Long containers found on freight trains, the trend of new international logistics routes across the sea
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On the other hand, from Osaka Port, Shimonoseki Port, and Hakata Port along the Tokaido Line, take the Camellia Line (departing and arriving at Hakata Port), Kankama Ferry (departing and arriving at Shimonoseki Port), and Panstar Ferry (departing and arriving at Osaka Port) via sea transportation to South Korea.・ It is connected to Busan Port, and in cooperation with the Korea Railway Corporation, it is also developing the international combined integrated transportation "SEA & RAIL service" in a 12-foot container.
JR Freight with containers of different lengths and functions, 12/20/31 feet. Over 8 domestic railways ... → Continue reading
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Kampu Ferry Co., Ltd.(Kampu Ferry)Yamaguchi ShimonosekiHigashiyamatomachiHeadquartered in JapanShippingIt is a company.Based in the citySHK line groupIn a group company ofHankyu Ferry,Shin Nihonkai FerryTogether with it, it became an acronym for the SHK Line Group and forms the core of the group.
The cityShimonoseki Port International TerminalとSouth Korea-BusanRegularly connecting the sea route withferryIs a partner on the Korean sideKampuwan FerryThe night train is operated once a day by joint operation with.
The route between Shimonoseki and Busan is1905/Was opened inSekigama ferryOriginates from.1910/ OfAnnexation of Japan and South KoreaBecame a domestic route in Japan, and then with JapanKorea, Later via the railroad on the continental sideManchuria,EuropeIt became an important route to connect.but,1945/(Showa20 years)Second World War OfSurrender of JapanAlong with,Japan has sovereignty over the Korean PeninsulaSince losingSouth Korea,DPR KoreaAnd the establishment ofKorean WarAfter that, regular maritime traffic in this section was basically cut off for more than 20 years.
1965/In (40),Japan-Korea Basic TreatyWhen the conclusion comes into effect and diplomatic relations are established between Japan and South Korea,1967/The momentum for the revival of the Kanpu route increased after the topic of reviving the Kanpu route was raised at the Japan-Korea Economic Ministers' Meeting held in 42...The mayors of Shimonoseki City and Busan City will act as the contact point for the route plan, and Katsumi Ikawa, the mayor of Shimonoseki City, will consult with Kanko Kisen President Toyoshu Iriya to discuss the plan and establish a corporation in charge of the route in both Japan and Korea. Adopted a joint operation / joint calculation method in which each corporation owns a ferry and pools the profits of both parties and jointly calculates them..1969/(44)May 6, Headquartered in ShimonosekiKanko KisenIn addition,Nippon Yusen,MOLIt is an operating company with investment such asKampu Ferry Co., Ltd.が設立（資本金1億800万円）された。
Next day1970/(45)May 6、25年ぶりに両市が定期運航の海上交通で結ばれることになった。出航日は下関側が月曜日、水曜日、金曜日の隔日午前9時出発で、釜山には当日午後4時に到着するスケジュールが組まれていた。運賃は一等8640円、二等5400円。自動車は車体長4メートルまで7560円、5メートルまで10080円という価格設定がされていた。ただし日本と韓国では自動車の規格や車検等の法規制が異なるため、航送した自動車が自国のナンバーをつけたまま相手国の道路を走行できるダブルナンバー（ダブルライセンス）制が導入されるまでには時間を要した.
In 1988 (Showa 63), a train ticket for Japan and South Korea via the Kampu Ferry "Japan-Korea joint ticketIs now on sale, virtuallyInternational transportationHowever, the sale of the Japan-Korea joint ticket ended on June 2015, 6.
- February 1969- Kanko KisenEstablished Kampu Ferry Co., Ltd.
- August 1969-in South KoreaKampuwan FerryEstablished.
- 1970/May 6 - 航路の営業を開始。新造船「フェリー関釜」（初代）が就航.
- November 1970-Changed the schedule for daytime voyages to nighttime voyages.
- 1971 --Started accepting JNR containers.
- February 1976- Hankyu Ferry"Ferry Kampu" (2nd generation), which was transferred from and renamed, went into service, and the first generation was retired.
- April 1983 --Pukwan Ferry will start operating vessels, and the following month, the vessels of both companies will be operated daily.
- September 1984 --The "Ferry Kampu" (9rd generation), which was transferred from Hankyu Ferry and renamed, went into service, and the 3nd generation was retired.
- July 1988-Started using the Japan-Korea joint ticket.
- August 1998-"Hamayu" goes into service in place of "Ferry Kampu" (8rd generation). The third generation was transferred and renamed to "Ferry Kamazeki".
- Shimonoseki Port( JapanShimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture)- Busan Port( South KoreaBusan Metropolitan City)
- Scheduled to depart from each port around 19:8 and arrive around 200 o'clock the next morning.Despite the short distance of less than 12km in a straight line, it takes more than XNUMX hours to operate, but this is after arriving in the port of the destination before dawn, and then at the port of arrival.Customs,Immigration controlThis is because they are waiting without berthing until the start of business.
- It is a Korean corporationKampuwan FerryIt is a code-share agreement with.The vessels of both companies are in service alternately, and the schedule is such that Kampu Ferry will operate at the same port the day after the departure of Kampu Ferry.In addition, regardless of the operating company, Kampu Ferry is in charge of sales and boarding reception work at each port side, and Kampu Ferry is in charge of Busan side.
- BeforehandTransport branchPrepare the registration certificate of the vehicle and the driverInternational driver's licenseIf you have a Japanese, within 90 daysPrivate car,bikeCan be brought to Korea (International numberIs unnecessary).Similarly, Korean private cars and motorcycles will be available within one year (however, the driver will bevisaIt is also possible to bring it to Japan within the valid period).
Vessels in operation
- Completed in August 1998 and entered service on the 8th of the same month. 28 internationalGross tons(7,747 gross tonnage in Japan), total length 162m, width 23.6m, output 12,000 horsepower, voyage speed 18knot(Maximum 20.5 knots).
- Passenger capacity 460 people.Number of vehicles loaded: 30 passenger cars,TEU140 container equivalents.Mitsubishi Heavy IndustriesShimonoseki Shipyardput up.
Vessels that were once in service
- Completed in June 1970 and entered service on the 6th of the same month. 16 domestic gross tonnage, total length 3,875m, width 114.7m, output 16 horsepower, voyage speed 8,000 knots (maximum 16.5 knots).
- Passenger capacity 578 people.Vehicle loading capacity: 60 passenger cars.Construction.
- Sold to South Korea in July 1976 and renamed "Dongyang Express Ferry". Sold to the Philippines in 7 and renamed "Our Lady of the Rule".
- 1968 year 10 month,Hankyu FerryCompleted as "Sixth Hankyu". Purchased in July 1976 and entered service on the 7th of the same month. 9 Domestic gross tonnage, total length 5,169m, width 127.3m, output 22.4 horsepower, voyage speed 7,340 knots (maximum 18.2 knots).
- Passenger capacity 952 people.Vehicle loading capacity: 80 trucks.Hayashi KanesenBuilt Shimonoseki Shipyard.
- In 1984, it was sold to Hankyu Ferry and renamed "Kiboumaru". 1986,GreeceSold to and dismantled.
- Completed in December 1973 as "12th Hankyu" of Hankyu Ferry. Purchased in August 1984 and entered service on September 8, 9. 16 domestic gross tonnage, total length 6,590m, width 135.5m, output 22 horsepower, voyage speed 16,000 knots (maximum 21.8 knots).
- Passenger capacity 689 people.Vehicle loading capacity: 30 passenger cars and 80 trucks.Kanda Shipyardput up.
- After retiring in August 1998, it was sold to Pukwan Ferry in February 8 and renamed "Ferry Pukwan Ferry" and entered service on the 1999th of the same month. In October 2, the name was changed to "Galaxy" (Unha). In 5, after the end of the voyage in July 2005, it was sold to Greece and renamed "Panagia Agiassou".
- ^ a b c d e SHK Line "50 Years of Long-distance Ferry -Challenge of SHK Line Group-"-Diamond
- ^ 韓国へ初の国際フェリー マイカーで海外旅行『朝日新聞』1970年（昭和45年）6月17日朝刊 12版 22面
- ^ "ダブルナンバー制と関釜フェリー”. 曽田さとしホームぺージ (2012年7月4日). 2022/5/11Browse.
- ^ Established in 1969, it has been in charge of related operations in Busan since the beginning of the Kampu Ferry service.
- ^ The name on the Japanese side, and the name on the Korean side is "Korea-Japan joint ticket".※For more information,Japan-Korea joint ticketSee.
- ^ From the company's official website "Company Profile" and the ship history of the reference (Japanese car ferry).
- ^ 「韓国にマイカー旅行OK」60台収容のフェリー あす釜山へ処女航海『朝日新聞』1970年（昭和45年）6月15日朝刊 12版 23面
- ^ Japanese car ferry P.133
- ^ Japanese car ferry P.127
- ^ Japanese car ferry P.128
- ^ Japanese car ferry P.129,137,139
- Japanese Car Ferry -From its inception to today- (World Ships Separate Volume) --Gaijinsha (issued in March 2009) JAN code 4910056040393
Intermodal freight(Intermodal Yuso,English: Intermodal Freight Transport) Means, without rearranging the goods of a certain transportation unit.Trainvehicle,Track,Ship,aircraftIt is a form of transportation in which a plurality of different transportation means such as are combined and carried.Combined integrated transportationAlso called (Fukugo Ikkan Yuso).
In order to easily and quickly transship the freight unit between different means of transportation, the freight unit is mainly used.Marine container(ISO container) Is used.If you use a container, after packing the product in the container at the factory in the country of origin,trailer,freight trainFrom container transportation to port transportation, port transportation and loading on container ships, voyages on container ships, transportation to warehouses and stores in importing countries, products can be taken out of containers, loaded or pallets. It can be carried without reloading.
Means of transportation
A freighter carrying a containerContainer shipA ship that carries only standardized containers is called a full container ship or a full container ship.
The deck of the dedicated container ship is equipped with a tough steel vertical rail called "cell guide" to prevent the container from shifting to the left or right, and the standardized size container is at the top of the cell guide. Efficiently loaded from the opening of the upper deck along the italics called the entry guide.Containers stacked up to the top of the upper deck need to be fixed at key points such as the third and fifth tiers with steel "lashing bars" that weigh more than 3 kg each.
On a container ship equipped with a cell guide to specialize in transporting containers, it is common practice to stack a 20-foot container directly above two 2-foot containers vertically, but upside down, 40 feet.・ We do not carry 40-foot containers on top of containers.This is because the metal fittings on the bottom of the ship can prevent the 20-foot container from laterally slipping, but the upper surface of the 20-foot container has only metal fittings at the four corners, so the 40-foot container cannot be sufficiently fixed. For..In addition, the container supports the entire weight of the container that rides on it with metal fittings at the four corners, and there is no corner metal fitting that supports the 40-foot corner metal fittings in the center of the 20-foot container, and the weight of the 20-foot container that rides on it. This is because it cannot support.
Port facilities that handle container shipsContainer terminalIs called.A quay crane dedicated to loading and unloading containersGantry craneThe lifting capacity is about 35 tons or more, and the speed of work is 1 or more per hour for skilled workers.
The size of the container ship isTEU It is often expressed as (twenty-foot equivalent units), which is the size of one 20-foot container and how many can be loaded. 1 TEU is 1 m × 2.44 m × 2.6 m is about 39 m3Is.The size of container ships is increasing year by year,1980 eraAt the endPanama CanalOver Panamax's 4,000 TEU class, which is too big to pass through, has arrived.2000 eraIt has entered service up to 6,000 TEU, 8,000 TEU, and 11,000 TEU.
Since then, the size of container ships has continued to grow over the years, and six years later.2012/12Is an international conformity certification service organization,Bureau VeritasThe world's largest container ship, which was certified by the company as a ship class at that time, is expanding worldwide.FranceCMA-CGMdCompany-owned "CMA CGM Marco PoloIn the issue, the number of containers that can be loaded has increased significantly to 16,020 TEU, and the loading capacity is about 2 compared to the second largest container ship.%It has increased.
More recently, China Shipping Container Lines (CSCL) Is KoreaModern heavy industryThe 19.100 TEU container ship, which has the largest load capacity in the world at the time of ordering from2014/May 11Completed in, "en: CSCL GlobeA ceremony was held to name it.However, the CSCL Globe, which won the seat of the world's largest load capacity, will be released only two months later.2015/May 1ToMSCThe MSC Oscar, which is owned by (Mediterranean Shipping Company) and boasts a loading capacity of 19,224 TEU, has easily lost its position in the world.
2017/May 3In JapanMOLIs KoreaSamsung Heavy IndustriesThe world's first 20,000 TEU class (20,170 TEU) container ship ordered fromMOL TriumphIs completedHowever, in April of the same yearen: Madrid Maersk(Owned by Maersk, 20,568 TEU), in May of the same yearen: OOCL Hong Kong(Hong KongOOCLCompany-owned, 21,413 TEU) has been completed, and the maximum load capacity record continues to be updated.Also in the same yearMay 10Will be the first Japanese-built 20,000 TEU class (20,182 TEU) container shipen: MOL TruthBut,Imabari ShipbuildingCompleted at.
Because railroads are faster than ships and cheaper than planes, transcontinental railroads are used as landbridges (especially in North America) for intercontinental transport.Even for inland transportation, railroads are an efficient means of transportation because they can carry containers for hundreds of trucks at once.The United States of America,EuropeAnd so onMarine container(ISO standard container) is generally used,Container carA long line of over 100 carsfreight train(Commonly referred to as the "mile train") is routinely operated as an efficient means of logistics.
In the United States, where there is room for vehicle limits, containers are stacked in two upper and lower tiers for transportation.Double stack carCan also be seen.TheseDouble-stack rail transportHas been introduced for efficient mass transportation of containers outside the United States.
GermanyRailroad transportation scenery in Japan.
United KingdomRailroad transportation scenery in Japan.
PortugalRailroad transportation scenery in Japan.
In many areas of other countries, the roads are wide and there is room for vehicle height restrictions, which is far from the road conditions in Japan.As a result, the size of vehicles that can pass through and the total weight are alleviated, so there are many areas where trucks can efficiently transport containers.Especially in a country with a vast land area, in a sense, acrobatic container transportation scenery that is never seen in Japan is carried out on a daily basis.For details, please refer to the transportation case image below.
Hong KongA scene of delivering goods from a tall 40 ft container in the downtown area of Japan.
Even in a small country but in a downtown area, double-decker buses and trains run around, so height restrictions do not limit traffic routes as in Japan.
The idea itself of packing irregular luggage in a standardized box for convenience of transportation18st centuryEndCanal ageHowever, the original box was small and heavy for not having much luggage, and it took time and effort to send back an empty box, so it did not spread easily.Containers became important after the mid-20th century, when containers and container handling machines were standardized worldwide.
Containerization is for cargoCargo handlingNot to mention worklogisticsGeneral,Port-Warehouse-Ship-Train, At the endaviationThe design and mechanism of this have changed significantly.In addition, it has reduced the time and cost of international transportation to make imports and exports more advantageous.20st centuryIt was the most important element of the logistics revolution.
1830 eraIn some parts of Europe and the United States, railroad companies operated small wooden containers for freight trains that could be transshipped to carts and ships.These containers were originally1780 eraThe end of theUnited KingdomCanal companies around the world, including the Bridgewater CanalbargeTocoalIt was developed to pack.1840 eraAn iron container has also appeared in1900 eraAt the beginning, a sealed container that could be transferred from a railroad to a freight car also appeared.1920 eraIn, the Railway Clearing House, which approves fares between British railway companies, standardized containers of various sizes, and the "RCH container" was born.It was 5 feet or 10 feet long and could not be stacked.Although very successful, it remained the standard in the UK alone.After World War II, railway containers of each country's own standard became widespread not only in the United States but also in Western countries and the Soviet Union.
In the United States as well, in the 1920s, various things were done to omit transshipment work between railroads, automobiles, and ships.Intermodal freightWas tried.1926/から1947/OverChicago OfChicago North Shore and Milwaukee Road TheFlatcarStarted a service to load freight cars owned by shipping companies1929/At the beginning, the shipping company Seatrain Lines began shipping freight trains between New York and Cuba. Chicago Great Western Railway puts freight cars on flat wagons in the mid-1930sPiggyback transportAnd each railroad company joined this service by the 1950s.
War and accompanyingLogisticsIncreased transportation also boosted the emergence of containers.Second World WarIn the second halfUS ArmyStarted using containers to reduce loading and unloading time on transport vessels as much as possible.This container was called a "transporter". The "Transporter" is a reusable iron box that measures 8.5 feet (2.6 m) long, 6.25 feet (1.91 m) wide, 6.83 feet (2.08 m) high, and 9,000.lbCargo was packed.Initially, it was mainly for transporting daily necessities for officers,Korean WarThe cargo handling capacity and efficiency of confidential materials were evaluated and their uses expanded.Busan PortAtOffshore mediationThe length of work time and the susceptibility of cargo in wooden boxes to theft and damage during cargo handling also made the military keenly aware of the need for iron containers.1952/In, a flight called "CONEX" (abbreviation for Container Express), which means freight to be expedited in a container such as repair tools and parts, has appeared.The first CONEX freight transport isGeorgiaColumbusPacked in a container at the depotSan FranciscoTransported by rail toYokohamaI took the route of landing in South Korea via.This saves the trouble of cargo handling and cuts the transportation time by half.Most of the supplies were transported by CONEX during the Vietnam War.The Pentagon has standardized an 8-foot x 8-foot x 10-foot military container and has made it popular for general use.
1951/,DenmarkSo, the first cargo ship built for the purpose of transporting containers was put into operation.same year,Seattle-ア ラ ス カ 州In the meantime, container transportation by freighter has begun.The world's first integrated sea and land container transportation system using the cargo ship "Clifford J. Rodgers" built exclusively for containers is1955/ToMontrealso,White Pass & Yukon RouteCompany (White Pass and Yukon Route, from the Pacific side of Alaska)Yukon TerritoryIt is built by the railway that connects the railways.1955/May 11The Clifford J. Rogers, carrying 600 containers, departed from North Vancouver and traveled north across the Pacific Ocean to Skagway Port in southeastern Alaska, where it was transshipped to a container freight car and crossed the border into the Yukon Territory. I went north.Freight from the Yukon Territory was packed by a local shipper into a container and delivered to the recipient via railroads, ships and trucks without ever being able to open the container.
Of the marine containers that lead to todayinventionWoke up from a truck driver and became one of the leading land carriers in the United States.Malcom McLeanIt is said to be (1913-2001)1956/America's first container-only cargo ship "Ideal-XIs in service.The idea is1930 era,He isNew jerseyIt goes back to the time when he was a truck driver, but he realized that he was a shipping company.Sealand(CurrentlyMaersk Line) Founded1950 erawas.
Long time agoFreighter OfCargo handlingIs basically called Stevedore or Stevedore, except for the auxiliary use of some cranes.PortWorkerMany of us went by hand.They took several days to load and unload the ship anchored at the quay.Off the coast of the harbor, countless vessels were forced to wait in line on the quay, wasting time.Waiting times at these ports can be found on global ship schedules and onshore.輸送-工場The production schedule was also upset.bargeHowever, Stevedore sometimes carried out cargo handling work at sea, but it was a very dangerous work when the wind was strong and the sea was rough.
In addition, "unloading", in which a part of the cargo was removed from the warehouse or ship, frequently occurred.LondonDocklandsWarehouses, wharfs and bonded areas were surrounded by high walls, but theft by internal workers could not be stopped.In addition, port cargo handling is based on the nature of "group labor by hiring a large number of manual workers, Stevedore."Gangster(mafia,YakuzaEtc.), and the leading port cargo handling companies of major ports are gangstersFront companyOr of a harbor workerUnionThere were many cases all over the world where the Mafia was actually partitioning.
On land,TrackからWarehouseThe work of loading and unloading on and off the ship was also time-consuming and time-consuming.McLean, a private trucker, was better off with each truck than unloading it from the truck and rearranging it in the hold of the ship while waiting on the quay for the loaded truck's luggage to be loaded onto the ship. I thought it would be easier if I loaded it on the ship.
McLean made the land transportation company bigger1950 era, He bought a used cargo ship, remodeled it, and let the trailer enter the hold as it is and load it (RO-RO ship) Was realized.However, this requires wasted space for the wheels and driver's seat of the trailer, and in order to pack it more efficiently, he separated the driver's seat / chassis part of the trailer and the part with luggage, and the box with luggage The mold part is standardized to make it a "container", while guide rails for stacking and fixing the standardized container like a stack are provided vertically and horizontally in the entire hold on the ship side.Container shipWas invented.Although the crane that carries this container was installed on the ship for the time being, basically no extra crane was installed on the ship, and the container was loaded and unloaded on the quay of the port.Gantry craneIn the future, it should be installed in ports around the world.McLean sold his land transportation company to buy a shipping company, bought a used military tanker and converted it into a container ship "Ideal-X".1956/, New jerseyNewarkFrom TexasHoustonUp to 58 metal containers were loaded and operated.
By making the container for sea transportation, integrated sea and land transportation has been realized, in which the container loaded on the ship is taken down to a trailer with a standardized chassis at another port and transported to the customer as it is.McLean named the company that owns these container ships "Sealand" with the ideal of land and sea, and embarked on foreign routes as well as domestic routes in the United States.The United States of AmericaAnd peersEurope,JapanShipping companies follow suit,Vietnam War OfLogisticsMost of the sea freight transportation including transportation adopted containers.1960 eraIn the second half, at major ports around the world, conventionalCargo handlingDo the workPortIn the midst of the workers' "opposition to containerization", container-only piers were completed one after another.Japan in this eraKobe PortBoasted the largest number of containers handled in the world.
The standard for marine shipping containers is based on the containers used in American trailers and railroads.Initially, there were two mainstream types, the 35-foot container used by Sealand (the largest standard for semi-trailers in the United States at the time) and the 24-foot container (also the largest standard for full-trailer cars) from Matson. Before adoption of the international shipping industry1963/ToISOHas unified the standard, and there are four types such as 40 ft in length, 8 ft in height (1A type) and 20 ft in length, 8 ft in height (1C type).
The container itself is durable and can be used for many years, and the cargo inside is securely held and protected during transportation, can be stacked, and can be used as a warehouse in the open stacking state, which is a problem of unloading. Has been largely resolved.Large container ships of 2,000 TEU class and super-large container ships exceeding 1 TEU come and go on routes around the world, and cargo can be loaded and unloaded in just one or half days using a gantry crane and headed for the next port. The era of containers with high punctuality and early arrival has arrived, and the worldTrade,logisticsHowever, it has changed completely in just over a dozen years.In this way, conventional wharfs and warehouses that could not accommodate container ships quickly became lonely.
1980 eraAt the end, a huge 4,000 TEU class vessel was built to accommodate the rapid increase in international cargo for sea transportation between Japan and Asia-North America.These ships are narrowPanama CanalBecause I can't go through, I don't go to the Atlantic side,Auckland,Long beachFrom a ship at a port on the Pacific sidefreight trainDirectly unload the container on the trolley (container car)Transcontinental railroadIt was decided to transport it to the United States.By introducing a ship that carries a large number of containers at once, we aim to improve efficiency and respond to intensifying freight competition.In addition, transporting from the west coast to the east coast by rail has the advantage of arriving earlier than transporting everything by ship.In addition, 9.6 feet tall containers and large 45 feet long containers will be available.Container ships are used not only for commercial purposes but also for transporting munitions.Gulf WarMore than 82,000 TEUs were brought to the Persian Gulf for the transportation of food and weapons by the multinational forces, but the complicated destination management of mixed cargo reached the limit of the information system at that time, and it became a big issue of logistics after that. became.
From around the 2000sChugokuWith the "world's factory conversion", the transportation volume has increased further, while the freight competition has intensified and crossed the border between container shipping companies.mergerWas one after another.As for the ship itself, super-large ships with a total length of over 8,000 m, which are 9,000 TEU, 14,500 TEU, and 300 TEU, are now in operation.At the same time, ports around the world are busy with upsizing equipment such as gantry cranes and quays with a depth of 15 m.Today, more than 1% of one year's shipping is containerized, and more than 90 million containers are shipped annually.
ISOWith container standardization by land transportation companiesRailway companyWas forced to replace it with a trailer or freight car chassis that was sized to fit the ISO standard container.Also for cargo of various different sizespaletteHowever, it has been standardized to a size that fits the ISO standard container, and Japanese companies such as JR Freight, which have been particular about their own pallet standards, are also in urgent need of standardization.In particular, JR Freight's unique pallet standard, which almost monopolizes Japan's rail freight, is a major obstacle to integrated sea and land transportation.
- ^ Ichiro Watanabe, "The Story of a Container Ship," Naruyamado Bookstore, December 18, 12, first edition ISBN-4 425-71371-0
- ^ A video with a count of handling a 40 ft container in less than about 1 minute. - YouTube
- ^ "The world's largest container ship" CMA CGM Marco Polo "has been certified by Bureau Veritas, a certification body. ”(November 2012, 12). originalArchived as of October 2013, 5.
- ^ "Completion of the world's largest container ship MOL Triumph-The world's first container ship with over 20,000 TEU in service on the Asia-Northern European route-" (Press Release), MOL, (March 2017, 3)
- ^ "Completion of Japan's first 20,000 TEU container ship MOL Truth-the largest domestic construction, in service on the Asia-North Europe route-" (Press Release), MOL, (March 2017, 11)