are supplied and sold by OEM.In addition to vehicles equipped with a non-turbo engine, "S-ENECHARGE" is also used for vehicles equipped with a turbo engine.
    2016
    May 1-Suzuki says "IgnisAnnounced[102].. All models are equipped with a 1.2L mild hybrid. (Released on February 2)
    May 2-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.OdysseyAdd a hybrid car to[103].. Equipped with 2.0L "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD". Compared to the "Accord", the performance has been improved by improving the engine and installing a newly developed motor. (Released on February 2)
    September 4-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "AurisAdd a hybrid car to[104].. Equipped with a 1.8L hybrid.
    May 5-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Accord hybridWas greatly improved and the name was changed to "Accord".[105]..Improved output and fuel efficiency by improving the motor and engine.
    April 8-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. is the 24th generation "セ レ ナIs released[106].. A vehicle equipped with "S-HYBRID (Smart Simple Hybrid)" with a 2.0L engine and a motor is available.
    September 8-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "NSXAnnounced[107]..Equipped with a newly developed V6 3.5L twin turbo engine and a 3-motor hybrid system "SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD". (Released on February 2017, 2)
    September 9-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "FriedAnd the two-row seat car "Freed + (Freed Plus)" released[108].. A vehicle equipped with 1.5L "SPORT HYBRID i-DCD" is available.
    March 11-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.NoteAdded new electric powertrain "e-POWER"[109]..A series hybrid system is used in which the motor is driven by the electricity generated by the engine.It consists of a drive motor and an in-line 3-cylinder 1.2L engine dedicated to power generation.
    May 11-Suzuki says "Solio"and" Solio BanditAdd a hybrid car to[110].. A hybrid vehicle with a 1.2L engine and a motor is available.Sold together with the mild hybrid vehicle already on sale.
    August 12-Suzuki is the second generation "RandyIs released[111]..This model is sold by receiving OEM supply of the 5th generation "Serena" from Nissan Motor. A 2.0L smart simple hybrid (S-HYBRID) -equipped vehicle is available. (Released on December 12th)
    June 12-Toyota Motor Corp.C-HIs released[112].. A 1.8L hybrid vehicle is available.
    August 12-Suzuki is the second generation "SwiftAnnounced[113].. A 1.2L mild hybrid vehicle is available. (Released on January 2017, 1)
    2017
    September 1-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "VitzAdded 1.5L hybrid vehicle to[Note 17][114][115].
    January 1-Mitsubishi Motors "Delica D: 2 / Delica D: 2 CustomAdd a hybrid to[116]..3rd generation from Suzuki "SolioAnd the second generation Solio BanditVehicles that are supplied and sold by OEM.Sold together with the mild hybrid that has been sold in the past.
    August 2-Suzuki is the second generation "Wagon RAnd the third generation "Wagon R StingrayIs released[117]..A mild hybrid vehicle is available.
    September 2-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Prius PHVIs released[118].. All models are equipped with a 1.8L plug-in hybrid system.
    October 2-Mazda is the third generation "FlareAnnounced[119]..6th generation from SuzukiWagon RVehicles that are supplied and sold on an OEM basis.All vehicles are equipped with mild hybrids. (Released on March 3)
    May 3-Lexus says "LCIs released[120]..The "LC6h" equipped with the newly developed V3.5 500L multi-stage hybrid is available.
    September 7-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "CamryIs released[121]..All models are equipped with the newly developed 2.5L hybrid.
    July 7-Daihatsu is the 10th generation "ArtisIs released[122]..This model is sold by receiving OEM supply of the 10th generation "Camry" from Toyota Motor Corporation.All models are equipped with a newly developed 2.5L hybrid.
    May 7-Suzuki says "SwiftAdd a hybrid car to[123].. A 1.2L hybrid vehicle is available.Sold together with the mild hybrid vehicle already on sale.
    May 9-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Step wagonAdd a hybrid car to[124].. A 2.0L "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD" equipped vehicle is set for "SPAP A". (Released on September 9)
    January 10-Lexus is the 19th generation "LSIs released[125].. "LS6h" equipped with V3.5 500L multi-stage hybrid is set.
    June 10-Toyota Motor Corp.JPN TAXI (Japan Taxi)Is released[126].. All models are equipped with a 1.5L hybrid.
    August 12-Suzuki is the second generation "Spacia"and"Spacia CustomIs released[127]..All models are equipped with a mild hybrid.
    October 12-Mazda is the third generation "Flair wagonAnnounced[128]..2rd generation from Suzuki "Spacia"and"Spacia CustomVehicles that are supplied and sold on an OEM basis. Mild hybrids are used in all vehicles, including NA / turbo. (Released on February 2018, 2)
    May 12-Suzuki says "CrosbyIs released[129]..All models are equipped with a mild hybrid with a straight-three 3L turbo + motor.
    2018
    March 2-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.セ レ ナAdded electric power train "e-POWER" to[130]..A series hybrid system is used in which the motor is driven by the electricity generated by the engine.It consists of a drive motor and an in-line 3-cylinder 1.2L engine dedicated to power generation. (Released on March 3st)
    June 6-SUBARU is the 20th generation "ForesterAnnounced[131]..A vehicle equipped with the mild hybrid system "e-BOXER" "Advance" is available. (Released on September 9th)
    September 6-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "CenturyIs released[132].. Equipped with V8 5.0L hybrid.
    June 6-Toyota Motor Corp.Corolla sportsIs released[133].. A 1.8L hybrid vehicle is available.
    September 6-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "ク ラ ウ ンIs released[134]..Straight-four 4L hybrid and V2.5 6L multi-stage hybrid are available.
    July 7-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the world's first hybrid motorcycle "PCX HYBRIDAnnounced[135].. (Released on October 9nd)
    May 7-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.Clarity PHEVAnnounced[136].. A plug-in hybrid system vehicle that combines a 1.5L engine and the "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD" for the first time. (Released on July 7)
    January 8-Mitsubishi Motors "Outlander PHEVReleased with a significant improvement[137]..Improvements such as increased drive battery capacity, improved rear motor output / generator output, and increased engine displacement (2.0L → 2.4L) have been implemented.
    May 8-Honda Motor Co., Ltd.CR-VAnnounced[138].. 2.0L "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD" equipped vehicle is available.The powertrain's first 4WD is also available. (Released on November 11st)
    March 9-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.NoteAdded "e-POWER NISMO S" to[139].. Specifications that enhance the output of both the motor and engine by tuning by NISMO.
    June 10-SUBARU is the 11th generation "Subaru XVAdded "Advance" equipped with "e-BOXER" to ""[140].. (Released on October 10th. Only the black interior of "Advance" will be released on November 19nd)
    May 10-Lexus says "ESIs released[141].. Only the "ES2.5h" equipped with a 300L hybrid is available.
    June 11-Toyota Motor Corp.Professional box"and"SucceedAdd a hybrid car to[142].. Equipped with a 1.5L hybrid. 4 number registrationLight vanThe first hybrid car as.
    May 11-Lexus says "UXIs released[143]..The "UX2.0h" equipped with the newly developed 250L hybrid is available.
    September 12-Honda Motor Co., Ltd. is the second generation "InsightAnnounced[144].. All models are equipped with 1.5L "SPORT HYBRID i-MMD". (Released on December 12th)
    May 12-Suzuki says "Spacia GearIs released[145]..All models are equipped with a mild hybrid.
    2019
    April 3-Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. is the 28th generation "The daysIs released[146].. The second generation is a joint venture between Nissan Motor and Mitsubishi MotorsNMKVPlanned and developed by Nissan under the management of.The powertrain is newly developed, and the "Highway Star" system uses a "smart simple hybrid" that combines a motor and a lithium-ion battery for all NA / turbo vehicles.
    January 3-Mitsubishi Motors "eK crossIs released[147]..A sister car of Nissan "Days". "HYBRID" system is adopted for all NA / turbo vehicles.
    September 4-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "RAV4Release[148].. A 2.5L hybrid vehicle is available.
    September 9-Toyota Motor Corp. is the second generation "Corolla (sedan)"and"Corolla touringIs released[149].. A 1.8L hybrid vehicle is available.

    Hybrid vehicle adoption status

    Passenger car

    Hybrid vehicles have been developed and recognized as environmentally friendly vehicles in Japan and North America.The reason is that the central areas of both countries are in an environment where high acceleration / deceleration capability is important, so it is easy to take advantage of hybrid vehicles that use motors with this capability.Especially in the Japanese market in May 2009Prius (3rd generation ZVW30)Was released at a low price and became a big hit due to the tailwind of eco-car tax cuts and subsidies, and then in December 2011, it was even smaller and cheaper than the Prius.Toyota aquaIs also a big hit.It greatly contributed to the spread of hybrid vehicles in Japan.

    Since the development of hybrid technology costs hundreds of billions of yen, domestic automobile manufacturers who cannot bear the development cost independently have partnered with leading manufacturers with hybrid technology one after another in the latter half of 2009.[150].

    Looking at the global trend of halving carbon dioxide emissions by 2050, it is difficult to halve carbon dioxide emissions from automobiles even if hybrid vehicles are popularized, and hybrid technology has taken the lead.Toyota,Honda Motor Co., Ltd.AgainstNissan Motor,Mitsubishi MotorsEtc.Electric carEtc.Zero emission vehicleAiming for mass production.

    Produced in Brazil and the United Statessugar cane,穀物,fruitMade fromBio ethanolCan be used as fuelFlex fuel vehicleThere are more than 1000 million units.At 15 degrees Celsius and above, it can run only with bioethanol, so it is suitable for warm equator to subtropical areas all year round.

    European automobile manufacturers lag behind in hybrid technology, the development funds are low, the development period is short, and it is easy to procure high-quality light oil, so fuel-efficient diesel vehicles are superior to hybrid vehicles in terms of high-speed capacity. And a combination of a supercharger and a small exhaust amountDownsizing conceptPrioritizing car development.However, the technological capabilities themselves vary greatly from manufacturer to manufacturer, and as of 2015, the only automobile brand in Japan that has a lineup of three types of hybrid vehicles: "gasoline hybrid," "diesel hybrid," and "plug-in hybrid." IsMercedes-Benz.

    Sales of hybrid vehicles increased in developed countries due to soaring global oil prices and subsidies from governments.In addition, the hybrid has a small disadvantage of weight increase.Crossover SUVBecause it is compatible with SUVs, it has played a role in the recent SUV boom in developed countries.On the other hand, in areas where the prices of hybrid cars made by Japanese manufacturers are out of the reach of the general public, on the contrary, in addition to low-priced gasoline cars and electric cars by local manufacturers, low-priced electric motorcycles are increasing, and demand is increasing depending on the area. Is different.

    bus

    Large carThen,1991ToHino Motors routebusFor usediesel engineAnd a parallel hybrid system with an electric motorHIMR(Hybrid Inverter-controlled Motor & Retarder System = HMR) was prototyped,Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of TransportationThe test operation was started.1994Obtained type approval for a large route busBlue ribbonOfficially announced as one model in the series.Hino Motors continued to improve and changed to a small displacement engine in 1Exhaust gas valueとFuel efficiencyImprove,2001ToOne stepBecoming2005ToNon-stepThe company has also succeeded in reducing the price by diverting the Prius technology from its parent company Toyota.After this model, the name of HIMR was stopped and simply "hybridI came to call it.Also,Tourism type(Hino Selega) Is also manufactured.When Blue Ribbon City changed its model to Blue Ribbon (2nd generation), the mild hybrid system was changed to the full hybrid system.other than this,PHVMelpha PHV has also been manufactured as a car.

    On the other hand, three Japanese bus makers other than Hino Motors have a simpler structure than the electric type, so they put hydraulic oil into the accumulator tank with the energy during deceleration and put it inside the tank.nitrogenCompresses the gas and when starting, etc.hydraulicWe have developed a pressure-accumulation hybrid vehicle that takes out power.

    Aya isMitsubishi Fuso OfMBECS(Embex)1993からTest runTo start1995The company's large route busAero StarBased onMBECS IIOfficially released,1998From, one-step bus compatibleNew Aero StarForMBECS IIIHas also started selling.Also,Nissan Diesel Industry (currently UD Trucks) ERIP(Ellips),Isuzu Motors TheHUNT(Chasse) is being developed.However, sales of this type were limited because the emission reduction effect was not as expected and it was not possible to meet the low flooring that was required in parallel with the route bus.2000With time, each company has withdrawn.

    Nissan Diesel is big電流Excellent in / out speedElectric double layer capacitorWe independently developed a capacitor hybrid using (supercapacitor) and provided technology to Hino Motors.

    After that, Mitsubishi Fuso prototyped a diesel-electric hybrid bus Aero Star non-step HEV.2002ToEnshu RailwayConducted a test run at2004Officially fromAero non-step HEVSold as,2007It was improved and released as Aero Star Eco Hybrid. Unlike the HIMR, the HEV is a series hybrid system that uses a diesel engine exclusively for power generation and uses an electric motor exclusively for driving.

    Isuzu Motors also at the Tokyo Motor Show 2011Erga hybridIs a reference exhibit.Like Hino Motors, it uses a parallel hybrid system, but unlike Hino at the time, it is a full hybrid, and unlike other companies, it has two seats on the unofficial side at the end crushed.This Erga hybrid2012It was officially released in August.Later, a little later than the model change to Erga (8nd generation), it was renewed to an integrated model with the Blue Ribbon Hybrid, and it became a vehicle with a full hybrid system made by Hino.In addition, Isuzu has also prototyped a series-type hybrid bus adopted by Mitsubishi Fuso in the past.

    20038/22Than,Rice-(English edition)Made microgas turbineUsedNew Zealand-Design lineGas turbine power generation series hybrid electric drive busHinomaru Automotive IndustryByTokyo StationIt operates as a free patrol bus in the surrounding area.

    Military vehicle

    Passenger transportElectric drive has been used for a long time in vehicles other thanminePlay an active part inOffload dumpEven now, the drive device for super-large machines such asDiesel electric system"Continued to be used.This still receives extremely large outputclutchIs a fluid clutchTorque converterThis is because there is only one, and it is advantageous for the entire structure to make an electrical connection.

    "Can transmit large horsepower"Helical gear"Mass productionToMachine Tools Second World WarUntil it was developed in the United States shortly before, the large aircraft were mostly electrically driven.France's one of the early tanks developed during World War ISaint-Chamond assault tankAlso developed by France, but manufactured after the warChar 2CSuper heavy tankIs "Gas electricIt is equipped with a drive device of the "type" and was developed by Porsche in Germany during World War II.Heavy tank,VK4501 (P)Is equipped with a gas-electric engine,Self-propelled artilleryIs a typeElephant heavy tank destroyerAnd the world's largest tank, also developed and manufactured by Porsche.Mouse (tank)However, the same drive system was adopted.

    After World War II, due to the improvement of materials and the widespread use of machine tools, the 50t classHeavy tankUntil now, it has become possible to put it into practical use with a mechanical drive system, and the electric drive system is no longer regarded as a drive device for military vehicles, but the military hybrid vehicles developed in each country recently are just electricity for large horsepower. It is planned to take advantage of hybrids, not drive vehicles.For heavy-duty military trucks, a hybrid system with regenerative braking has been developed for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency, similar to that for consumer use.

    Strv.103Uses a diesel engine as normal power and a gas turbine engine in situations where high output is required.

    Racing car

    Motor sportsEven in the world of automobiles, there are many examples of hybrid vehicles participating in the big category for reasons such as the technological appeal of automobile manufacturers.AlsoSustainable Development GoalsNowadays, due to the strength of the wind in motor sports, there are increasing cases where the management side obliges the adoption of hybrids in order to appeal the eco-friendly approach.

    Touring carIn the field, in 2005Lexus RX400h(Japan name:Toyota Harrier Hybrid), But to promote a hybrid that was less interesting than diesel at the time,LexusPrivate participation with the support of the vehicle development department of.Completed in 79th place overall[151].ThirdUnder the operation of2006ToSuper enduranceIt ’s a battleTokachi 24-hour raceToLexus GS450hParticipated.Works TeamThis is said to be the beginning of the full-scale race participation of hybrid cars by[152].. Next day2007Will be equipped with a hybrid mechanism developed for pure racing cars rather than based on mass-produced car technology.Supra HV-RParticipated in the Tokachi 24 Hours race and won the overall victory.afterwards2010Three models, Prius, Insight, and CR-Z, are allowed to participate in the Super Taikyu ST5 class.

    From 2012SUPER GT・ Prius and CR-Z participate in the GT300 class.In the same year, there was a problem that the hybrid system had to be removed in races outside Japan because the battery (lithium-ion battery), which can be said to be the cornerstone of the hybrid mechanism, was caught in Japan's export restrictions.[153]Since 2013, I have been able to participate in overseas events without solving problems and changing specifications. In 2013, the CR-Z won the championship, and in 2016, the Prius finished second in the year.Also in the GT2 class from 2014 to 2015NSXHas entered the race with a hybrid system and has achieved 3rd place overall. As of 2021, the Prius is still participating in the GT300.

    NetRacing carOlder in the world, in 1998ZytecUsing a hybrid system made byFROf the layoutPanoz Q9 GTR-1 HybridThe existence of can be confirmed.24 Hours of Le MansThen, due to the increase in the weight of the battery, the preliminary qualifying was stopped,Petit Le MansThen, he finished in 12th place overall.After a blank period, the LMP2009 1Z9S using a hybrid system made by Zytec was released in 09.ALMSParticipated in.And it started in 2012FIA World Endurance ChampionshipAt (WEC), manufacturer teams are required to be hybrid cars.AudiIs a diesel engineR18ToFlywheelIntroduced the R18 e-tron quattro equipped with a power storage system, the same year24 Hours of Le MansIt was the first victory as a hybrid car.Also in 201324 Hours of Le MansThen, the "garage 56 frame" approved as an avant-garde technical vehicle has characteristics close to PHEV.Nissan ZEOD RCParticipated in the war. As of 2018, it is the only hybrid machine in WECToyota/TS050 HYBRIDRegenerates 8MJ to generate a maximum of 500 horsepower, and when combined with the engine's 500 horsepower, it produces 1000 horsepower.This 8MJ is equivalent to the energy that pushes a 2.4t minivan up to the 20th floor of the building.[154]..This TS050 was Le Mans in 2017, and there was no chicane in Mulsanne Straight.Group CIt is hitting 3: 13, which is close to the course record of the times, 90: 3. Hybrid regulations have also been introduced in each of the LM Hypercar and LMDh regulations after 14.

    F1But,2009ToKinetic energy regeneration system(KERS) was introduced.This was used only as energy for the boost button used for straight acceleration and rising, but in 2014 it became a complete hybrid regulation that combines thermal energy regeneration and kinetic energy regeneration.However, with the conventional V8 engine, the energy that was reverberating on the circuit as a high-pitched sound is also used for power, so there were complaints that the sound was no longer powerful.In addition, downforce has been reduced from the viewpoint of safety, so when the regulations were introduced, "Super formulaIsn't it slower? Was sometimes said.Still, technological progress is remarkable, and in 2017 we switched to a policy of increasing downforce.Suzuka CircuitThen.Michael SchumacherRecorded in 2006 at 1: 28Lewis HamiltonDefeated at 1: 1, which is more than one and a half seconds higher[155].

    Dakar Rally,World Rally Raid ChampionshipThen, in 2022, Audi started to participate in the series hybrid 4WD machine.In the truck sector in 2021RenaultSince 2022Hino MotorsIs bringing in a truck with a racing hybrid.

    Hybrids are shunned by privateers and independent constructors because of their high cost, but they are very attractive to mass-produced car makers who want to promote eco-technology.Depending on the category, it may not appeal to each company's eco-technology, but it is common to all cars in order to keep costs down while ensuring the image of "using a hybrid" (One-make) Hybrid system may be adopted. WRC (World Rally Championship)ofRally 1Regulations, IMSA / WECLMDhRegulations, after 2022BTCCSince 2024IndyCarAnd so on.However, the combination of this common hybrid system and the in-house powertrain has become a sufficient technical challenge, which in turn is one of the highlights.

    Nowadays, the top categories are introducing hybrid rules one after another, because it is important to manage energy regeneration and release well.Driving technology is also greatly affected.

    However,VolkswagenAfter the diesel exhaust gas problem was revealed due to fraud, German car makers who want to dispel the image of diesel propulsion so far, jumping over hybrids and pure motor-driven cars (=Electric car) Is shifting to the race.

    List of hybrid vehicles

    footnote

    注 釈

    1. ^ However, some models of Honda IMA systemAll cylinder deactivation mechanismTherefore, it is possible to drive the motor alone.
    2. ^ In fact, in the Prius, you can check the situation on the monitor, but the effect of the regenerative brake is not strong, and the advantage of charging, discharging, and running only with the motor while driving is observed. ..
    3. ^ To give a concrete exampleSuzuki TwinIn the case of an air-conditioned vehicle, the gasoline vehicle weighed 570 kg, while the HV weighed 700 kg (+ 130 kg, + 22.8%).
    4. ^ For example, released in 2012Lexus GSThere was a difference of 240kg (+ 14.5%) between the gasoline car and the HV, but it was released in 2017.Lexus LCIs only 90kg difference (+ 4.5%), sameTHSAdoptToyota CorollaIs also 60 kg difference (+ 4.7%).
    5. ^ Examples of vehicle models with internal combustion vehicles and HVs:Honda fit hybrid,Mitsubishi OutlanderExamples of PHEV and HV dedicated models:Honda Insight(ZE2 / ZE3)
    6. ^ [1] Click the link to access a special file directly.If the file with the extension ".asx" cannot be opened, it cannot be viewed.
    7. ^ For example,Toyota PriusWhen compared with the basic model of, the first generation is 28.0km / ℓ (early model), while the fourth generation is 4km / ℓ (S type).
    8. ^ Example:Handling at the time of ISUZU rescue '05 -'09 type ELF HYBRID (PDF)
    9. ^ According to the above Chosun Ilbo article, "The US Congress has a policy of requiring all HVs to be equipped with a vehicle approach notification device, and NHTSA is considering a concrete strategy. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan is considering the device for HVs and EVs. It is obligatory to wear it. "
    10. ^ Released in 2005Daihatsu HijetIn cargo, the price has more than doubled due to HV conversion.In addition, the low fuel efficiency improvement rate due to immature technology became a bottleneck, resulting in sluggish sales and discontinuation of production.Daihatsu industryIs "HVLight carIt is not suitable for. "In later years, Daihatsu proposed a "third eco-car" (high-efficiency internal combustion engine vehicle) against the background of the high cost of HVs in a corporate commercial that doubles as a teaser for new models.[11].
    11. ^ "Mixte"- Buddha: Mixedte <mixed: meaning of mixing>.Lohner PorscheKind of.
    12. ^ In the 1900 race near Vienna, Porsche himself participated for the first time, and it was the electric car Lohner-Porsche who drove and won the championship at 14km / h.
    13. ^ Because you cannot drive on public roadsOisoPrince Hotel OfParking LotThe test drive was done at.
    14. ^ Added 2014L gasoline turbo car in May 5
    15. ^ Gasoline car "LX" added in June 2015
    16. ^ Added "RS" gasoline turbo car in May 2015
    17. ^ European specifications (local name: 3rd generation Yaris) set from June 2012

    Source

    1. ^ LatinIn the language of originHydraulic power,Wind powerAll motors, including those that move by such means, are called motors, especiallyReciprocating engineWhen pointing toMoteur à combustion et explosion(French),Motore a movimento alternativo(Italian),Motor de explosión(Spanish),Hubkolbenmotor(German).
    2. ^ "Hino Blue Ribbon Advanced Hybrid Technology”. Hino Motors. 2022/5/5Browse.
    3. ^ Toyota Motor's cumulative global sales of hybrid vehicles exceed 1,000 million units-90 models of hybrid passenger cars and 33 model of plug-in hybrid vehicles sold in more than 1 countries / regions- --Toyota Motors viewed October 2018, 10
    4. ^ Technology of the Year: GM's Two-Mode Hybrid System --MotorTrend December 2007, 12
    5. ^ Two-Mode Hybrid System: GM's Larry Nitz on Lessons Learned --Green Car Reports June 2010, 6
    6. ^ 冨澤「プリウスはなぜ売れたか」
    7. ^ How Japan Victory in Rare Earth Conflict Dong-A Ilbo, viewed May 2020, 5
    8. ^ Toyota aims for 100% recycling rate of HV batteries in Europe
    9. ^ Sonata Hybrid is too quiet to be a problem-March 2011, 3, Chosun Ilbo
    10. ^ "Vehicle approach notification device for hybrid vehicles, etc." and "automatic lighting function of headlights" are required. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Read April 2020, 12
    11. ^ Daihatsu, the only light hybrid production discontinuation Sales sluggish Asahi Shimbun December 2010, 6
    12. ^ People who realized that "hybrid cars are never ecological"
    13. ^ [2]
    14. ^ en: Woods Motor Vehicle
    15. ^ a b c hybridcars.com History of Hybrid Vehicles
    16. ^ a b c [3]
    17. ^ a b Environmentally friendly technology for automobile motors (automobile technology series) Asakura Shoten July 1997 ISBN-978 4254236415 "5 Hybrid Vehicle" (P6-183)
    18. ^ Victor Wouk and The Great Hybrid Car Cover-up of 1974
    19. ^ [Mazda's Trivia] Mazda had a hybrid truck !?
    20. ^ CAR GRAPHIC '76 -1 P28
    21. ^ Kyoichi Yamaguchi et al. "RX-8" Ring (2003)
    22. ^ "Honda launches the world's most fuel-efficient personal hybrid car" Insight "from November" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 1999, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/1999/4990906b.html 
    23. ^ "Announcement of" Tino Hybrid "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2000, 3), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-dcc008e47f3ada2edd329fd65e003384-nissan-releases-tino-hybrid-j?year=2000&month=3 
    24. ^ "Toyota launches "Estima Hybrid"”. Carview (June 2001, 6). 2019/4/14Browse.
    25. ^ "Minor change of Toyota "Crown"”. Carview (June 2001, 8). 2019/4/14Browse.
    26. ^ "Launched the world's most fuel-efficient new sedan" Civic Hybrid ", a 5-seater mass-produced gasoline vehicle." (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2001, 12), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2001/4011213-civic.html 
    27. ^ "Toyota crown sedan with new mild hybrid system" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2002, 10), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/1920693?_ga=2.22645502.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    28. ^ “Light commercial vehicle Hijet develops the first light hybrid vehicle and starts using monitors” (Press Release), Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., (October 2002, 10), https://www.daihatsu.com/jp/news/2002/20021009-02.html 
    29. ^ "Economical and practical XNUMX-seater light passenger car" Twin "launched-Launched the first mini vehicle equipped with a hybrid system-" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2003, 1), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/a030122b.htm 
    30. ^ "Toyota launches new Alphard hybrid" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2003, 7), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21784033.html?_ga=2.47926754.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    31. ^ "Toyota launches hybrid passenger car" New Prius "" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2003, 9), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21784409.html?_ga=2.88170974.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    32. ^ "TOYOTA, Harrier Hybrid and Kluger Hybrid Newly Released-Equipped with Newly Developed High Power" THS II "-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2005, 3), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/1788183?_ga=2.93933272.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    33. ^ "Daihatsu Light Commercial Vehicle" Hijet Cargo Hybrid "Newly Released" (Press Release), Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., (October 2005, 8), https://www.daihatsu.com/jp/news/2005/20050829-04.html 
    34. ^ "Civic, Civic Hybrid fully remodeled and released" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2005, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2005/4050922-civic.html 
    35. ^ "New release of LEXUS, LEXUS, GS450h-equipped with the world's first hybrid system for FR passenger cars-new release of LEXUS, GS450h-equipped with the world's first hybrid system for FR passenger cars-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2006, 3), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/1365615/ 
    36. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels Estima Hybrid" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2006, 6), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21781426.html?_ga=2.38460899.1113937334.1554563592-1080179657.1551660833 
    37. ^ http://www.pekinshuho.com/jj/txt/2007-02/25/content_56666.htm
    38. ^ "LEXUS releases new LS600h / LS600hL-equipped with the world's first V8 hybrid system + full-time AWD-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2007, 5), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/1529635/ 
    39. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels the Crown-New Crown Hybrid-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2008, 2), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21789060.html?_ga=2.55681390.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    40. ^ "LEXUS, RX450h / RX350 newly released" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2009, 1), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/1496954/ 
    41. ^ "Launch of new hybrid car" Insight "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2009, 2), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2009/4090205-insight.html 
    42. ^ "TOYOTA releases 3rd generation Prius" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2009, 5), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21785355.html?_ga=2.80528722.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    43. ^ "LEXUS, HS250h newly released" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2009, 7), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/1734184/ 
    44. ^ "TOYOTA releases new model" SAI "" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2009, 10), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21778675.html?_ga=2.112427585.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    45. ^ "Launch of new hybrid car" CR-Z "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2010, 2), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2009/4090205-insight.html 
    46. ^ "Launch of new" Fit / Fit Hybrid "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2010, 10), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2010/4101008-fit.html 
    47. ^ "Launched" Fuga Hybrid "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2010, 10), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-402a47f1f73795bb042ba329f5c5dfd4-101026-01-j?year=2010&month=10 
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    50. ^ "Release of compact car" Fit Shuttle / Fit Shuttle Hybrid "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2011, 6), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2011/4110616-fitshuttle.html 
    51. ^ "TOYOTA, Camry fully remodeled-Hybrid system installed in all cars-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2011, 9), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21784776.html?_ga=2.114066114.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    52. ^ "Minor changes to TOYOTA, Alphard and Vellfire, and additional hybrid models" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2011, 9), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21783818.html?_ga=2.56205934.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    53. ^ “Insight is released with a minor model change — 1.5L engine-equipped model“ Insight Exclusive ”is added—” (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2011, 10), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2011/4111027-insight.html 
    54. ^ "A hybrid is added to the new Freed series and released-the first hybrid vehicle as a 5-number size minivan / height wagon-" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (December 2011, 10), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2011/4111027-freed.html 
    55. ^ "TOYOTA starts accepting orders for the new" Prius PHV "" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2011, 11), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21780990.html?_ga=2.50448748.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    56. ^ "TOYOTA launches new model Aqua" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2011, 12), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21780024.html?_ga=2.112379329.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    57. ^ "Launching a new GS that opens up a new stage for LEXUS" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2012, 1), http://www2.toyota.co.jp/jp/news/feature/20120126.html 
    58. ^ "Announcement of the new" Cima "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2012, 4), http://www2.toyota.co.jp/jp/news/feature/20120126.html 
    59. ^ "Partially improved the light passenger car" Mira e: S "and further improved safety-At the same time, received OEM supply of hybrid passenger cars from Toyota Motor Corporation and started selling-" (Press Release), Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., (October 2012, 5), https://www.daihatsu.com/jp/news/2012/20120510-1.html 
    60. ^ "Launch of new" Fit / Fit Hybrid "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2012, 5), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2010/4101008-fit.html 
    61. ^ "New release of luxury sedan" Proudia "and high-end sedan" Dignity "" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2012, 7), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/publish/pressrelease_jp/products/2012/news/detail4585.html 
    62. ^ "Launched" Serena S-HYBRID "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2012, 8), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-2add77b092e1e0dc35e137d9e2d19d13-120801-01-j?year=2012&month=7 
    63. ^ "Suzuki changes some specifications of the compact passenger car" Randy "and releases it." Smart Simple Hybrid "equipped vehicle is set." (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2012, 8), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2012/0809/index.html 
    64. ^ "Minor model change of" CR-Z "released-newly equipped with lithium-ion battery and PLUS SPORT system-" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2012, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2012/4120927-cr-z.html 
    65. ^ "TOYOTA, full model change of crown" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2012, 12), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21779336.html?_ga=2.27044600.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    66. ^ "Release of new plug-in hybrid EV "Outlander PHEV"" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2012, 12), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/publish/pressrelease_jp/products/2012/news/detail4637.html 
    67. ^ "Daihatsu's new hybrid passenger car" Mobius "launched" (Press Release), Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., (October 2013, 4), https://www.daihatsu.com/jp/news/2013/20130408-1.html 
    68. ^ "Full model change of LEXUS and IS" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2013, 5), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20130516.html 
    69. ^ "New high-end sedan" Accord Hybrid "and" Accord Plug-in Hybrid "released-Overwhelming fuel efficiency and a new level of driving sensation-" Accord Hybrid "fuel efficiency 30.0km / L-" Accord Plug-in Hybrid " Fuel economy 70.4km / L ” (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2013, 6), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2013/4130620-accord.html 
    70. ^ “SUBARU XV HYBRID released” (Press Release), Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., (April 2013, 6), https://www.subaru.co.jp/news/archives/13_04_06/13_06_24_89396.html 
    71. ^ “Hybrid vehicles added to TOYOTA, Corolla Axio and Corolla Fielder” (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2013, 8), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21789622.html?_ga=2.18457340.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    72. ^ "Launch of new" Fit "and" Fit Hybrid "-Achieves class-leading fuel efficiency for both Fit and Fit Hybrid-" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2013, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2013/4130905-fit.html 
    73. ^ "TOYOTA launches new Crown Majesta" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2013, 9), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21785718.html?_ga=2.88754782.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    74. ^ "Starting pre-order sales of the new" Mazda Axela "-the first Japanese manufacturer to introduce" gasoline "," diesel "and" hybrid "to the domestic market with the same model-" (Press Release), Mazda Motor Corporation, (June 2013, 10), https://www2.mazda.com/ja/publicity/release/2013/201310/131009a.html 
    75. ^ "Hybrid model GS300h set for LEXUS and GS" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2013, 10), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20131017.html 
    76. ^ "Announcement of the new" Skyline "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2013, 11), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-6c15e375f5db10601e80d7e51189a407-131111-01-j?year=2013&month=11 
    77. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels Harrier" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2013, 11), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/1019785 
    78. ^ "Laying sales of the advanced sedan" Accord Plug-in Hybrid "to individual customers" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2013, 12), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2013/4131219-accord.html 
    79. ^ "Launch of new passenger car" VEZEL "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2013, 12), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2013/4131219-vezel.html 
    80. ^ "Full model change of TOYOTA, Voxy, Noah" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2014, 1), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21775271.html?_ga=2.113243972.1112364688.1553953100-1080179657.1551660833 
    81. ^ "TOYOTA adds hybrid full-time 4WD vehicle to Crown" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2014, 7), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21793084.html?_ga=2.92382808.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    82. ^ "LEXUS launches new compact crossover SUV" NX "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2014, 7), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20140729.html 
    83. ^ "Suzuki, equipped with" S-ENECHARGE "on" Wagon R "and" Wagon R Stingray "light passenger cars Achieves the No. 1 light wagon with low fuel consumption of 32.4km / L" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2014, 8), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2014/0825/index.html 
    84. ^ "Mazda Flair" released with minor changes (Press Release), Mazda Motor Corporation, (June 2014, 8), https://www2.mazda.com/ja/publicity/release/2014/201408/140828b.html 
    85. ^ "LEXUS launches new sports coupe RC" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2014, 10), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20141023.html 
    86. ^ "TOYOTA launches new model Esquire" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2014, 10), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/toyota/21796684.html 
    87. ^ "Full model change of" Legend "-equipped with 3-motor hybrid system" SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD "-" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2014, 11), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2014/4141110-legend.html 
    88. ^ "Launch of new hybrid sedan" GRACE "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2014, 12), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2014/4141201-grace.html 
    89. ^ "Full model change of TOYOTA, Alphard and Vellfire" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2015, 1), https://global.toyota/jp/detail/5197172 
    90. ^ "Launch of new 6-seater passenger car" JADE "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2015, 2), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2015/4150212-jade.html 
    91. ^ "Launch of" X-TRAIL HYBRID "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2015, 4), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-94d77a51b4c91c27c6ef9ec685008eca-150407-01-j?year=2015&month=4 
    92. ^ "Suzuki releases" S-ENECHARGE "on mini passenger car" Hustler "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2015, 5), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2015/0513/index.html 
    93. ^ a b "Mazda Flair Crossover" has been partially improved and released. " (Press Release), Mazda Motor Corporation, (June 2014, 8), https://www2.mazda.com/ja/publicity/release/2015/201505/150514a.html 
    94. ^ "Launch of new compact station wagon" SHUTTLE "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2015, 5), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2015/4150515-shuttle.html 
    95. ^ "Suzuki launches" Spacia "and" Spacia Custom "mini passenger cars equipped with 32.0km / L low fuel consumption and the first light stereo camera collision damage mitigation system." (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2015, 5), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2015/0519/index.html 
    96. ^ "Subaru Impreza SPORT HYBRID announced-Addition of" Fun to Drive hybrid model "to the Impreza-" (Press Release), Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., (April 2015, 6), https://www.subaru.co.jp/press/news/2015_06_19_58/ 
    97. ^ "TOYOTA launches new Sienta" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2015, 7), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/8642760 
    98. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact car" Solio "and" Solio Bandit "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2015, 8), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2015/0826/index.html 
    99. ^ "LEXUS, full model change of premium crossover" RX "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2015, 10), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20151022.html 
    100. ^ "TOYOTA releases new Prius" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2015, 12), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21810973.html?_ga=2.89761118.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    101. ^ "Compact car series" Mirage "and" Delica D: 2 "are remodeled and released" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2015, 12), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/publish/pressrelease_jp/products/2015/news/detail4944.html 
    102. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact crossover" Ignis "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2016, 1), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2015/0121/index.html 
    103. ^ "Odyssey" and "Odyssey Absolute" have been partially improved and released-a new hybrid model has been added- " (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (December 2016, 2), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2016/4160204-odyssey.html 
    104. ^ "TOYOTA sets hybrid grade for Auris" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2016, 4), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21814261.html?_ga=2.51144044.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    105. ^ "Launch of new sedan" ACCORD "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2016, 5), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2016/4160526-accord.html 
    106. ^ "Launch of new" Serena "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2016, 8), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-d6adcacc4b5cda4debce4d9cb8031bd9-160824-01-j?year=2016&month=8 
    107. ^ "Launch of new" NSX "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2016, 8), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2016/4160825-nsx.html 
    108. ^ "New compact minivan" FREED / FREED + "released" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (December 2016, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2016/4160916-freed.html 
    109. ^ "A new electric powertrain" e-POWER "has been added to the" notebook "and some specifications have been improved." (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2016, 11), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-0032ff05aa6577577d36a0990c0006f9-161102-01-j?year=2016&month=11 
    110. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact passenger cars" Solio "and" Solio Bandit "equipped with hybrids" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2016, 11), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2016/1129/ 
    111. ^ "Suzuki launches new" Randy ", a compact passenger car with a 3-row 8-seater minivan." (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2016, 12), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2016/1213a/ 
    112. ^ "TOYOTA releases new model C-HR" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2016, 12), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/14478678 
    113. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact car" Swift "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2016, 12), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2016/1227/ 
    114. ^ "Hybrid version of "Vitz" for Europe [Geneva Show 2012]”. WebCG (January 2012, 1). 2019/4/15Browse.
    115. ^ "TOYOTA sets hybrid grade for Vitz-Creates an exterior design that emphasizes individuality with minor changes-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2017, 1), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/21821531.html?_ga=2.144289909.1113937334.1554563592-1080179657.1551660833 
    116. ^ "Compact minivan" Delica D: 2 "hybrid released" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2017, 1), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/publish/pressrelease_jp/products/2017/news/detail5041.html 
    117. ^ "Suzuki releases new" Wagon R "and" Wagon R Stingray "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2017, 2), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2016/0201/ 
    118. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels Prius PHV" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2017, 2), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/15021361 
    119. ^ "Launch of new" Mazda Flair "" (Press Release), Mazda Motor Corporation, (June 2017, 2), https://www2.mazda.com/ja/publicity/release/2017/201702/170223a.html 
    120. ^ "LEXUS Launches New Luxury Coupe" LC "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2017, 3), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20170316.html 
    121. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels the Camry" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2017, 7), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/17660392 
    122. ^ "Full model change of Daihatsu ordinary passenger car" Altis "" (Press Release), Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd., (October 2017, 7), https://www.daihatsu.com/jp/news/2017/20170710-1.html 
    123. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact passenger car" Swift "equipped with hybrid" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2017, 7), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2017/0712/ 
    124. ^ "" STEP WGN "is released with a minor model change" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (December 2017, 9), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2017/4170928a-stepwgn.html 
    125. ^ "LEXUS launches new flagship sedan" LS "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2017, 10), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20171019.html 
    126. ^ "TOYOTA releases new model JPN TAXI" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2017, 10), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/detail/19121010 
    127. ^ "Suzuki launches new" Spacia "and" Spacia Custom "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2017, 12), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2017/1214/ 
    128. ^ "Launch of new" Mazda Flair "" (Press Release), Mazda Motor Corporation, (June 2017, 12), https://www2.mazda.com/ja/publicity/release/2017/201702/170223a.html 
    129. ^ "Suzuki launches new compact car" Crosby "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2017, 12), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2017/1225// 
    130. ^ "Launched" Serena e-POWER "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 2), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-cf48572264d65dd70eea9e326b00d242-180228-01-j?year=2018&month=2 
    131. ^ "Announcement of the new" Forester "" (Press Release), SUBARU CORPORATION, (April 2018, 6), https://www.subaru.co.jp/press/news/2018_06_20_5987/ 
    132. ^ "TOYOTA fully remodels Century for the first time in 21 years" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 6), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/toyota/22884194.html 
    133. ^ "TOYOTA launches new model Corolla Sport" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 6), https://newsroom.toyota.co.jp/jp/toyota/23067384.html 
    134. ^ "TOYOTA, full model change of crown" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 6), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/23097094.html?_ga=2.25984632.496538649.1555145684-1080179657.1551660833 
    135. ^ "Launched" PCX HYBRID ", a two-kind moped scooter that uses a hybrid system for motorcycles and pursues even more enjoyment of driving." (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2018, 7), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2018/2180706-pcx.html 
    136. ^ "Launch of new plug-in hybrid model" CLARITY PHEV "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2018, 7), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2018/4180719-clarity-phev.html 
    137. ^ "Plug-in hybrid EV "Outlander PHEV" has been significantly improved and released by advancing the PHEV system" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2018, 8), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/jp/newsrelease/2018/detail5232.html 
    138. ^ "Launch of new" CR-V "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2018, 8), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2018/4180830-cr-v.html 
    139. ^ "Added" Note e-POWER NISMO S "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 9), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-860852d7040eed420ffbaebb220ec197-180925-01-j?year=2018&month=9 
    140. ^ "Announced improved model of" SUBARU XV "-Added e-BOXER-equipped grade" Advance "-" (Press Release), SUBARU CORPORATION, (April 2018, 10), https://www.subaru.co.jp/press/news/2018_10_11_6378/ 
    141. ^ "LEXUS launches new" ES "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2018, 10), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20181024.html 
    142. ^ “Hybrid vehicles added to TOYOTA, Probox and Succeed” (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2018, 11), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/25369835.html 
    143. ^ "LEXUS launches new model" UX "" (Press Release), LEXUS, (May 2018, 11), https://lexus.jp/pressrelease/news/20181127.html 
    144. ^ "Launch of new" INSIGHT "" (Press Release), Honda Motor Co., Ltd., (August 2018, 12), https://www.honda.co.jp/news/2018/4181213-insight.html 
    145. ^ "Suzuki launches new" Spacia Gear "" (Press Release), Suzuki Motor Corporation, (December 2018, 12), https://www.suzuki.co.jp/release/a/2018/1220/ 
    146. ^ "Announcement of the new" Nissan Days "" (Press Release), Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2019, 3), https://newsroom.nissan-global.com/releases/release-fc1499a2382c4bfa3a35929160091d4f-190328-00-j?year=2019&month=3 
    147. ^ "Launched new mini vehicles "eK Wagon" and "eK Cross"" (Press Release), Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, (February 2019, 3), https://www.mitsubishi-motors.com/jp/newsrelease/2019/detail5295.html 
    148. ^ "TOYOTA releases new RAV4" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2019, 4), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/27546080.html 
    149. ^ "Toyota, Corolla, Corolla Touring fully remodeled, and at the same time partially improved Corolla Sport-Pursuing sporty design and driving joy with the globally common TNGA platform-" (Press Release), Toyota Motor Co., Ltd., (September 2019, 9), https://global.toyota/jp/newsroom/toyota/29375724.html 
    150. ^ "Basic agreement with Suzuki for VW comprehensive alliance”. Suzuki Motor Corporation (May 2009, 12). 2011/1/9Browse.
    151. ^ Archive >> lexus Rx @ The 2005 Nurburgring 24hSPPD HUNTERS Retrieved August 2021, 8
    152. ^ Toyota participates in "24-hour race" with Lexus hybrid car --WebCG, July 2006, 7
    153. ^ [Super GT 2012] Will the Prius GT remove the hybrid in the match against Malaysia? --cliccar ・ May 2012, 5
    154. ^ Toyota, can I remain a loser?Toyota's 24 Hours of Le Mans "TS050" technical briefing "I want to beat Le Mans and join the ranks of leading automobile manufacturers," said Murata.
    155. ^ F1 Topic: Hamilton breaks Suzuka's course record. Qualifying that symbolizes the speed of the 2017 model machine

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