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🚗 | BMW 3 Series Sedan Improved New, Interior and Exterior Renewal [Detailed Photo]


Photo BMW 3 Series Sedan Improved new model

BMW 3 Series Sedan Improved New, Interior and Exterior Renewal [Detailed Photo]

 
If you write the contents roughly
The rear has a new bumper and a slightly slimmer tail lamp.
 

On May 5, BMW announced the improved new "18 Series Sedan" (BMW 3 Series Sedan) in Europe ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

taillight

taillight(Bito) isAutomobile-Railway car-Bicycle-ShipAt the rear of the vehicle such asLightThat is.Tail light (tail light) ortail lampAlso called.

Automobile

Features

The tail lights of a car are usually called tail lights. Taillights are a type of lighting that are used to inform a car running behind at night or in bad weather that the car is driving ahead. The lighting of the tail lamp isHeadlightIs required to work with.

If it is also used as a (stop lamp),brakeWhen turned on, it lights up brighter (5 times the amount of light). The tail lamp is usually depending on the car modelCorner cubeUsed材 材(Reflector) is built in, and when illuminated by the headlights of the vehicle behind, it reflects the light and glows red, and plays a role of calling attention even when it is not lit, such as when parking or stopping at night.

Component part

For lightinglight source, A cover part for covering the light bulb (tail light cover) and the like. The light source is usuallylight bulb,LEDIs used. Light bulbs are also called "bulbs". In Japan, “bulb” is sometimes referred to as “light source” and is sometimes referred to as “LED bulb”, but LED is not a bulb in a strict sense. Cover usuallyABS resinIt is molded from plastic such as, and becomes a part of the exterior design of automobiles.The cover part is a brake lampDirection indicatorIt is often a rear combination lamp that is integrated with the above.

specification

There are two types of bulb standards for general automobile taillights: the plug-in type T20 and the pin lock type terminal contact type S25.Since many of the automobiles currently produced adopt the former standard, the latter model is decreasing.Also, even if the taillight is T20, other lights (Turn signal,) Is also seen as S25.

decree

Japan

According to Japanese law,Road Transport Vehicle ActAccording to the security standards based on the above, the lights are red, and four-wheeled vehicles are allowed to install "up to two lights on each side" and two-wheeled vehicles are allowed to install "up to two lights". When arranging two lights or two lights on each side, it is necessary to position them symmetrically with respect to the center of the vehicle body.

If two lights are modified on one side, the color of each light will be different, or if one side is an LED and the other is a light bulb, it will be subject to poor maintenance.

Two-wheeled VehiclesIn, the taillight can be one light.

Brightness is 5W or more and 30W or less for the light source (bulb)[1]The illuminance is visible from a distance of 300 m at night, and the irradiation light rays do not interfere with other traffic.

Regarding LEDNotification that specifies the details of safety standards for road vehicles [Oct. 2008.10.15, 64] Attachment XNUMX Technical standard for tail lights (PDF) See.

Conventionally, only a red tail light cover was allowed, but even if it is other than red, it is legal if it can generate red light when emitting light. Therefore, as a car dress-upClear tailA colorless or white tail light cover called, or only the lens is coloredEuro tailIt has become possible to change to. Initially, it was only the aftermarket, but there are cases where this is prepared as an option by car manufacturers and car dealers. If the tail lens deteriorates and loses its color, and the light turns orange or pink, it is a violation of safety standards. If the brake lamp is modified so that it flashes when the vehicle is stopped, it will be subject to arrest as well. Apart from the tail lamp,[2]It is mandatory to equip a red reflector. This reflector is usually integrally formed with the tail lamp cover (or the cover of the rear combination lamp). If the reflector becomes colorless (white) when you replace it with a clear tail, it is illegal to replace it with a red reflector.

Europe

In addition to tail lamps, it is mandatory to install rear fog lamps in Europe.Fog lights See the item.

米 国

It is permitted to use both the rear turn signal and the brake lamp, and there are some models produced in North America that are also used in North America.

About LED in recent years

In recent years, the tail lamps and stop lamps of commercial vehicles such as automobiles and motorcycles have beenLED lightingIs becoming more popular.

The conventional incandescent light bulb requires the volume of the light bulb itself and the volume of the reflector, so that it is unavoidable that the shape of the light emitting surface has a single wide emission surface such as a square. However, LEDs can generate a large amount of light with very small elements, so you can arrange multiple small elements.Light guide plateBy combining it with, the degree of freedom in design has been dramatically improved.

It is also attracting attention as a safety implication,Koito ManufacturingThere are also manufacturers of light-emitting parts for automobiles that focus on LED conversion. Since an incandescent light bulb takes about 0.2 seconds to reach the maximum light intensity after being energized, an LED stop lamp that reaches the maximum light intensity almost instantly makes the driver of the following vehicle recognize the braking of the own vehicle as soon as possible. be able to. Although it is a slight time difference, if braking starts 0.2 seconds earlier, it will be possible to stop before 100 m or more when driving at 5 km / h.

Although it is a practically excellent LED, there is also a tendency to seek fashionable elements, and in the aftermarket, light bulb type LEDs that can be easily replaced, such as LED rear combination lamps, are being released one after another.

In addition, there are many self-made works by vehicle users and contractors who have electrical knowledge, and these self-made works are largely divided into "fashion-oriented" or "vehicle inspection-friendly and energy-saving". In the case of "fashion-oriented", electronic parts are used to make actions such as molding and blinking of the mark, and in the case of "emphasis on energy saving for vehicle inspection", power consumption will be significantly reduced compared to incandescent bulbs. To solve the chronic power shortage of the electric system,オ ー ト バ イOften done by users.

However, some of them do not meet the specified amount of light, or on the contrary, they are too bright and dazzle the following vehicle, so they do not meet the safety standards.車 検Please note that some of them are incompatible.In order to avoid these risks, authorized dealers may refuse to inspect vehicles equipped with these non-genuine parts or request that they be returned to genuine products.

It should be noted that some vehicles manufactured in recent years cooperate with lights and various control devices, and if replaced with LEDs, the control device will not operate normally due to changes in power consumption, and some manufacturers will Calling attention[3].

Also, unlike the incandescent bulb era, standardization is not made on the premise of replacing the illuminant alone, so if it does not emit light normally, the entire rear combination lamp unit etc.ASSYYou are forced to replace each one.This not only increases repair costs, but also means that if the ASSY becomes out of print, it will hinder the continuous operation of the vehicle.

Bicycle

In JapanCity cycleIn general bicycles such as, taillights are rarely installed.According to traffic regulations, bicycles should be equipped with either a red reflector or a taillight (use of blinking is an auxiliary light and is not recognized as a taillight).Japanese Industrial Standard It is sold with a reflector, which is a reflector material, according to (JIS). In recent years, a bicycle for general use may be equipped with a reflector having a built-in LED that blinks automatically when it gets dark.

Self-illuminating taillights for bicyclesRoad bikeBattery-powered LEDs are becoming popular, especially among sports bicycle enthusiasts. It is a long-distance endurance cyclingBrevetIt has been decided that a self-lighting/non-moving light type tail light will be attached for participation (blinking type is not allowed except for auxiliary use).

Railway car

In railways, it is used to indicate the presence of vehicles following it. LegallyTrain signOut ofRear signThat is, one or two red lights or red reflectors are attached to the rear surface of the rearmost vehicle. MostlyRailway carThen, two red lights are attached to the back of the vehicle, and sometimes LEDs are used as the light source.JR East Of651 series-E351 seriesFor example, a large LED type display ((Train nicknameIt also serves as a taillight by displaying two red oval shapes as part of the display.

ShinkansenThen,0 seriesIncludingNational railwayIn vehicles of the times, the same light source was used as a rear beacon by covering the front beacon with a red filter.

freight trainAnd in recent yearsPassenger car Joyful TrainThen, instead of a taillight that emits light by itself at the end of the vehicle, a circular red reflector with a diameter of about 20 cm is often used as a substitute.JR TokaiFrom an aesthetic point of viewOld passenger carAt the time of driving, I sometimes used a reversible red disk with a reflector attached. On the other hand,SnowfallA lot ofTohoku-HokurikuIn the direction and the regionThroughOn trains and other vehicles, two portable taillights with built-in batteries are installed throughout the year from the standpoint of visibility. Since each of these portable taillights has an independent switch,ReplacementBy turning on the left side and turning off the right side from time to time, it is possible to function as a replacement light.

In the case of a train, there are tail lights on both sidesHeadlightIn many cases, the (front marker light) is turned on at the same time.

Still moreMajor private railwayThen.Honor trainWhen driving as, a white light called "passage sign light" may be lit on the front. Although the purpose of use is different from that of tail lights, they are often combined with tail lights due to their similar shape, or are often integrated in design. Detail is"Transit sign lightSee.

Tram

TramIn addition to showing the presence in the following vehicles,PedestrianIt is also a facility that informs the driver that he is braking.

The lighting method varies depending on the operator and the vehicle type, and is roughly classified into a case that brightly shines while braking and dims other than that like a car, and a case where a brake lamp is provided independently of a rear marker light. In the case where the brake lights are provided independently of the rear beacon lightsHiroshima Electric Railway 3900 serieslikeHigh mount stop lampHow only the gear works with the brake,Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau type 1200 trainThere is a method to turn on the rear marker light in red and the brake light in a different color from orange.

aircraft

Attached to the aircraftNavigation light(Navigation lights, both aerial lights and position lights), it is obligatory to install a white light at the end of the fuselage (generally the end of the fuselage or tail) (ICAOSee Annex). An object that displays the direction of flight of your aircraft when viewed from other aircraft in flight.

Ship

Convention on International Rules for Prevention of Collision at SeaBased on theMaritime collision prevention lawTherefore, at night, it is obligatory to turn on the stern light that emits white light within the horizontal range of 135 degrees as close to the stern as possible.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ 2008/(20) Revised on October 10th.Prior to this, there was no upper limit wattage designation.
  2. ^ Depending on the model, it may be attached to the bumper part instead of the tail part.
  3. ^ Information on precautions for installing commercially available LED bulbs - Mitsubishi Motors

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