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🚗 | Gasoline soaring control plan that spreads ripples, voices of doubt about subsidies of former sellers [newspaper watch]


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Voices of doubt about the plan to curb the rise in gasoline prices and the subsidies of former sellers [newspaper watch]

 
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"Even if we subsidize the original gasoline distributor and reflect it in the supply price to the gas station, we cannot predict whether the retail price will decrease as it is," he said.
 

Over a plan to subsidize oil wholesalers suddenly launched by the government in order to curb the rise in gasoline prices ... → Continue reading

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gas station

gas station(Japanglish: gasoline stand,American English: filling station, gas station,British English: petrol station) OrRefuelingPlace(Kyuyujo) isgasoline,Light oil such asAutomobile,オ ー ト バ イVariousengineusefuelTheSaleThis is the place where you are.Japanese highway OfNEXCOIn 3 companiesGas stationIs called[1]. Also,Petroleum companyAnd retailers,Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryThen.[2],Service station[Note 1]Because it is calledSSIs also abbreviated.

JapanThe gas station called byJapanglishHowever, many provide goods and services other than gasoline.

Japanese gas station

Definition

JapanBy law,Fire Service ActTo sayHandling officeIt corresponds to one of.Ordinance on the regulation of dangerous goods[3] Then "Refueling officeThe location, structure and equipment standards of the handling office are stipulated in detail. Gasoline, light oil, which are Class 4 dangerous goods under the Fire Service ActkeroseneSince we handle such as, during business, we will handle class A or class B 4Dangerous goods handlerQualified person needs to be resident.

In a broader sense, mainlyTaxiTo useAuto gasstation(Liquefied petroleum gas) AndEco station(Natural gas),winterKerosene that is often used only inSaleTokoro,bus,Track,Driving school OfTraining carEtc.RefuelingFor private useOfficesThe gas station inside is also included.

火災-爆 発ACCIDENTDo not go through underground tanks according to the Fire Service ActTank truckDirect refueling from is not permitted except in the event of a disaster.But,Mountainous regionWithdrawal and closure of gas stations one after another,Private carLack of refueling etc.SS depopulated areaIs spreading.As a countermeasure, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry2018 (Heisei30 years) August,ShizuokaHamamatsu cityNorthernTenryu WardTank trucks patrolled four of them and started a demonstration experiment to refuel automobiles with regular gasoline.[4].

Industry reorganization

HeiseiAfter entering,1999 (11)Nippon OilとMitsubishi Oil mergerStarting with this, the Japanese oil wholesalers, which used to be more than 10 companies, merged one after another and disappeared.

2001 In (13)TonenとGeneral PetroleumBut,2010 In (22)Japan EnergyとNippon OilBut,2012 In (24)TonenGeneral SekiyuとExxon mobil OfJapanese corporationBut,2017 In (29)TonenGeneral SekiyuとJXTG energyBut,2019 In (31)Idemitsu KosanとShowa Shell SekiyuHas been merged and have never been involved in the merger since the beginning of Heisei, except for small-scale yuan sales.Cosmo OilIt became only. The movement of industry restructuring in the last 20 yearsGreat Heisei mergerIt can be said that it is a gas station version of.

No. 1 share after a series of industry reorganizationsENEOS, 2nd placeIdemitsu Kosan, 3nd placeCosmo OilAnd belowCygnus oil,Marubeni Energy,ITOCHU ENEXSmall-scale yuan sales continue.

Attached / attached services and facilities

At gas stations, regular gasoline,High-octane gasoline,Light oilBesides fuel for engineskeroseneAndengine oilSuch aslubricating oil, And other than thatCar suppliesSuch(タ イ ヤ,WiperEtc.) are also on sale. In addition, with the facilities attachedAutomobile Ofcar washIn most cases, you can perform the above, change the engine oil, tires, etc., and perform simple inspection work (depending on the stand).車 検There are also places where In someCar rentalYou can set up a businessLPG carForLiquefied petroleum gasOrElectric carSome are equipped with a quick charger for (EV).

空港,AirfieldAt a gas station nearbyIndividualForAviation gasolineThere are also places where you can retail or go to the hangar to refuel.

As a service during refueling in Japan,windowWipingashtrayThere is also a place to clean theセ ル フ サ ー ビ スFor (self) gas stations[Note 2], Called the "full service system".

At a gas station in JapanConvenience storeIf you want to add a stand, it is limited to the business hours of the stand. If the convenience store is open 24 hours a day, the stand will also operate 24 hours a day.ENEOSAt some self-contained storesSeven-Eleven,Doutor coffeeIt has a shop.

JapanesehighwaySo manyservice areaAnd someParking areaIt is installed in.

In addition,Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsThe refueling equipment, which was described as a suspension type in the decree,ceilingPipingThose composed of (hanging type, also known as non-space, non-speech)Urban areaSpecial to utilize narrow land such asspecificationAndJapan, South KoreaThere are few installation cases other than.The suspension type is in the 40s (XNUMX)1965 (Showa40 years)- 1974 (49)) ~ 50s (1975 (Showa 50)- 1984 (59)) Because it was a popular design, in recent years it has been closed or rebuilt due to aging equipment, and it has been changed to a self-type fixed on the ground, and it is on a downward trend.Especially the self-style was lifted1998 Since (10), there are very few examples of new store openings in this form.

Of the refueling equipment, the meter (gasoline, which is a measuring instrument)kerosene-Light oil-heavy oilIncluding each meter of, so-calledFuel oilMeter)Measurement LawBy the provision ofPrefecturesYou must take the test that you carry out on a regular basis. Exceeding the expiration date of the test (on a year-month basis, which can be confirmed by the sticker attached to the meter) or unauthorized modification of the meter violates the Measurement Law, and the reason[Note 3] Regardless of the prefecture orMetrology specific city(On-site inspection, recommendation,AccusationEtc.). This is not the corresponding meter, integrated meter with built-in tank (one size larger than a normal refueling machine), fixed equipmentAutomobile(Tank truck) On-board meter, portable small meter, simple meter (DrumThe same applies to (used by attaching to, etc.).

Oil tanks at gas stations are regularlyWashingIt is obligatory to do.

2011 (23) Enforced in Japan in FebruaryFire Service ActDue to the revision, the repair of the underground fuel tank buried more than 40 years ago will be carried out for 2 years (grace period).2013 Mandatory by February (25)[5][6].. If you do not repair at a gas station that has the relevant equipment,Fire departmentSince the side suggests strict measures by legal measures, we estimate the repair cost and future business situation.Break-even pointAs a result of considering such thingsClosed businessThere are cases where[5] Is contained in gasolinebenzeneWas included in the leaded gasoline eralead TheSoil Contamination Countermeasures LawIt is a specific toxic substance, and even if it goes out of business, due to leakage from the underground tank, these substances andMTBEByGroundwater pollution,Soil contaminationIflandIt can be a major trading risk. In addition, the land after closing the businessconvenience store(EspeciallyLawson,Seven-Eleven) Is used one after another all over the country.

Self-service gas station

Features

A gas station where customers perform refueling operations themselves. This method has been popular in the United States and other countries from a relatively early stage, but for many years in Japan, only the full-service method in which employees refuel was allowed from the viewpoint of safety.1998 With the revision of the Fire Service Act (10)DeregulationAs a result, the Cabinet Order on the Regulation of Dangerous Goods was amended and "Refueling office that lets customers refuel themselves"(Self-service gas station) has appeared, and self-service has been increasing since then.

Even if it is a self-service method, it is not allowed to operate unattended, and it is classified as Class A or Class B 4.Dangerous goods handlerQualified person is resident and refueling work by customerSurveillance cameraIt is required to constantly monitor the valve and take other necessary measures such as closing the valve by remote control from the control console when a danger occurs. Although the initial investment may be somewhat higher due to the installation of equipment for remote monitoring, employees who need it by omitting the conventional incidental services such as cleaning the butts and cleaning windows. Since labor costs can be kept low, it is possible to sell at a lower price than the full method.

Since there is no refueling work by employees, the number of stands that actively guide new optional services such as vehicle inspection and car wash services is increasing. In addition, there are places where you can choose between self-refueling and full service with different price settings depending on the store.

Self-service gas stations in Japan2019 (31) As of the end of March, there are 3 stores nationwide.[7][8]..The total number of gas stations in Japan is 29,637 (2020 (As of the end of March (2nd year of Reiwa))1995 It has been decreasing since (7)[9][10][11].

The number of full-service stores is declining year by year,2000 Compared to about 12 stores in (53,000), it is less than half, about 20,000 stores.On the other hand, the rate of increase in self-service stations has increased more than 400 times from about 9,300 stores to about 20 stores during the same period.Also, mainlyLarge truck-busThere are also service stations that operate both self-service and full-service at the same store, centering on stores that support refueling (because large vehicles can refuel more than the upper limit that can be refueled by themselves).Most gas stations on the highway are full-service with employees, but the number is increasing, centered on newly opened stations.[Note 5].

From the viewpoint of safety, the self-service measuring instrument is allowed to be supplied only while holding the refueling lever (unlike the full service device) (a system with some safety devices added). Then there are exceptions). In addition, customers can refuel only their own cars and motorcycles (however, if they run out of fuel, they can push them by hand), and they can bring them in by hand or loaded cars that do not have numbers such as competition cars and cannot run on public roads. Two-wheeled vehiclejet skiBroughtGasoline carrying canInjection into etc. is prohibited by law. In that case, it is necessary to call a staff member to request lubrication (gasoline injection into the kerosene plastic tank is not possible. If a violation is found, both purchasers will be punished), but depending on the self-service stand, it may be carried to a carrying can, etc. No lubrication service orExceeding the amount of lubrication that can be handled in daily carrying cans, etc.[Source required]It may be refused due to reasons such as[Note 6].

Comparing a full-service stand with staff that relies on staffing to ensure safety and a self-stand that relies on the placement of safety equipment and the self-responsibility of the refueling person, there is a considerable difference in the overall equipment configuration and system beyond what it looks like. Exists. In addition, the hanging type is not legally permitted for self (there are stores where a self-stand with a gas station fixed on the ground and a hanging-type full-service stand are installed on one site). ..

In addition,Liquefied petroleum gas,Natural gasAs a general rule, there is no self-filling method.

Usage procedure

The procedure for refueling by the user himself / herself in the self-type stand is as follows. In addition,Regulations on the regulation of dangerous goods(1959 (34)May 9Prime Minister's Ordinance No. 55) stipulates "standards for handling at refueling offices that allow customers to refuel themselves" (Article 40-3-10).

  1. I stopped the engine and touched the discharge plate attached to the refueling machine, and it accumulated in my bodyStatic electricityLet go. If electrostatic discharge occurs, gasoline may ignite and cause a fire accident, so it is necessary to make sure to touch the discharge plate.
  2. Take the refueling nozzle of the type of oil you want to refuel. The refueling nozzles are color-coded for each oil type, so be careful not to make a mistake by looking at the display and color (regular)."Red", High octaneyellow, Diesel (light oil)绿, KerosenetagIt has become. In addition, unlike the self-service stand, the color of the full service stand varies depending on the store).

At the self-stand, even if the user mistakenly refuels himself, he will not be compensated.MisfuelingSee also.

About equipment manufacturers

In the case of the self-contained type, in order to save space, the housing and nozzle holder of the measuring instrument may be integrated with the screen or button for inputting the oil type and payment method, and the deposit section, although the manufacturers are different. If the store has plenty of space, it may be separate). This is because the measuring instrument incorporates equipment connected to the POS system of the gas station store, and there are many combinations regardless of the series. Major manufacturers are measuring instrumentsTokiko System Solutions,Tatsuno, POS system is KomotaNEC Platformsand so on.

Facility

Gas station facilities are subject to strict restrictions and regulations by laws and regulations such as the Fire Service Act and ministerial ordinances. In 2011, due to the revision of the Fire Service Act, the management of underground storage tanks became stricter, which may have accelerated the closure of stands nationwide.[12]On the other hand, deregulation is also being promoted in line with the changing times, and in 2017, by raising the fire resistance standard,woodenAllowed the construction of a gas station office building[13]In addition, in 2020, it became possible to display and sell goods on the premises and monitor refueling equipment using tablet terminals, etc.[14].

Gallery

American gas station

motorizationHas advancedThe United States of AmericaSo, self-service and prepaid gas stations are common.[15]. However,OregonIn, except for depopulated areas, the self-service method is not allowed, only the full-service method.

The gas station doubles as an officeconvenience storeIn many cases, it is located next to it.

There are the following types of payment methods.

  • Directly to the refueling machineCredit cardPayment method through[15]
  • How to pay with a cashier inside a gas station shop[15]
  • How to pay at a payment station near the refueling machine[15]

Australian gas station

AustraliaThen, postpaid gas stations are common.[16].. Settle at the cash register in the gas station after refueling[16].. As in Europe and the United States, most of them have convenience stores. Self-service auto gas is also allowed.

Southeast Asian gas stations

オ ー ト バ イIs widely used as a foot for citizensMotorcycle taxiIn urban areas, there are also "stall gas stations" that retail bottled gasoline on the streets.

Ensuring quality

JapanThen,Law on ensuring the quality of volatile oil, etc.As a result, 10 quality standards (compulsory standards) have been set for gasoline and 3 for kerosene and light oil, and those who sell non-conforming products are subject to punishment. On the stand side, in addition to raising the SQ mark to indicate compliance with the standard,Agency for Natural Resources and EnergyIs conducting unannounced inspections, but illegal acts are often detected.[17].

Similar regulations can be seen in each country, but South Korea[18]And China[19] However, there are examples of products with quality and safety problems being sold against the backdrop of price competition, and there are numerous examples.2014 According to data from the Korea National Oil Corporation, about 4% of the 118 gas stations arrested by the end of April sold fake gasoline that was inflated with other petroleum products.I saw it as a problem政府Said to implement a weekly reporting system, but the Korean Gas Station Association is calling for a postponement.[20].

Environmental measures at gas stations

The United States of AmericaBut especially strict environmental pollution regulations are laid downCaliforniaAndEUThen, when refuelingFuel tankAt the tip of the refueling nozzle of the gas station to collect all the transpired gasoline generated from(English edition)It is obligatory to wear a device called. Gas stations with vapor recovery measuresStage 2 There are two methods, one is to store the gasoline vapor that is compatible with (Stage II) and recovered by the stage 2 compatible refueling machine in the underground tank as it is, and the other is to liquefy it and sell it again as gasoline. The latter liquefaction recovery method is a major Japanese refueling machine.TatsunoHas been successfully put into practical use, and the recovery rate of transpired gasoline generated during refueling is said to be 99% or more.[21].

Gas station safety measures

PastGreat Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,Great East Japan EarthquakeHowever, no gas station fire accident has been reported. Also, in the Great East Japan Earthquake(I.e.There were many gas stations that kept the prototype of the building despite the damage. This is because the structure is strictly defined by the Fire Service Act and the Building Standards Act, and even if a fire breaks out around the gas station, the underground tank will not ignite.[22][23][24].. From these things, it is said that it is the best and safe place to run in the event of an emergency, and there are gas stations that open gas stations as evacuation centers.[25].

In Japan, the annual number of fires per 10,000 facilities is reported to be around 30 times. Most of the outbreaks are fires at self-service stands, and some materials say that self-service fires are 5.6 times higher than full-service fires.[26].. In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1,000 fires occur annually at gas stations, although accurate statistics are not available.[27].

Side-by-side charging / hydrogen replenishment equipment

Electric carForCharging standAndFuel cell carForhydrogenThere is also a gas station with a station[28].

Gas station operator

Japanese private sector

oilCompanies that import and refine products are called petroleum products, and are gas stations that are supplied and sold by petroleum products, and resale products between vendors (resale products between vendors).Business turn ball: An independent gas station outside the affiliate that handles Gyotengyoku (so-called "Gyotengyoku")Unmarked stand"Or"MUJI Gasoline”). Japan's first gas station1919 (Taisho8 years) Nippon Oil announced in FebruaryTokyo cityKanda-ku Kamakura Riverbank (currentlyChiyodaSotokanda), And lent and operated to Yuzaburo Okuda Shoten.For major petroleum products SS, the petroleum products install, own, and manage facilities and equipment, and rent a set of them to a distributor for each trademark.Company-owned SSAnd, the distributor installs, owns, and managesUnique SSIt can be roughly divided into (company-owned SS but leased land in many cases). In general, company-owned SSs are large-scale stores, and peculiar SSs are small- and medium-sized stores. In peculiar SSs with small and medium-sized capital, the signboards are changed as they are, mainly for management reasons. (Change of saddle) may be done.

As of the end of March 2021 (Reiwa 3), the number of gasoline dealers was 3 and the number of gas stations was 13,314.[29].

The number of gas stations by series is as follows.The number of stands is the number as of the end of March 2020.[30].

12,757 store
6,384 store.2019 (31 / first year of Reiwa),Showa Shell SekiyuAnd made it a wholly owned subsidiary.
2,755 store
450 store
  • Solar oil(SOLATO /2008 Until (20), it will be developed under the "TAIYO" brand. )
325 store
  • PB and other 7,152 stores
    ITOCHUAffiliated company. In addition to its own brand, Car Enex, it develops the Cosmo Oil and ENEOS brands.
    A subsidiary of Itochu Enex.Former Conan Fleet (Konan TradingFormer subsidiary).
    Mitsubishi Corporationseries.Capital AreaIn metropolitan areas andOkinawa main islandExpand to etc.
    Expanded the "INPEX" brand in Niigata and Nagano prefectures.
    AmericaFormer sales semi-majorSlaterCompany and Japanese fishing net sales giantNichimoJoint venture with. Deployed only in some areas. At Mitsubishi Corporation Energy and Kygnus Sekiyu's SS, which used to be the same Nichimo company, some engine oils of the "SUNOCO" brand are sold.
    • SII Energy (IDEMITSU)
    Idemitsu series.Only the company's self-SS is available.Former Sumisho Oil + Former Summit Oil (bothSumitomoseries).In the old Sumisho Oil era, it was developed under its own brand (SUMISHO).
    A joint venture between Idemitsu Kosan (formerly Showa Shell Sekiyu) and Mitsubishi Corporation Oil.LawsonDevelop an annex store with and its own brand (Fantasista).
    • DM Gas Station
    Affiliated company of Diamond Akashi. Initially a major supermarketDaieiとMarubeniIt was a company established as a joint venture.
    Marubeni series.
    Opened gas stations in some areas.
    • Yoshida Oil Store (Yoshida)
    Owns a fuel storage base, tanker, and tank truck.
    Idemitsu, ENEOS and other SSs are independently deployed nationwide. Since Idemitsu's POS system is customized, the receipt format is similar to Idemitsu even at stores with signboards other than Idemitsu.
    The largest wholesaler of the ENEOS system. It is also the largest trading company in Tohoku.
    Cosmo Oil's largest distributor in the Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido regions. It has 83 directly managed stores and about 200 stores throughout the Northern Japan Group.
    • Kitaseki
    Handles major Cosmo Oil distributors and other designated dealers. At designated stores, there is a sign that says "Kitaseki Designation". In addition, SS such as ENEOS also exists, and only designated stores do not specialize in Cosmo Oil. At some designated stores, there are stores that also operate as designated stores for solar mineral oil.
    ENEOS / Cosmo Oil is the main product and is independently expanded nationwide. It has stores such as Showa Shell and Idemitsu in some areas. In addition to directly managed stores, there are designated stores and stores that have tie-ups (only in some regions, there are no directly managed or designated stores). At the designated store, the sign "Sun designation" is displayed, and the mark changes the Roman alphabet part of the company logo to Chinese characters. Part ofService stationThen, there is a store that is also open as a designated store of Kitaseki.
    The founder is Idemitsu Kosan's founder, Sazo Idemitsu's brother, Hiroshi Idemitsu.Once irrelevant,2005 (17) When Idemitsu Kosan made a capital increase of 10 billion yen through a third-party allotment in October, Shin-Idemitsu invested 520 million yen, creating a capital relationship.
    OldIkko(Ikko) and the former Suzuyo truck station.In the past, it had independently developed SS for Cosmo Oil, Mobile Oil, etc.
    • Meetus
    Former Yamasan Oil (YAMASAN).Tokushima-Hyogoonly.In the old mountain oil era, it was developed under the Kygnus oil brand.Current[When?]Develops ENEOS brand self-service SS.In addition, when opening stores in ENEOS competitive areas, we will develop our own self-service SS under the YAMASAN brand.
    Revolves around Keihanshin. Formed a partnership with ENEOS and Idemitsu Kosan.
    • Memida Shoji (Himawari SS)
    HyogoTakarazuka.. Kansai private brand male. tire(BridgestoneGS), car inspection, new car used car sales boast the top sales nationwide as GS.It features a method of purchasing SS on the verge of closing down and making it the best store in the area.Current[When?]Has been featured in various industry media as an independent stock of interest[31].
    Chibi Maruko-chanIs appointed as an image character. Mitsuuroko Drive, a subsidiary, is developing SS under the Mitsuuroko brand.
    Operates a self-service stand specializing in fuel sales with the "oil" mark. It is appealing that it specializes in selling fuel only and keeps labor costs down, and that it purchases surplus products to keep prices down.
    • TASHIRO
    OnceMiyagiThe brand that had its headquarters inbankruptcyBecause I applied, now[When?]Disappears).It had its own SS in Miyagi prefecture.
    • Hiroura Mining Group
    Now[When?]Is headquartered in Tokyo, but was also founded in Tokushima PrefectureNaga-gunTachibana Town(CurrentAnan CityTachibana Town) Operates a self-service brand of its own brand (* 2010 eraAfter that, it is abolished. ).PreviouslyJapan EnergyWas running a manned SS.

Also eachAgricultural cooperative(JA) isJA-SSBrand (HokkaidoHokurenDeveloped under the brand's own brand)[Note 7] so,Fisheries cooperative(JF) operates gas stations under the JF brand (often carries the mark of existing oil wholesalers).

Public gas stations in depopulated areas of Japan

In areas where the population and cars passing by are small, private gas stations have closed or withdrawn due to financial difficulties.SS depopulated area"Is spreading.Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAccording to the report, there are about 10 cases in Japan where corporations and local governments established by residents operate GS in such depopulated areas.Shimukappu Village, HokkaidoTomamu district andSusami Town, Wakayama PrefectureAre typical examples.

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry The2017 In May (29), we requested the local governments with few or no GS to create an action plan for maintaining GS for the first time.[32].

European private sector

United States private sector

Korean private sector

State-owned enterprise

Gallery

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ British: service station
  2. ^ The staff is in charge of refueling the stands called "semi-self" and "mini-self", but whether there is a service during refueling (window cleaning, garbage disposal, etc.), and whether the staff will come and hand it over from the car at the time of payment or at the designated place The availability and content of services vary depending on the store, such as going. At self-service stations, everything is basically self-service, and in many cases, rags and trash cans are installed so that customers can perform a series of tasks. "Mini self" means "minimum service" with the minimum "service" on the service staff side.Coined wordI think that the.
  3. ^ For example, management difficulties.
  4. ^ Only for ordinary cars. Full service for large vehicles.
  5. ^ The self-service standTohoku ExpresswayTsurusu PAoutbound line,North Kanto ExpresswayKasama PA,Chuo ExpresswayAchi PAUp line,Shin Tomei Expressway[Note 4]Suruga Bay Numazu SA-Shizuoka SA-Hamamatsu SA,Tokai Hokuriku RoadHirugano Kogen SA,Tokai Kanjo ExpresswayMinokamo SA,Shin-Meishin ExpressTsuchiyama SA,Chinese roadNanatsukahara SAUp lineMito SAVertical line,Kobe Awaji Naruto RoadAwaji SAVertical line,Sanyo roadMiki SAoutbound line,Okayama ExpresswayTakahashi SAVertical line,Kyushu ExpresswayKitakumamoto SAUp lineYamae SAoutbound line·Miyazaki ExpresswayKirishima SAInstalled at 21 locations on the upper and lower lines.
  6. ^ In some cases, the handling of dangerous goods is restricted or prohibited by the internal regulations (prevention regulations) established by the refueling office as part of the voluntary safety of dangerous goods.
  7. ^ In addition, JA-SS Self SS is developed under the original brand of "JA Self".

Source

  1. ^ Service area gas station | Dorapura(Nexco East Japan)
  2. ^ “The number of gasoline distributors and gas stations at the end of 27 has been summarized.” (Press Release), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, (July 2016, 7), http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2016/07/20160712003/20160712003.html 2020/10/15Browse.  [Broken link]
  3. ^ "Ordinance on the regulation of dangerous goods". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2020/10/15Browse.
  4. ^ "Mobile GS" Thank you "first experiment in Hamamatsu". Yomiuri Shimbun Evening: p. 10. (September 2018, 11) 
  5. ^ a b Maruho Shokai (May 2012, 5). “Gas stations in the city are disappearing one after another !! What is the surprising reason?”. clicccar. http://clicccar.com/2012/05/24/156131 2020/10/15Browse. 
  6. ^ "Gas station to oblige to repair underground storage tank more than 40 years ago”. Toyo Chemical Kiko. As of January 2012, 1オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2020/10/15Browse.
  7. ^ "About self-SS store opening situation survey result (as of the end of March 30)”. The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. 2019/7/25Browse.(PDF file size: 201KB)
  8. ^ "Self-SS store opening status Survey results (as of the end of March 31)”. The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. 2020/10/15Browse.(PDF file size: 408KB)
  9. ^ "The number of petroleum oil distributors and the number of gas stations were compiled at the end of FY30”. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. 2020/10/15Browse.
  10. ^ Agency for Natural Resources and Energy Resources and Fuel Department Petroleum Distribution Division; Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (July 2015, 7).Changes in the number of gasoline distributors and gas stations (registration basis) (PDF)”. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. P. 3. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
  11. ^ "The number of volatile oil distributors and gas stations at the end of 28 has been summarized." (Press Release), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, (July 2017, 7), http://www.meti.go.jp/press/2017/07/20170704007/20170704007.html 2020/10/15Browse. 
  12. ^ "40-year underground tank in trouble at a gas station”. Evening Daily (January 2013, 1). 2021/4/29Browse.
  13. ^ "The first gas station in Japan that challenged fireproof wooden construction”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2017, 10). 2021/4/29Browse.
  14. ^ "Gas station, a way to diversify management Demand declines due to aging population and corona virus”. Jiji Press (August 2020, 7). 2021/4/29Browse.
  15. ^ a b c d Ashikarizumi. “American car rental! Fees / insurance and 4 recommended companies". All About. p. 4. 2020/10/15Browse.
  16. ^ a b How to Walk the Earth Editing Room "How to Walk the Earth Australia 2014-2015", p. 654.
  17. ^ "" High-octane "disguised display at 209 locations nationwide". NEWS24News (NTV). (April 2012, 4). http://www.news24.jp/articles/2012/04/25/06204508.html 2020/10/15Browse. 
  18. ^ “A“ explosion ”gas station suspected of selling fake oil passes through seven quality inspections”. Toa Nippo (Dong-a Ilbo). (October 2010, 10). http://japan.donga.com/srv/service.php3?biid=2011100164748 2020/10/15Browse. 
  19. ^ “Guangdong: To punish consumers for malicious gas stations”. Searchina (Searchina). (October 2007, 10). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 5.. https://archive.is/SZLfY 2020/10/15Browse.  [Broken link]
  20. ^ ““ Fake gasoline ”is widespread in South Korea! There is also a risk of engine stop while driving-Korean paper ". Record China (Record China). (May 2014, 6). http://www.recordchina.co.jp/group.php?groupid=89667 2020/10/15Browse. 
  21. ^ "Liquefaction and recovery of gasoline vapor To a gas station that does not smell". NEDO Practical DocumentNew Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. 2020/10/15Browse.
  22. ^ "Disaster response type gas station (Efforts for disaster mitigation)”. Cabinet Office Disaster Prevention Information Page. 2020/10/15Browse. [Broken link]
  23. ^ "Large-scale disaster cooperation gas station registration system (disaster mitigation efforts)”. Cabinet Office Disaster Prevention Information Page. 2020/10/15Browse.
  24. ^ "Disaster response / Resident base SS / Disaster response type gas station”. Zenishiren / National Petroleum Association of Japan / National Petroleum Industry Mutual Aid Cooperative Association. 2020/10/15Browse.
  25. ^ "Role of GS in the event of an earthquake disaster”. Fukushima Petroleum Commercial Association. 2020/10/15Browse.
  26. ^ "Chapter 4 Fire hazards at self-standing (PDF)”. Saitama Prefecture Dangerous Goods Accident Prevention Liaison Committee. 2020/10/15Browse.(PDF file size: 1.05MB)
  27. ^ "US self-stand fire (PDF)”. Dangerous Goods Safety Technology Association. 2020/10/15Browse.(PDF file size: 161KB)
  28. ^ "Fire extinguishing training at a gas station attached to a hydrogen station". TV Asahi News(July 2016, 6). https://news.tv-asahi.co.jp/news_society/articles/000076452.html 2020/10/15Browse. 
  29. ^ "Summarized the number of gasoline dealers and gas stations at the end of Reiwa 2”. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. 2021/8/26Browse.
  30. ^ "Table 28 Changes in the number of fixed-type gas stations by original sales”. JXTG Energy. 2022/1/4Browse.(PDF file: 54.0KB)
  31. ^ Human resources news [Broken link]
  32. ^ "Operated by GS town in depopulated area / Difficult to" surplus "Cost support is an issue / 10 local government residents nationwide establish a corporation". Yomiuri Shimbun morning edition: Political and economic aspects. (July 2017, 7) 

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