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The resulting sculptural form creates a clear shoulder on the door, and the air intake placed there is visually connected to the vertical cut of the windscreen.
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Air intake(English: air intake) Is空 気At the entrance to take inengineOf machines that utilize air such asIntakeIn addition,Air conditionerIt is an opening for taking in outside air for the purpose of cooling equipment, ventilation of the room, etc.Air inlet(air inlet), orJapaneseでIntake portIt is also written as.Depending on the shapeAir scoop(British: Air Scoop) May be called.
The air intake is an intake for taking in air from the outside of the machine, and in particular, in transportation machines such as aircraft and automobiles, it is often molded so that air flows to the air intake by wind pressure.In order to use the wind pressure more effectively, make an opening protruding from the car body etc.Boundary layer[Annotation 1]Some are made to go out of.
MovingVehicleAn air intake that takes in air more efficiently by utilizing the wind pressure generated inRam air intake(British: ram-air intake) May be called.Ram Air (British: ram-air) Means "collision air".Actively use the running wind to reduce the resistance of the air flowing in the intake pipePumping lossIt is also applied to the field of land transportation equipment such as automobiles and motorcycles as it can reduceRacing carIt is used in motorcycles and commercial motorcycles.
aircraftAmong other thingsJetIn, the number, arrangement, and shape of air intakesengine,airplaneIt is one of the factors that greatly affect the performance of.The design of the air intake differs depending on the application of the aircraft. For example, the design differs between an aircraft flying at a high altitude with thin air and an aircraft flying at a low altitude.
In turbojet engines and turbofan engines, the speed of inflow air must be suppressed to Mach 0.4-0.5 because efficient operation cannot be achieved if the tip of the compressor blade exceeds the speed of sound relative to the inflow air...The air intake is equipped with a function to decelerate the inflow air, and the on-board performance of the jet engine depends largely on the air intake...The type and shape of the air intakes and ducts determine the pressure loss and flow strain of the air supplied to the engine, affecting on-board propulsion and fuel consumption...Approximately, a 1% reduction in pressure recovery in the air intake results in a 1.3% reduction in thrust...The shape of the outside of the air intake, including the cowl and boundary layer shunt, also greatly affects the air resistance of the aircraft...As a basic formatNACA duct(British: NACA duct),Pitot type(British: pitot inlet),Conical(British: conical inlet),Two-dimensional lamp type(British: two-dimensional ramp inlet).
- NACA duct
- The entrance is rectangular and has a shape that increases in width as it goes to the back. NACA Flash Inlet (British: flush inlet), NACA Scoop (British: scoop) Etc. NACAAmerican Aviation Advisory CommitteeAbbreviation,NASAIn the predecessor ofAirfoilIt is an organization that has conducted a lot of basic and comprehensive research on such things.
- EarlyJetThere are some use cases in, but it is rarely seen in airplane propulsion devices today due to weak pressure recovery... At subsonic speeds where the NACA duct is suitable, the Pitot-type pressure recovery is virtually 100%, while the properly designed NACA duct is 90%, but the engine is mounted inside the fuselage. In some cases NACA ducts can reduce the wet area and weight of the aircraft.
- NACA duct is a gas turbine type or air introduction for coolingAPUUsed in applications where pressure recovery is less important, such as.
- Pitot type
- The Pitot type has a shape that simply opens forward, and has high performance at subsonic to low supersonic speeds...When used in supersonic flightNormal shock inlet duct(British: normal shock inlet duct, NSID, Normal shock is also called vertical shock wave)..In the Pitot type, the shape of the cowl edge greatly affects the engine performance and the air resistance of the airframe, and the larger the radius of gyration, the smaller the strain of the flow, and the larger the elevation angle and the skid angle, the more remarkable the tendency, while the sound velocity As it approaches, the impact peeling flow is induced and the aircraft resistance increases...The opening surface is not perpendicular to the central axis of the engine, but depends on the position of the intake on the airframe and the elevation range of the airframe, and is usually made perpendicular to the local flow during cruising...jetPassenger planeMost of them use the Pitot type.
- Two-dimensional lamp type
- When viewed from the front, it is a rectangle or a D-shaped letter, and when viewed from the side, it is in front of the opening.WedgeShaped slope (intake ramp, en: Intake ramp) With a shapeD inlet(British: D-inlet) Is also called..The wedge-shaped slope is installed to stabilize the amount of air intake at high angles of attack, resulting in a high angle of attack during takeoff and landing.Concorde,F-14,F-15,Su-27Has been adopted by
- ..It is mainly installed under the wings and on the left and right sides of the fuselage.
- A spike-shaped structure with a conical structure protruding forward in the center of the opening of the cylindrical intake.British: spike cone), Circle, axisymmetric type, etc...The conical structureInlet cone(British: shock cone) Called, Semi-circular type and other variations.The cone shapeMiG 21,SR-71Etc., the semicircular typeF-104It was adopted for such.
The conical and XNUMXD ramp types are for supersonic jets and have higher performance than the Pitot type in the higher speed range of supersonic speeds...Compared to the two-dimensional lamp type, the conical type can often be made lighter, and while the pressure recovery rate is high by about 1.5%, the air resistance is large and the structure becomes complicated to make it a variable shape...The two-dimensional lamp type tends to be used up to about Mach 2, and the conical type tends to be used for models flying at higher speeds...In both cases, the inflow air is decelerated to about half the speed of sound by the time it reaches the engine...When the inflow air changes from supersonic to subsonic, it is decelerated via a vertical shock wave, but the smaller the Mach number before deceleration, the higher the pressure recovery rate...In the conical type and the two-dimensional lamp type, an intake clamp and a shock cone are provided as a structure for generating an oblique shock wave so as to decelerate to a sufficient speed before passing the vertical shock wave near the opening...Oblique shock waves cannot be decelerated below the speed of sound, but the inflow air is gradually decelerated while changing the shock wave angle stepwise or continuously, and finally decelerated below the speed of sound by the vertical shock waves...For this reason, the angles of the intake clamp and the shock cone are not constant, and the closer to the opening, the larger the angle with the aircraft traveling direction...In addition, movable intake clamps and shock cones may be used to increase the opening area during subsonic flight..
In recent fighter aircraft, designing the position and shape of the air intakeStealthIs also taken into account, for exampleF-117Attack aircraft,B-2BomberThen, the opening of the air intake is provided on the upper surface of the main wing, and the lower surface of the fuselageRadar cross sectionIs made smaller.In addition, air intakes were installed on the left and right sides of the fuselage, even though it was a single-engine aircraft, in order to prevent the fan blades that increase radar reflection from being seen from the front.Saab 39 Gripen,F-35There is an example such as. In addition to this, the F-35Diverterless supersonic inletThe stealth is improved while reducing the weight by using a special intake called.
AutomobileThe air intake of is sometimes referred to as an opening provided in the vehicle body to take air into the engine room or the passenger compartment, or it may refer to a part directly connected to a device requiring air such as an intake pipe of an engine. is there.
In many car models where the engine is mounted in front of the car bodyFront grillAir is taken into the engine room from the engine, but the engine is mounted near the rear of the car body.MidshipAir intakes are provided on the side of the car body and on the upper surface of the rear part in order to introduce outside air into the engine room.The intake pipe of the engine is generally placed in the engine room, but in order to introduce outside air near the entrance of the intake pipe in order to reduce the influence of heat in the engine room,bonnetMay be provided with an openingHood scoop(Rice: hood scoop) AndBonnet scoop(British: bonnet scoop).Alternatively, it may be projected from the vehicle body at the entrance of the intake pipe to the outside to directly inhale the outside air, and it vibrates according to the vibration of the engine.Shaker scoop(en: shaker scoop)It is called.Formula 1,IndyCarThe engine is mounted on the rear of the car bodyMotor sportsVehicles are often equipped with cylindrical parts that have openings in the direction of travel and actively send air to the intake pipe by running wind pressure.Air induction pod(British: air induction pod)It is called.Intake pipes that use running wind pressure may also be used in commercial vehicles in the 1960s.Pontiac GTOSuch asdealerSet as an option.GMWith the trademark ofLamb airIt was named and had a structure in which the air intake provided on the bonnet was directly connected to the carburetor. 1970sPontiac FirebirdIn the Ram Air IV, which was set as an option in the era of, an opening was provided in the direction opposite to the direction of travel in order to actively utilize the high air pressure in front of the front window.Reversed air scoop(British: reversed air scoop) To take in air.Alternatively, there is also an example of adopting a ram air intake in which an opening of an intake pipe is provided in the immediate vicinity of the front grill to utilize running wind pressure.
IntercoolerAnd oil cooler,brakeIn some cases, air intakes that guide air to these are provided independently to cool the air intake.In particular, when the intercooler is arranged in the upper part in the engine room, an air scoop may be provided behind the bonnet or the roof.
ventilatorThe air intake that takes in the outside air into the room is between the front window and the bonnet in many car models.CowlBecause the static pressure at this position is aerodynamically higher than other parts, air flows in by running even if the opening is not facing the vehicle body traveling direction...Apart from this, there are also cases where air intakes that introduce outside air directly to the front of the vehicle body or the front of the roof are adopted.
Parts that resemble air scoops may be provided for decorative purposes,Dummy scoop(British: dummy scoop) Is also called.There is no function to introduce outside air, and the back of the opening is closed.Japanese carThen from the end of the 1970s1980 eraAt the beginning,TurbochargerIn some cases, dummy scoops were installed on the hood, mainly on vehicles equipped with them, and after the latter half of the 1980s, vehicles mounted on the side of the vehicle body such as rear fenders were seen.Also,S12 type SilviaIn some cases, a dummy scoop was provided to increase the height when the engine and accessories did not fit in the height of the engine room.
Dodge ChallengerAn air intake system that imitates the shaker scoop of yesteryear is set as an option.
NACA duct style air intake (Ferrari F40）
Air intake for cooling the intercooler provided on the bonnet (Mitsubishi Pajero 2nd mid-term type)
IndyCarAir induction pod (2010 specification)
Ram Air IV of Reversed Air Scoop (1973)Pontiac Transam）
Shaker scoop (1974)Pontiac GTO）
Ventilator on the front of the car body (Mazda Porter Cab）
Dummy scoop (Mitsubishi Stallion）
オ ー ト バ イ
オ ー ト バ イThen, the air intake of the engine intake may be provided under the seat or the tank or on the side surface of the vehicle body depending on the engine layout, the carburetor, and the arrangement of the air cleaner.In commercial vehicles, the cover opening is often covered with a side cover to prevent foreign matter from entering, but an opening is provided on the side of the vehicle body to guide it through a pipeline so that it is not easily affected by the heat generated by the engine. In some cases.
Super sportsSome types and mega-sports type vehicles use air intakes that take in more air by using the running wind and improve the output at high speeds.Ram air system,Forced air intake(British: foreced air intake) Also called, The lower part of the upper cowlHeadlightAn opening is provided in the vicinity to help the air flow into the intake pipe due to wind pressure.
- ^ A slow-flowing area near the surface of an object
- ^ "AutoExe: Product information by function”. Auto Exe Co., Ltd. 2014/3/28Browse.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Raymer, Daniel P. (1999) (English). Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, 3rd ed.. Reston, Verginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc .. pp. Pp.236-256. ISBN-1 56347-281-3
- ^ "Ventilator”. PROTO CORPORATION. 2015/12/3Browse.
- ^ "Bike terminology dictionary”. Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. 2014/4/17Browse.
- It is called a wind screen (wind screen), wind shield, wind jammer, etc.A tool that reduces the wind noise caused by the breath of creatures and the wind...Use by attaching to a microphonespongeMade of things,hairThere are things with.StudioIn the case of recording, there is a pop guard that stands between the recording target and the microphone.
- Transport equipmentUse
- aircraft OfcockpitA part consisting of a robust frame installed on the fuselage immediately before and glass that allows you to see ahead.In the early daysairplaneWas an open cockpit and was a necessity to protect the pilot from wind pressure.As the plane grows larger, the cockpit becomes closed, and the windshield points to the glass fitted into the hole in the fuselage in front of the cockpit.
- FighterThe small aircraft represented by is structurally an open type cockpit, but it is an openable type that can shut off the cockpit from the outside air as the speed increases.CanopySoon after, the windshield was integrated into the openable canopy when it was always closed except for the passengers getting on and off.
- AutomobileA part consisting of a robust frame installed just before the driver's seat (including the passenger seat, if any) and glass that allows you to see ahead.sedan,coupeFixed canopy (rooforHome) Is integrated into the body.
- Formula car,Racing sports carFor competition vehicles with open driver seats, molding with a slight height that is not enough to block wind pressureOrganic glassA windshield without a frame may be installed in front of or around the driver's seat.
- bikeAttach to the front ofPlastic,ア ク リ ルTransparent board such as.
- Put the child in frontBicycle,baby carriageMay also be attached.
- Outdoor equipment
- Windshield.Use outdoorsHob,StoveA plate that is placed around the to block the wind.