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✈ | Direct freight service between New Chitose and Incheon Scallop transportation from Hokkaido


Direct freight service between New Chitose and Incheon Scallop transportation from Hokkaido

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Air Incheon also expects to deliver fresh Hokkaido products to consumers.

Hokkaido Airports has started operating direct flights of cargo-only aircraft connecting New Chitose Airport and Incheon International Airport in South Korea today ... → Continue reading

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    consumer(consumer,English: consumer, Consumer)Goods,ServicesThe消费It is the subject who does.


    Specifically, pay the price and finallyProductsRefers to a person who uses or receives services.

    Company,Non profit organizationSuch asCorporationPurchasedProductIf you are reselling, or a corporation生産ToProductIf you purchase it for use in some of the parts, it is called an industrial consumer or user.Consumers who purchase for purposes other than resale are called household consumers or end consumers.

    Corporations can also be the main consumers of goods and services.however,Japan OfConsumer Contract LawIn light of the quality and quantity of information, as well as the disparity in bargaining power,business personOther thanIndividualIs collectively defined as "consumer" and is concluded with the business operator.AgreementWe are trying to defend the interests of the company.

    From a different point of view, for example, I work for a manufacturer company.Office workerOn the jobProducerOn the side, he is also a consumer because he buys and lives the daily necessities necessary for living.FarmerPeople are producers of agricultural products, but they are also consumers because they buy food and clothes other than those they harvest.Therefore, in a broader sense, it can be said that all the people are "consumers."[1].

    However, historically, despite being the largest group in the national economy, this consumer is not organized and therefore has no power to speak to businesses and is ignored without being heard. I was standing in a weak position for a long time[1]..Even if a defect in a product manufactured by a company causes damage to the consumer, the consumer sideRestitution for DamagesWas practically very difficult to sue[1].

    As a characteristic of consumers, it has always been

    • Disparity between suppliers and consumers: Disparity in economic power and disparity in knowledge about products (Information asymmetry).
    • Consumer weaknesses: Life, physical and mental vulnerabilities, economic weaknesses that can easily affect life itself even with relatively small losses.
    • Lack of consumer burden pass-through ability: Unlike companies, losses cannot be transferred to others.

    Often organized into three points[2].

    United KingdomThen.18st centuryThe end of theIndustrial revolutionHas occurred, and consumer problems have occurred in the middle of the 19th century.The United States of AmericaHowever, the movement by consumers was active from a relatively early stage.Especially in the 1960s and 70sRalph NaderConsumerism has risen due to corporate accusations by (Ralph Nader).

    Japan alsoSecond World WarLater, in 1945, the consumer movement began, with housewives launching a "shamoji movement." Since the late 1950sHigh economic growth periodWhen it comes to various consumer problems,Consumer Basic Law(1968) was enacted, finally shifting from the idea of ​​prioritizing industry to the principle of prioritizing consumers, and indicating the basic direction of consumer protection.[3].

    Consumers have various rights.However, that right is not something that is naturally given when you are on the sidelines, so it is the consumer's responsibility to voluntarily fight and strive to protect the consumer's right. I'm starting to think about it.

    Consumer issues / consumer movement

    The definition of the consumer problem is not always unique, but one example from the general is "the problem of consumer damage or disadvantage caused by the goods / services purchased as the final consumer and their transactions". Are[4].

    米 国

    In 1936, in the United States, "Consumer reportsAn information magazine will be published.It tests the functionality and safety of home appliances and automobiles and provides that information to consumers.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, he was a lawyer and a leader in the consumer movement.Ralph NaderBut,Automobile OfSafetyAboutCompanyAccusationAnd that triggered the rise of consumer rhythm.

    August 1962, 3,KennedyPresidentListed in the Consumer Protection Special Textbook as the following four consumer rights:[5].

    • Right to seek safety
    • Right to choose
    • Right to be informed
    • Right to hear your opinion

    History in Japan

    JapanWell, in the old daysSmashBegins with1918 US uproar, 1920sTenant movement, Formed in 1921Kobe Purchasing AssociationOr in 1928Oku MumeoIt started with their call,Patriotic Women's AssociationThese are the beginnings of the consumer movement, but the consumer movement will not be in full swing until after the war.

    1945(ShowaIn 20 years), housewives in Osaka advocated the expulsion of inferior goods and said, "Oh.Rice scoopI started "exercise". On September 1948, 23 (Showa 9), "bad"Match"Expulsion Housewife Tournament"HarajukuIt was held at the Social Work Center in (Tokyo).Still at that timeDistribution systemThere were many defective matches that did not ignite or broke even when rubbed.Hundreds of housewives gathered at the call of Oku Mumeo and said, "1Together OfliqueurDivide by 9 go of water 1It's like being bought at the price of. "Ministry of Commerce,Economic stability headquartersThe bureaucrats also succeeded in making the representative of the company promise "I will not make inferior goods".Since then, housewife associations and women's associations have been formed in various places.Housewives Association(Housewife Ren) It led to the inauguration[6].

    30-40's (around 1955-65), JapanHigh economic growthIn the period, mass production and mass consumption will be carried out, and between businesses and consumers,Information asymmetryBecomes extremely large, so-calledConsumer issuesHas begun to occur.

    In 1955 (Showa 30),Morinaga arsenic milk poisoning caseOccurs.One year later, in 1956 (Showa 31)Minamata diseaseOccurs,Food safety,PollutionMany consumers have doubts about this. In 1960 (Showa 35), "LiarcanningIncident "(fake beef can incident) occurs[7].

    In 1961 (Showa 36),Thalidomide hypnotic caseOccurs. In 1965 (Showa 40)NiigataSecond Minamata disease, In 1968 (Showa 43)Kanemi YushoAnd, one after another, an incident occurred in which consumers became victims.[8].

    In December 1968 (Showa 43)Consumer Protection Basic LawWas enacted[9]..This is sometimes referred to as the Constitution for consumers, which clarifies the roles of government, businesses, and consumers.The idea of ​​"industrial priority" was changed to the principle of consumer priority, the foundation of consumer administration was systematized, and the basic direction of consumer protection was shown.

    After that, in accordance with the purpose of this Consumer Protection Basic Law, local governments nationwideConsumer CenterWill be installed.This is also positioned as the "front-line organization" of consumer administration, and is a business that directly interacts with consumers, such as serving as a contact point for complaints and consultations from consumers, conducting complaint handling tests and consumer awareness. Is to do.

    In 1969 (Showa 44),Consumers Union of JapanWas established and the "Consumer Report" was published.This is an accusation type.On the other hand, in the 1970s, a crowd of consumer groups was seen, creating a cobblestone mixed state.InsideUser union caseSome groups have argued in court whether the pressure on the company is blackmail.[10].

    In 1970 (Showa 45),Consumer CenterAt the time of its opening, the biggest concern of consumers wasFood safetyMet.At that time, of milkBHCContamination and carcinogenicity became a problemAF-2,CyamateSuch asFood additive,FishmercuryProblems such as pollution had occurred. In the number of consultations received from 1970 to 79, food consultations ranked first.[11].Food additive,healthy foodThere were many consultations regarding such matters.

    From 1972 (Showa 47) to 1973 (Showa 48), "First oil crisisIn that case, it is said that an agreement to raise the price of petroleum products has been concluded.TsuruokaConsumersYamagata District CourtA lawsuit for damages was filed in the Tsuruoka branch.Although he won the case in the first instance,Sendai High CourtWas sentenced to reverse defeat, and finally in 1989 (HeiseiIn the first year), the plaintiff's defeat was confirmed by the Supreme Court (Tsuruoka Kerosene Case, Supreme Court, December 12, 8, Minshu Vol. 43, No. 11, p. 1259).

    In the 50's and 60's of the Showa era (around 1975 to 85)Door-to-door salesHas become popular, and troubles related to this have increased.As a typical exampleToyota Trading CaseIs mentioned.

    In 1976 (Showa 51)Door-to-door sales method(CurrentLegalThe predecessor of) was enacted.Also to protect consumerscooling offA system was established.

    In the 60's of the Showa era (1985-), consumer life became diversified and complicated, and the number of consultations for housing, entertainment, health and hygiene products increased, and food products were consulted with the Consumer Affairs Center. The number of inquiries came in third.However, the number of food consultations was almost flat, not decreased, and other inquiries increased.[12].

    In 1987 (Showa 62),Inspired business,Good luck business methodThere were many victims of this.

    In 1993 (Heisei 5),consumer loanTrader'sUnmanned contract machineAppears on the street corner.With the subsequent increase, more and more people are in debt hell due to over-borrowing (as of 2003, individuals).Self-bankruptcy24 cases).

    In 1994Product Liability LawWas enacted and came into effect the following year.

    In January 1997, it was a high-priced item with a special contract that "buy back the sold jewelry at the selling price in 7 years".diamondWas sold using a credit contractCoco Yamaoka bankruptcyAfter being sentenced, damage on a nationwide scale was discovered at once (Koko Yamaoka Incident).

    In 1998 (Heisei 10), the revised Foreign Exchange Law, which abolished restrictions on foreign currency transactions, came into effect.Forex margin tradingAlthough (FX) has spread rapidly, there have been a large number of cases in which consumers are victims.On the other hand, in July 2005 (Heisei 17), the revised Financial Futures Trading Law came into effect, and FX traders alsoFinancial Services AgencyWill be placed under the supervision of.


    In November 2005,Structural statement forgery problemWas discovered, and a first-class architect forged a structural statement, and it was found that many condominiums lacking earthquake resistance were being built and sold.

    In 2006 (Heisei 18),Consumer Contract LawHas been amended,Consumer group litigation systemWas introduced.

    2006年(平成18年)11月から12月にかけて、最高裁判所はいわゆる学納金返還問題(入学辞退者に対する納付済み学費・入学金等の返還問題)について、相次いで判決(最判平成18年11月27日民集60巻9号3732頁、最判平成18年12月22日判時1958号69頁)を下し、消費者契約法9条1号を適用、3/31If the contract is canceled by then, the university will not have any average damage to be incurred, and the full refund of the tuition fee will be granted (the claim for the admission fee has been rejected).

    in recent years,Internet auctionSuch asE-commerceThe number of e-commerce-related complaints received at consumer centers nationwide increased to 2006 in 38,519, more than five times that of five years ago.In connection with this, in December 5 (Heisei 5)Act on Special Exceptions to Civil Code for Electronic Consumer Contracts and Notice of Electronic Consent(Electronic Consumer Contract Act) has been enforced, and so-called click mistakesCivil lawIt was stipulated that it would not be a gross negligence of Article 95.

    In 2008 (Heisei 20),Consumer Affairs AgencyA series of movements have taken place towards the installation of. February 2thCabinet decisionOn the basis of"Consumer Administration Promotion CouncilWas installed. After the 4th meeting on April 23, the meeting was entitled "Towards the Establishment of the Consumer Affairs Agency (tentative name)".Consumer Affairs AgencyPublished a document summarizing the "six basic policies" regarding the jurisdiction and positioning of the government and the "three principles to be observed" such as the realization of a people-oriented administration. On June 6th, "Consumer Administration Promotion Council Summary-Conversion to Administration from the Consumer / Consumer's Perspective-" was announced. 3 (Heisei 6)9/1, The Consumer Affairs Agency was born.

    Consumer regulations

    Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Consumer rights

    Consumer rightsThere are various ways of expressing about, but the four presented by President Kennedy in 1962 are the most famous.[5].

    • The right to safety
    • The right to choose
    • The right to be informed
    • The right to be heard

    In addition, in recent years, it may be expressed by the following four[13].

    • Right to know
    • Right to choose
    • Right to be safe
    • Right to request

    Need to demand more rights

    Consumer rights are not of the nature of being given by hand, on the sidelines.[14]..Rights come with responsibility.Consumer responsibility means the right to know, to choose, to be safe, and to struggle or strive to protect the right to demand.[14].

    Beef camouflage caseThe fact that such situations occur one after another in companies that represent Japan means that consumers' demands on the rights of companies were still too weak and inadequate.[14]..Consumers are customers to businesses, and customers areBoycottIt is possible to punish companies that dare to disguise or deceive, or even to dismantle them.[14].

    Some consumers have abandoned their responsibilities and passed on to others.thisYoshihisa KamonCalls "consumer ego"[15][16]..ConsumersFood safetyRegarding sexRisk communicationShinmon states that he must be actively involved in[17].

    Civil code revision

    New provisions regarding "terms and conditions"

    20152/10,Legal councilCivil Code Subcommittee, Businesses Show ConsumersClauseNew provisions regarding contract rules, etc.ReceivableDecided a draft amendment to the Civil Code to revise the provisions regarding.There are about 200 revisions.Terms and conditions that unilaterally harm the interests of consumers as in the past will be invalid.Ministry of JusticeSchedules to submit a bill to amend the Civil Code to the Diet in late March 2015.Regarding the regulation of the contract, it was difficult to adjust due to strong opposition from the business community.Major revisions to the claims provisions of the Civil Code1896It will be the first time since the enactment of[18].


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈


    1. ^ a b c "Food Safety Learned from Complaints" p.15
    2. ^ "Consumer Law Lecture 3rd Edition" p.21
    3. ^ "Food Safety Learned from Complaints" p.15-16
    4. ^ Wakayama Prefectural Consumer Center HP
    5. ^ a b "Consumer Rhythm"
    6. ^ [Walking the beginning] Consumer movement, Harajuku (Tokyo) Poor match Housewife moved"Asahi Shimbun" Saturday morning reprint "be"July 2020, 10 (pages 17-6) Retrieved November 7, 2020
    7. ^ Housewives AssociationBut it can be confirmed.
    8. ^ "Food Safety Learned from Complaints" p.17
    9. ^ "Safe Living Encyclopedia"
    10. ^ Fearful and attempted not guilty Consumer movement case sentenced "Asahi Shimbun" September 1979, 54, morning edition 9th edition, page 20
    11. ^ "Food Safety Learned from Complaints" p.22
    12. ^ "Food Safety Learned from Complaints" p.22-23
    13. ^ "Encyclopedia for Creating a Food Safety System" p.265-273
    14. ^ a b c d "Encyclopedia for Creating a Food Safety System" p.273
    15. ^ "Japanese Food and Agriculture" p.30
    16. ^ The main pass-through destinations areAdministration(政府
    17. ^ "Japanese Food and Agriculture" p.68
    18. ^ "Invalid clauses that harm consumers = Civil Code amendment bill, submitted next month-Legal Committee'[Broken link]Newsletter/Yahoo! News Tuesday, August 2015, 2 10:18 delivery


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