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Entry work

TV receiver

TV receiverWhat is (TV Juzouki)?Television broadcasting OfRadio waveTheReceiveThen,Imagevoice(Watching)in order toReceiving machineIs. Popular nametv setorTV.

To the broadcastモ ノ ク ロ,カ ラ ー,High definitionThere are types such as.In Japan, as a "television receiver"Household goods quality labeling methodAre subject to the application and are stipulated in the regulations for quality indication of electrical machinery[1].

History

Japan

1926/(Showa12st year) May,Kenjiro Takayanagi CRTDeveloped the world's first electronic TV receiver that appliedKatakanaof"LeeSucceeded in displaying the characters.Of that cathode ray tubeScan lineThe number was 40.The camera at this time is mechanicalNipo disk.

after that,1940/It was scheduled to be held in (Showa 15)Tokyo OlympicsResearch and experiments were underway for the TV broadcast of the Olympic Games, but the Olympic Games were returned due to the Sino-Japanese War, and even after thatPacific WarResearch will be suspended as the number of researchers intensifies.

After the end of the warGhqHas issued a ban on television studies,1946/Resumed from (Showa 21),1953/(Showa 28) In MarchsharpWill release the first domestically produced black-and-white TV (size 1 inches, price 14 yen).In February of the same yearJapan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) started main TV broadcasting.At that time, it was expensive, so the purchasers in ordinary householdswealthy classWas the first in Japan to open in August of the same year.Commercial TV stationIsNippon Television Network(NTV / NTV)[*1] AdsIn the form of both revenue and promotion of the spread of receiversStreet TVWas set up, and in the signboard program at that time,RikidozanBattle etc.Wrestling broadcast,GiantsIs the Lordプロ野球中継,Sumo wrestlingSuch asSports broadcastAt that time, it was opened later because it was so popular that people gathered on street TV and the advertising revenue was the largest.Osaka Television Broadcast(OTV / currentAsahi Broadcasting TV)WhenCentral Japan Broadcasting CompanyTV division (currentlyCBC TV) Also spread.Therefore, as part of attracting customersA coffee shop,Public bathHome TVFor businessThe movement to install it on the way has also come to be examined.The TV installed in the storefront of a consumer electronics store is also regarded as a de facto street TV.Later in general households1959/(Showa 34)Crown princeAkihitoIt became popular after the marriage parade.1950 eraFrom the second half1960 eraBy the beginning, black-and-white televisionElectric washing machine,Electric refrigeratorAnd so onThree kinds of sacred treasuresIt came to be counted as one of.

1960/(Showa 35) March,ToshibaWill release the first domestically produced color TV (size is 21 inches, price is 52 yen).Color TV The1964/(Showa 39)Tokyo OlympicsWith this as an opportunity, each manufacturer began to focus on advertising,1960 eraIn the latter half of the year, it became widespread due to the significant increase in color broadcasting.Color TVcooler,AutomobileAnd so onNew three sacred treasures"(3C) has come to be counted as one.1973/In (48), the penetration rate of color TVs exceeded that of black-and-white TVs.

In line with the evolution of broadcasting techniques1978/From around (53)Multiplex audio broadcastingCompatible TV,1990 eraTo become andHigh definitionBroadcast compatible TV,2003/(15) In FebruaryTerrestrial digital TV broadcastingCompatible TVs have been released respectively.

For about half a century, CRT televisions dominated,21st centuryTo enter the,Liquid crystal display,Plasma displayIt was usedFlat screen tvBecame mainstream.

2018 is said to be the first year of HDR, and we pursued more visual beauty.High-end tvEmerged.

The TV business of Japanese manufacturers has changed significantly. Toshiba discontinued domestic production in 2012, Hitachi discontinued in-house production, Panasonic discontinued sales of plasma TVs in 2014, Sony spun off the TV business, and Panasonic discontinued LCD panel production for TVs in 2016. In 2018, Toshiba sold its TV business to Hisense, and Hitachi ended domestic production.

Overview

BroadcasterConverted video and audio into electrical signals and transmittedantennaA device that receives video and audio and converts it back into video and audio.tunerThe one with built-in is a TV receiver, and the one without built-in ismonitorordisplayCalled.TV standテ ー ルIt can be installed on top of such a device, or it can be hung from a wall mount.wallIs installed in.

Now[When?], Mainly in JapanTerrestrial digital,BS digitalandeast longitudeHome appliance stores are lined up with four types of 110-degree CS tuners.4/124 degree east longitude CS digital (SKY PerfecTV! Premium Service) Requires an external tuner.To watch / record terrestrial digital / BS / CS broadcastsB-CAS cardIs necessary(One SegNot required in case of).

Once power on / off,ChannelMany had dials or switches for switching / selection and volume control only on the main unit side, but in the 1970sInfraredMethod radioリ モ コ ンProducts that can be remotely controlled by the device appeared and began to spread in the 1980s.[2]Since the 1990s, remote controls have become the standard.However, buttons such as power, channel, and volume are also installed on the main unit so that the minimum operation can be performed even if the remote control is lost or the remote control battery runs out.There is no unified specification for the remote controller.The separately sold third-party remote controller can operate many manufacturer's products by switching the manufacturer's settings.video,DVDMany recorders can be operated.Some recording device remote controls can also operate the same or third-party TVs by switching settings.

Some products have a built-in recording function (Tele video).In addition, although it is a rare example,NintendoHome video game console "Super NintendoSharp's CRT TV with built-in ""SF1There was also a product called.

Incidentally,JapanThen,2004/11からAutomobile-オ ー ト バ イGaze at the screen of the TV receiver, etc. in the car while drivingRoad Traffic LawThe type of thing that was banned in, but not held in the hand (car navigationFor things that are shared with the monitor screen of the above, simple gaze is still not subject to penalties (Road Traffic Act, Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX, Item XNUMX).

Screen size

Normal,CRTIn the case of, the diagonal dimension of the pipe,Flat screen tvIs represented by the diagonal dimension of the effective visible region.The unit is practicallyinch(1 inch = 2.54 cm).Measurement LawIn upper Japan, the use of inches is not officially permitted, so manufacturers avoid the letters of inches and display it as 20 "type", but 20 type means 20 inches in this case.If the numbers are the same, the visible area of ​​a flat-screen TV is wider than that of a CRT.In the case of flat-screen TVs, "V (visual size)" is added after the number ("26V", "32V", "37V", etc.), and in CRT TVs, the size is equivalent to +2 inches.

The method for deriving the vertical and horizontal dimensions (cm) from the diagonal dimension (inch) is as follows.

Conventional screen aspect ratio 4: 3 receiver
Vertical: Number of inches x 0.6 x 2.54 ≒ Number of inches x 1.52
Horizontal: Number of inches x 0.8 x 2.54 ≒ Number of inches x 2
Horizontal screen 16: 9 aspect ratio receiver
Vertical: Number of inches x 0.49 x 2.54 ≒ Number of inches x 1.24
Horizontal: Number of inches x 0.87 x 2.54 ≒ Number of inches x 2.2

Example: The vertical dimension of a 30-inch wide TV is 30 x 0.49 x 2.54 = about 37.3 cm.

Terminals

Usually on the front or backVideo deck,game machine,BD recorderIt is equipped with terminals for connecting devices such as.

Mainly the types of input / output terminals

and so on.

The antenna terminal for terrestrial broadcasting is currently available.VHF/UHFMixed inputCoaxial75ΩMost of them have one F-type terminal, but until the 1s, there were many VHF / UHF separation type (separate terminals).Furthermore, until the 1990s, the VHF terminal was a coaxial 1980Ω F type and the UHF was directly attached to the feeder (75Ω), and in the televisions before the 300s, the VHF terminal was also a coaxial / feeder direct attachment type.Since it depends on the feed line (feeder) method from the antenna, a converter or mixer may be required.A separate BS / UV demultiplexer is required for mixed transmission of terrestrial and BS in joint reception.Also, during the transition period to terrestrial digital broadcasting, TV &BD recorderDepending on the manufacturer, the antenna input terminals of the analog / digital (* 110 ° CS / BS terminal included 3 terminals) and the analog / digital (* 110 ° CS / BS terminal included 2 terminals) mixed terminal There were two ways.

In the era when DVDs were the mainstream of external recording media for video equipment,Personal computerForVideo cardFor connecting with (graphics card)DVIIt was equipped with a terminal.Some models have an i.LINK terminal that takes into consideration the connection of digital peripherals.Blu-ray DiscIn this era, the mainstream external video input interface is an HDMI terminal that can transmit video and audio with a single connection cable.

For adjusting the color, brightness, vertical synchronization, etc. of the image and the left / right balance of the sound,1990 era[Source required]Until then, there were many things that were adjusted in an analog manner with knobs, etc.recent years[When?]Most of them are digitized preset methods using buttons and remote controls.

1980 eraIn the second halfMini component systemThere was also a product in which the main body part and the speaker part were separated.recent years[When?]ButMitsubishi Electric,sharpHave released a new product with a separate speaker type.

Method of displaying images

CRT
It has a long track record from the early days of television broadcasting, and because of its low cost, it is most often produced for both home and business use. It is heavy and burdensome to carry, and it has the weakness that it is difficult to increase the size of the screen (up to about 5 inches).
Since the latter half of the 1990s, a type with a screen close to a flat surface (commonly known as a flat TV) has appeared.
in Japan2001/Since it has become more subject to the Home Appliance Recycling Law, it is made by overseas manufacturers and overseas factories of domestic manufacturers in particular.[*2]With low-priced models, the ratio of disposal costs is relatively high, the merit of low prices is diminished, and the prices of flat-screen TVs are becoming lower, so the trend is gradually shrinking.However, afterimages and narrow viewing angles were noticeable on flat-screen TVs at the time when LCDs appeared, and in addition to that.recent years[When?]The CRT TV released in Japan had a certain merit because it was possible to improve the image quality with various connection terminals (S terminal, D terminal, AV multi terminal) by peripheral devices.
The word "CRT" was once used as a synonym for "television (television)".
There are also "BS digital-equipped type" and "digital 3-wave tuner type", but the distribution volume and production number are small due to the overlap of the digital transition of radio waves and the thinning of TVs.
Flat screen tv
liquid crystal television
conventionallyMobile phoneIt was said that it was difficult to increase the size and reduce the cost because the yield at the time of production was not good because most of them were about 2 inches for use and about 13 inches at the maximum.2002/Large-sized products of around 30 inches have appeared since around that time, and also2005/In 8 monthsharpAt that time, the world's largest 65-inch LCD TV was released, and there was no difference in screen size compared to plasma TVs.It has the advantage of low power consumption (about 200 watts), and research is underway to further increase its size.
It is said that the response after pressing a button is slower than that of a CRT analog TV (about 0.5 seconds at the earliest, and 1 to 2 seconds at the latest).
Plasma display
2000/It has increased rapidly since that time.It is easy to increase the size of the screen (commercialized up to about 103 inches) and it can be made thin, but it is difficult to reduce the size (at least about 32V type), so it is said that it is not suitable for personal TVs.Previously, there were drawbacks such as high power consumption, shorter panel life, and screen burn-in, and TVs that overcame the drawbacks of conventional liquid crystal displays sold, gradually losing market share, and until the end. We were selling home plasma TVsPanasonicAlso withdrew.
Organic EL
"EL" is an abbreviation for "Electroluminescence". "EL" is a general term for the cold light phenomenon in which light is emitted by electrical stimulation, and is distinguished from light obtained as a by-product of heat, such as incandescent light bulbs.
There are two types of "EL", "inorganic EL display" that uses inorganic substances such as zinc sulfide and "organic EL display" that uses organic substances such as diamines, but conventional inorganic EL is difficult to display in color. The use was limited due to the problem of.Examples that have been put into practical use include the backlight of a clock, the display of a medical device, the display of a convenience store cash register that is used 2 hours a day, and the computer installed in the space shuttle.Compared to inorganic EL, organic EL has features such as "full-color display suitable for TVs", "light emission at low voltage and bright", and "thin can be made and can be used for applications such as winding the screen".Since organic EL only sandwiches an organic EL material between electrodes, its structure is much simpler than that of liquid crystal or plasma.Therefore, it is attracting attention as a next-generation television that adopts a new video display method that is neither liquid crystal nor plasma.2007/May 10,SonyIs the world's first organic EL TV "XEL-1" (the thinnest part of the panel is about 3 mm, which is the thinnest in the world) in December (actually, some home electronics mass retailers who received the productMay 11Sold ahead of schedule, general salesMay 12) Released on[*3].
Organic EL TVs are highly expected as next-generation TVs. In the 2010s, the life and price of materials are a problem, but if technological improvements are made and they are mass-produced sufficiently, they can be commercialized at a lower price than liquid crystal and plasma, and televisions with higher image quality will become widespread.In addition, as displays become thinner, displays that can be rolled or bent in the future,SFIt can be expected that a television like the one in the world will be developed.
Since the principle of "EL" can also be used as a backlight for liquid crystal displays,Mobile phoneMonitor andClieIt has also been applied to.
SE display(SED)
SED is an abbreviation for "Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display".ToshibaCanonThe name of a new thin large screen display jointly developed by.Technically, it is a type of "FED" (Field Emission Display), which uses the principle of light emission that causes electrons to collide with the light emitters that make up the image, similar to brown tube TVs, and surpasses LCD TVs and plasma TVs. Achieves high image quality and low power consumption. It has a high reputation as "high image quality far superior to LCD TVs and plasma TVs".2005/May 10~May 10Asia's largest electronics and information technology exhibition held at Makuhari Messe in JapanCEATEC JAPAN Even at the exhibition at "2005", AV fans who wanted to see it at a glance lined up all day at the Toshiba and Canon booths, which attracted attention.
2004/In October, Toshiba and Canon jointly established "SED Co., Ltd." to develop and manufacture "SED" panels.2005/Panel mass production started in August2007/To shift to full-scale mass production.Although it was a plan, the start of mass production was delayed due to the lawsuit over the patent issue, Toshiba withdrew from SED, and the price and performance of LCD TVs became lower.2010/Development discontinuation was announced in May.SED Co., Ltd. will also be liquidated at the end of September of the same year.
Plasma address liquid crystal
Development discontinued.
projector
Images of display elements such as cathode ray tubes and liquid crystal panelsscreenA method of projecting onto.Project from the back of the screen as seen by the viewer,Rear projectionAlthough TVs and monitors of the type have been commercialized, they have not been widely used in general households in Japan due to the large size of the housing.note thatMovie theaterThe method of projecting from the viewer side is called the front projection method, but this is generally commercialized as a monitor.
Rear projection tv
LED
It has been put to practical use as a large screen monitor and used in outdoor advertisements, but it is difficult to reduce the pixel pitch and it is mainly used as a backlight for LCD TVs.Although commercialization was delayed, SONY was released in January 2012.Crystal LED DisplayAnnounced as.

Share by display method

2005年の世界市場ではブラウン管テレビが2兆8426億9400万円とされるのに対し、液晶テレビが2兆371億1700万円(ブラウン管テレビ1億2700万台、液晶テレビ2000万台、プラズマテレビ580万台、リアプロジェクションテレビ463万台)と差が縮まり、既に液晶テレビがテレビを販売するメーカーの主力製品として販売されていた。また、販売台数も2008年にはブラウン管テレビと液晶テレビ等の薄型テレビ合計台数は逆転すると予想されていた[3].

Since the 2000s, CRT TVs have rapidly lost market share in the Japanese market and are only used.

How to set the channel

Older televisions turned the channel knob (early to the 1980s. For UHF channels, set the VHF knob to "U" and then turn the other UHF knob.[*4]) Or press the button on the main unit that has the broadcast channel set (until the 1990s. Since the VHF channel was set in the initial state, it is necessary to manually set the UHF channel one by one). The mainstream method was to manually search for one station at a time.

Later, the digital preset method (the screen changes at the same time as rewriting the numbers in the reception channel term) became widespread, making it easier to find the desired broadcast even in areas with weak radio waves.Eventually, the method of automatically setting all stations by entering the area code or area code (depending on the manufacturer) of the telephone number of the area of ​​residence became widespread, and resetting at the new location was simplified (however, the area code and area). The area where the number is registered is for each prefecturePrefectural office locationCore transmission station (master stationSince it is mainly the reception area of ​​large transmission stations such as), it is necessary to manually set one station at a time in unregistered areas).

In the modern age of digital broadcasting, the area of ​​residence is at the initial setting stage.Zip CodeBy inputting, all area information including channels can be set at once.

It should be noted that the "channel skip" function, which allows you to omit the position without broadcasting and select only the position with broadcasting (at the time of progressive tuning), has been provided since the analog preset era (skipping when "0" is displayed when rewriting the display).More recently, in addition to this, a function has been added that allows the display of external input to be rewritten not only to "video" but also to a display that matches the connected device (DVD, etc.), and there is no connected device when the "input switching" button is pressed. There is also an "input skip" function that allows you to omit the external input position and select only the position with connected devices.

Portable TV

Portable tv
A TV that has been miniaturized so that it can be carried around.1970 eraIn the latter half, a portable TV that can be watched on the go appeared, but at that time it was integrated with a radio cassette player, and the monitor was a cathode ray tube and black and white (1978/ToToshibaGT-4500 with radio cassette player released by[4]And so on).1980 eraWhen you enterliquid crystalIt was downsized to the size of a palm (the earliest monitors were black and white), and color receivers appeared in the mid-80s.End of analog broadcasting ・Digital broadcastingWith the transition to (Full Seg), firstOne SegAlthough the type of receiver has appeared, models that can receive in full segment are also being supplied now.However, it is equipped with a TV tuner including full-segment support.Mobile phone-SmartphoneThe market is not large due to the competitive relationship with.
Wireless tv
The tuner device and monitor are independent, and video and audio signals can be transmitted between them.Wireless communication(無線 LANEtc.) to be transmitted.The difference from a TV receiver that uses an indoor antenna is that it can be reliably received by input from the antenna terminal, that the monitor emphasizes portability with a liquid crystal display, and that it is rechargeable and (power supply) cable free. There is.

Trends since the 2000s

Trends since 2000Flat screen tv,Digital terrestrial broadcastingThere is support for (terrestrial digital broadcasting).

Electronic equipment manufacturer industry group,Electronic Information Technology Industry AssociationAccording to (JEITA), in 2003, the value of thin shipments of LCDs and plasmas exceeded that of CRTs for the first time.This is because domestic manufacturers have already discontinued domestic production of CRT TVs, and consumers have accepted that the production itself will be canceled in the future (described later) and that it is compact, lightweight, energy-saving and space-saving. It can be mentioned that there is.

By 2008, the entire company had discontinued production of models with only analog tuners.On the other hand, the recessionLow birthrate and aging populationDue to the increase in the low-income group due to the increase in the number of people, there were many voices calling for the postponement of the analog wave stoppage and the voices rebelling against the wave stoppage itself.

Even after the decision to switch to digital broadcastingHome center,discount store,Large supermarketIn Japan, receivers that can only receive low-priced analog broadcasts (including CRT-type TVs and low-priced LCD TVs that some overseas manufacturers have been selling extensively in recent years) were still on sale.Although it supports terrestrial digital broadcasting, some do not support BS digital broadcasting or 110-degree CS digital broadcasting.After the end of analog broadcasting, TV reception will not be possible unless it is connected to a digital tuner (including video equipment equipped with the same function), so the products on display will be displayed as compatible or non-compatible with digital broadcasting (cannot be used in 2011). It is obligatory to put a sticker on the screen (after June 2006, it is obligatory to put a sticker to announce the end of analog broadcasting at the time of shipment from the factory).

Producing this kind of product South Korea,TaiwanFor overseas manufacturers such as, in JapanDigital broadcastingDue to the weak development ability of the model that can support the digital broadcasting in Japan, the model that supports digital broadcasting in JapanPanasonic-sharp-Sony-ToshibaIt was mostly occupied by Japanese manufacturers.However, in the 2010s, competition with overseas manufacturers put Japanese manufacturers at a disadvantage in the global market, and there were cases where unprofitable businesses were liquidated by withdrawing from the television business or selling to other companies.

CRT TV receivers2001/Or later,Refrigerator ,Washing machine,Air conditionと と も にHome Appliance Recycling LawIt is considered as a target product of, and it is oversized when it is disposed of.garbageIt is no longer possible to issue it as a fee, and it is obligatory to collect the fee (it costs about 6000 to 10000 yen) to the window of each manufacturer.From April 2009, flat-screen TV receivers such as LCDs and plasmas have also been added to the Home Appliance Recycling Law.However, probably because it takes time, effort, and cost to dispose of it, in the forests and mountains of various parts of Japan.Illegal dumpingIt has become a big problem.According to industry groups, 6400 million analog receivers were predicted to be scrapped due to the suspension of analog broadcasting.[5].

Entering the 2010s, from major manufacturers3D displayApplying technology3D TVHas been released.HowevercontentIt was not widely used due to lack of space and the need for special glasses to view 3D images.Televisions with slightly curved screens were also popular for a while, but they were also not very popular.[6].

2014/From around that time4K 8K TV broadcastingDue to technological advances such as these, the higher image quality and higher sound quality of televisions are progressing.In addition, it is said that manufacturers are expecting demand for the replacement of early flat-screen TVs from around this time.インターネットOf course you can connect to the TVYouTubeTelevisions that can be connected to the Internet, such as those that allow you to browse digital media such as these, are becoming widespread.

Of all households in JapanColor TVPercentage of households that ownHousehold penetration rate) Has never fallen below 1982% since the 98 survey, and the household penetration rate as of the end of March 2006 was 3%.[7]. But,TV awayAnd CRT TVs have been excluded from the statistics, showing a decline since 2014[8].

2015/, Sharp, which has continued to manufacture CRT TV receivers as a manufacturer in Japan until the end, withdrew from the manufacture of CRT TV receivers in the Philippines.In India, which was manufacturing CRT TV receivers as of December 2014.Video controller,onidaHowever, it was reported that it would withdraw by the end of 2015.[9][10].

注 釈

  1. ^ Since NTV was the first to apply for a license, NHK has a history of rushing to start the main TV broadcast.
  2. ^ All manufacturers in Japan have already discontinued production of CRT TVs.
  3. ^ On February 2010, 2, Sony announced that it would end domestic sales of the "XEL-16".Regarding the reason for the discontinuation of sales, it is explained that the harmful site regulation law requires products shipped after April to have a function to restrict connection to harmful sites, but XEL-1 does not have that function.However, it said that it will continue to sell overseas and continue to develop technologies for larger screens and mass production.
  4. ^ At that time, the number of commercial TV stations was small, and there were many areas where there was only one VHF / UHF station each, so in those areas the UHF knob was virtually fixed to the UHF station (usually almost not moved if matched to the station). ..

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