Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🚗 | "Really scary phenomenon" Responding to alerting motorcycles What is the risk of slipping by the side of a large car?


If there is a motorcycle in the position of the traffic cone in the photo ... (The photo is a screenshot)

"Really scary phenomenon" Responding to alerting motorcycles What is the risk of slipping next to a large vehicle?

 
If you write the contents roughly
However, the danger of the rear overhang coming out may not be well known.
 

During the rainy season, when you feel a sunny day, it seems that touring on a motorcycle is also a pleasant season.week… → Continue reading

 Hint-Pot

"Hint-Pot" is a place where women living in the present can feel a little positive-a place to create such an opportunity.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

risk

risk (English: risk) means the possibility of something bad happening at some point in the future.[1]..Based on this concept, there are derivative definitions in the theory of financial economics, engineering, or risk management.

For example, in the field of finance, some experts have stated in their books that not only "the possibility of bad events" but also "the possibility of good events" is included in the risk (Aswath Damodaran (2003)).In his book "Investment Valuation --Tools and Techniques for Determining the Vaule of Any Asset (Third Edition, 2012)", "Risk refers to the possibility of unfavorable results for most people. Being exposed "is defined.Risk is an almost completely negative term. "In the field of finance, risk includes not only bad results (returns below expectations) but also good results (returns above expectations)." (In fields other than finance, the following text from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry[2]In some cases, a definition similar to this is made. On the other hand, Mr. Novak SY (finance) describes "risk is the probability that an undesired event occurs" as a general meaning similar to the above OXFORD English-English dictionary.

In Japanese, it is sometimes translated as "danger", but according to the definition of the Oxford English-English dictionary above, the risk is not a "bad event" but a "possibility of a bad event", and the "seriousness" of a bad event. And the matrix of "possibility" will determine the magnitude of "risk".

The etymology of the Latin word "risicare" means "try with courage (preparing for the possibility of a bad event)".

Overview

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry"Business risk management practice texts learned from advanced companies"[2]According to the report, the definition of risk can be defined by any of the following three concepts, and in the same text, "risk" is basically a concept that includes both positive and negative aspects ([Concept 3]).

  • [Concept XNUMX]It has both positive and negative effects.An easy-to-think definition when one action can have both positive and negative consequences, such as financial risks and strategic risks.Risk managementAs a method, there is a method of raising candidates so that the total becomes zero.
    • Risk is "uncertainty that affects the profits and losses of an organization"[2]
  • [Concept XNUMX]Only say things that have a negative effect, and do not consider positive effects.It is a definition used for so-called hazard-related risks and is more widely used than before.howeverreturnThere is a tendency that it is difficult to connect to activities such as actively taking risks in order to increase
    • What is risk?harmProbability of occurrence and itsharmA combination of degrees. "[3]
    • Risk is "a combination of the certainty of the occurrence of an event and the negative consequences of it."[4]
  • [Concept XNUMX]Say only those that have a negative impact, and give different names (such as "opportunity") to those that have a positive impact.While following the conventional definition of only negative impacts, we also consider positive impacts at the same time, and both sidesControlPremise to do


Semantic

Economic risk

In the following, the risk specialized in "stocks" etc. in the financial theory is described, and there is little basis for "generally in economics".It is necessary to specify the literature.Definition in the field of finance at the beginning[5]With respect to, for example, in the case of bonds, there is usually no uncertainty above the set yield and can be explained by the general meaning of risk (the possibility of bad things happening).In the case of stocks, the possibility of loss alone cannot explain the event, so the positive and negative returns including the possibility of gainProbability distributionModeled and thatstandard deviationIs generally quantified as the magnitude of risk.To express the risk quantitativelynormal distributionIt is possible that we are not calling it a risk, including the possibility that good things will happen, just by using the concept of.In fact, the newspaper does not say, "If you invest in this stock, there is a big risk that the return will increase dramatically due to the development of new products."

EconomicsIn general, risk is "related to the fluctuation of an event.不 確 実 性The result is not incorporated into the risk judgment.For example, standing on the edge of the roof of a skyscraper is dangerous, but we still don't know if it will fall or be safe.This condition is fairly uncertain and risky.However, if you fall, you will almost certainly have no life, so at the same time you fall[6]The risk will be reduced.

The concept of risk is also in economics金融Often used in theory.investmentThis is because there are investment means for which future profits are not always certain.investmentRisks in can be reduced by making diversified investments.Taking stock investment as an example, if you are investing in a single stock, that company hasIntrinsic riskBecause of this, there is a high degree of uncertainty in obtaining the expected returns.However, by diversifying investment destinations, it is possible to mitigate the risks inherent in the company.By diversifying investment destinations as much as possible and diversifying inherent risks, the risks of investment can be reduced.Market riskCan be approached to.stock investmentReturning to the example of, what is market risk, for example?TOPIXRefers to the market average such as.

gainThere is不 確 実 性(Upside Risk), loss of uncertaintyDownside riskCalled (Downside Risk).In English, there is also the phrase The Upside / Downside of Risk, which is used interchangeably.The above text from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry[2]The definition used in is also that risk is "uncertainty that affects the profits and losses of an organization" and "the positive and negative impacts".Give bothBecause it is a thing, the latter name is less misunderstood.Rather than calling profits, losses, or the possibilities themselves as risks, we call comprehensive uncertainty a risk.

The higher the risk, the higher the degree of loss and gain with respect to the expected return.In addition, those with a large expected return generally have a large risk.Therefore, those with high expected returns have an increased risk of loss of principal.Therefore, those who want to get high gain must be prepared for the possibility of loss.Financial engineeringLook here,statisticsWe aim to make it easier to handle risks by using such methods.

The main types of risk are:Default risk,Inflation riskAnd so on.

Risk of things

The risk of a thing is always a negative image, showing the magnitude of the adverse effects that the thing (substances and goods) may actually suffer from its surroundings (people, ecology, tangible property).When discussing positive images togetherBenefitsUsed with the word.

The concept of risk is "SafeOnly when combined with the definition of a concept can the concept and the ideas behind it be understood:

Safety means "there is no unacceptable risk"[7][8]

Behind this is the reflection that pursuit is not a realistic attitude of pursuing safety.

As a result of improper handling of an object, the risk may become a reality when the danger inherent in the object affects the surroundings and a bad event (harm, damage, damage, etc.) appears. ..Here, the thing may be a substance or an article.In addition, there are cases of people, ecology, and tangible property as surroundings.In some cases, society is considered as one of the surroundings.The dangers here include both so-called (narrowly defined) dangers and harms, so to clarify this.HazardIs often used (derived from English)hazardThe katakana notation is also used. ).

In other words, when conducting a risk assessment of a thing,

  • 1a Identify the danger peculiar to the object and evaluate its degree ()
  • 1b Identify the state in which the item is being handled (handling), and evaluate the frequency, range, amount, etc. of contact (exposure, etc.) with the surroundings (people, ecology, tangible property, etc.) ((English edition),
  • 2 Estimate the possibility and magnitude of the actual occurrence of a bad event with the combination, and judge whether the result is unreasonably large ((English edition

Will be.

Dangers inherent in things

  1. Mechanical Hazard: Hazard based on the mechanical properties of the article.Sharp cutting edge (related to laceration), rotating machine (related to entanglement accident), etc.
  2. Physical danger: Danger based on physical phenomena such as heat, pressure, and sound of objects.In particular, flammability and explosiveness become problems.
  3. Health hazards: The harmful effects of substances on human life and health.Acute toxicity.Chronic toxicity.Carcinogenic. (Allergies) ,,Mutagenicityand so on.
  4. Environmental (ecology) Hazard: Hazard of substances related to the global environment and animals and plants other than humans.Ozone depleting substances,Global warmingAcute and chronic toxicity to substances;Acute and chronic toxicity to.

Much about 2 to 4GHSInternational harmonization of classification and labeling by is underway.This makes it possible to categorize the danger and facilitate the planning of countermeasures.Internationally, safety measures for air transportation, sea transportation, and land transportation have been established based on the prototype of this GHS (however, the safety of land transportation in Japan is not based on international standards).

Safety through risk reduction

By thinking in this way, in solving (making a measure) the problem of how to ensure safety when the risk judgment result is "unreasonably high risk", that is, the degree of safety is too low. It will be easier to organize.in short,

  • 1a Reduce the inherent risk of things.Refers to prior treatment by material processing / modification.

For example, remove sharp edges, make it harder / easier to cut, mix incombustibles, increase particle size (fine particles are dust)爆 発There is a risk that it will reach the depths of the lungs and have an adverse effect), replace it with a less dangerous one, and so on.

  • 1b Review the handling procedure, for example, do not use the hard-to-cut blade as it is, but use it after sharpening it; Ventilate (by a water heater)Carbon monoxide poisoning); Use gloves, glasses, apron, etc. that match what you are handling; Spray canMake a hole and then throw it away; and above all, have a good understanding of the characteristics (especially the dangers) of what you are dealing with, orGHSAs mentioned in the purpose of, the information necessary for understanding is provided in an easy-to-understand manner.

Business risk

Risk management in corporate management is mainlyManagement ResourcesbrandIs required to secure.That is, funds, people, things, and time.resourceAnd the credit as a company.

Engineering risks

engineeringIn, risk generally means "a combination of the certainty of the occurrence of an event and the negative consequences of it" (JIS Z 8115 "Dependability term").In this case, the target of risk is not limited.

For example, risk of harm to the human body or propertyharmThere are risks such as the certainty of occurrence and one combination of the severity of harm, and it is not clear that the risk will have unfavorable effects because the event will manifest, and when the event will manifest. It includes the property that there is no occurrence uncertainty.

Information technology-related risks

Information technologySystemUnlike economics, it is not a risk to get better results.Only those with potential losses are considered risk. Organizations such as ISO define risks in information technology, and ISO is "specific.threatIs an assetVulnerabilityThe possibility of misusing and thereby harming the organization.This is measured in terms of the combination of the probability of event occurrence and the result.[9].. Is defined.As a countermeasure, of the databackup,RedundancyAndCyber ​​securitySome measures are required, such as dealing with.Standardization organizations, etc. stipulate what should be taken as a countermeasure.[10].

Risks in auditing

Financial statement auditThe risk in is the risk of overlooking a material misstatement and expressing a false audit opinion.Especially thisAudit riskIt is divided into inherent risk, control risk, and discovery risk.

the term

Risk model

When considering only negative risks, the value of the risk is calculated by quantifying the source of harm (hazard), the route by which the harm spreads, the severity of the occurrence, and the probability of occurrence, and multiplying them.When the plus is also taken into consideration, the value of the risk is the value obtained by quantifying and multiplying the source of the gain, the path through which the gain spreads, the severity of the occurrence, and the probability of occurrence.

Risk homeostasis theory

Risk homeostasis theory[11]Was advocated by Canadian traffic psychologist Gerald Wilde, and even if safety measures are taken to reduce risk, people will take bold actions as much as they are safe, and as a result risk is safe. The same as before taking measures, that is, the riskHomeostasisIt is a hypothesis that there is (homeostasis).

Other

Related item

Attention Related item terms areISOthe term,PMBOKthe term,Actuarial scienceTerms etc. are mixed

footnote

  1. ^ OXFORD Modern English-English Dictionary "the probability of something bad happening at some time in the future"
  2. ^ a b c d Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "Business Risk Management Practice Textbook Learned from Advanced Companies"
  3. ^ JIS Z 8051: 2004 (ISO / IEC Guide 51: 1999) "Safety aspect"
  4. ^ JIS Z 8115 "Dependability terminology"
  5. ^ In the field of finance, some experts have stated in their books that not only "the possibility of bad events" but also "the possibility of good events" is included in the risk (Aswath Damodaran (2003)).
  6. ^ The first editor described it as "immediately after the fall," but "simultaneously" is a more appropriate expression because there is no time lag between the fall and the risk reduction.
  7. ^ ISO / IEC GUIDE 51: 2014
  8. ^ "ISO / IEC Guide 51: 2014 Revision2014
  9. ^ ISO / IEC, "Information technology – Security techniques-Information security risk management" ISO / IEC FIDIS 27005: 2008
  10. ^ Risk Management / Risk Assessment in European regulation, international guidelines and codes of practice Conducted by the Technical Department of ENISA Section Risk Management in cooperation with: Prof. J. Dumortier and Hans Graux www.lawfort.be June 2007
  11. ^ British: risk homeostasis theory

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Fermer