Photo KC-46A welcomed at Miho Base (Mr. 516105, taken on October 2021, 10)
Air Self-Defense Force's first KC-46A aerial refueling / transport aircraft arrives at Miho base
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The KC-46A aerial refueling and transport aircraft that arrived at Miho base will be checked for the aircraft and the necessary tests for operation will be carried out over a period of about one year and six months.
The first KC-46A aerial refueling and transport aircraft of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force arrived at Miho base on October 2021, 10 (Friday) ... → Continue reading
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Private transport aircraft (commercial aircraft) andMilitary aircraftThere is.Private transport aircraft are mainlypassengerFor the purpose of transportationPassenger planeAnd for the purpose of transporting freightFreighterBroadly divided into.. Detail isFreighterSee.
Military transport aircraft are mainly軍隊Used for transporting goods and personnel.Details will be given in this section.
Broadly dividedTactical transport aircraftとStrategic transport aircraftThere is.further,Fixed wing aircraftとRotorcraftThere is due to.The following describes a military transport aircraft using fixed-wing aircraft.For military transport aircraft with rotorcraftList of helicopters # Military helicopterschecking ...
Strategic transport aircraft
mainlyUS Air ForceIs in operation.Mainland usaFromEurope,Middle East,Far Eastな ど地球It is suitable for transporting large quantities of goods to the other side of the ship, and is generally large in size and has a large capacity for long-distance flight.
Tactical transport aircraft
It is mainly used for short-range tactical applications, such as short-distance transport from a material depot near the operation site to the front, and transport of paratroopers to the descent operation area.
Rear hatch that allows airdrops of munitions and vehicles, short-distance takeoff and landing capability on rough terrain on the front, short-distance runways,Aerial refueling machineIt has equipment as.
It starts with "C" from the initials of "cargo aircraft" and "carrier" in English, which means transport aircraft.Formula nameThere are many models.
Many aircraft in the 21st century have a single cargo compartment with a long, flat floor, and generally have rails built into the floor to improve cargo handling efficiency on pallets.The cargo loading / unloading port (cargo door) used to be the left side of the aircraft.[Note 2]It was common to have a large door in the door, but nowadays, it is a long one.vehicleSelf-propelled,paletteIn order to adapt to the cargo handling due to the change, there are many methods of tilting up the fuselage of the nose part and providing a drop gate that also serves as a slope at the tail of the fuselage.
For aircraft that are based on passenger aircraft and cannot remove the floor of the original cabin due to their structure, the cargo compartment and cargo door at the bottom of the fuselage are kept alive, and the side of the second floor (the level where the cabin is originally located) is large. Some have added a swing-up door[Note 3]..On military aircraftDescent of paratroopersAnd vehiclesAerial dropTherefore, the cargo door can be opened and closed safely even during flight.
Due to the need for tie-down of cargo, the cargo compartment is designed to be reasonably strong, including the reinforced floor structure.In addition to the normal stress that is repeatedly applied to the airframe structure due to the transportation of heavy objects, including the cargo compartment for models flying at high altitudes.PressurizationDue to the structure, higher durability is required, and sufficient strength is estimated for the strength member.Also, on rough terrainTakeoff and landingConsidering such things asLanding gearAnd the LordWingsIs made tough.Therefore, the weight of the aircraft tends to be heavier than that of commercial transport aircraft.
Military operationnot onlyConflictMilitary transport aircraft that are also operated in the zonePortable surface-to-air missileFor self-defense because it is exposed to the threat of (MANPADS)Chaff,FlareProjector by infrared alert sensorMissile warning systemIt is often installed as a system together with.
The high wing arrangement is preferred for the main wing for the following reasons.
- It is convenient to lower the floor of the cargo compartment and make it long and flat in the front and rear, because it is easy to load and unload and it is easy to secure the volume, but to achieve this, the central wing structure in the low wing arrangement is an obstacle. Become[Note 4].
- Large diameter because the distance from the wing to the ground can be securedHigh bypass ratio jet engine,propeller,largeflapCan be adopted[Note 5].
- If the engine is in a high position,Foreign matter inhalationIt is suitable for operation on rough terrain because it reduces the risk of damage caused by.
The extremely high wing arrangement used in military transport aircraft has some disadvantages as an air vehicle, but the space shape of the cargo compartment, which is wider and longer than the aerodynamic characteristics, and the cargo capacity due to the large volume, There is a strong tendency to choose a design that prioritizes operability such as cargo handling convenience.By adopting the high wing arrangement, it is not possible to obtain the accommodation space for the main landing gear in the low wing arrangement, so a comparison is made in which convex parts called bulges are provided on the left and right sides of the bottom of the fuselage to store the multi-wheel main landing gear. There are many targets.
Due to the high wing arrangement, the high wing position raises the exhaust jet flow, and the position of the sloped gate at the tail, which is used by many high wing transport aircraft, affects the tail wing.T-tail[Note 6]Is relatively large.
For aircraft that do not employ a high wing arrangement, most of the above advantages work in reverse, so the cargo capacity is relatively inferior, but for aircraft similar to commercial aircraft, design, manufacturing, and operating costs are reduced. There are other advantages, such as expectation.
Second World WarIn the first half ofWehrmacht TheParatroopersWas operated effectively.especially1941 OfBattle on CreteSo the German army is a lotJu 52Perform airlift operations usingCreteOccupied.again,German-Soviet battleAlso in the above, the air supply that drops supplies in the air was effectively used in various places.Japanese army TheOperation Palembang AirborneWith high performanceType XNUMX transport aircraftEtc.armyParatroopersContributed to the descent of the paratroopersPacific WarIs the most important capture goal ofPalembangBig oil fieldHowever, due to the difference in national power, it was not possible to own or operate a large number of transport aircraft like the Allies and Germany, and after thatBattle of Okinawaof timeIndependent Mixed 15th RegimentExcept for the example, there are no large-scale airborne or airlift operations that exceed 1,000 people.
1948 ToBerlin blockadeWhen occursThe United States of AmericaIncludingWestern countriesMobilized all transport planes,West BerlinTransported supplies to.The transportation of supplies by air during World War II was a temporary measure, but the transportation of supplies by air during the blockade of Berlin was continuous, and transport aircraft constantly used a large amount of supplies. Showed that it can be transported[Note 7].
1950 eraIs said to be the definitive version of the tactical transport aircraft, and improved production is still ongoing.C-130Was developed.Based on the experience of the military so far, this aircraft is highly evaluated because it can carry a sufficient amount of cargo, it is easy to load and unload cargo, and it can be operated even in an airfield with poor front lines.In addition to the goods transportation mission, it is also used to support the deployment of special forces, and it has been independently improved according to the application.MC-130HIs deployed in the Air Force Special Forces.
Japan Air Self-Defense ForceInstead of the C-130C-1Was planned to be independently developed and fully operated.However, due to political considerations for neighboring countries, the aircraft was designed with a short cruising range, making it extremely difficult to use.Especially returned after developmentOkinawaThis drawback was fatal when it came to activities in the surrounding area and overseas.For this reason, the C-130 was eventually introduced and became the mainstay of transport aircraft. As a successor to the C-1, it has a larger load capacity and a longer cruising range than the C-130.C-2The first mass-produced aircraft was handed over to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force in 2016.
C-130Is a tactical transport aircraft, and its cruising range is insufficient for intercontinental transportation.Therefore,U.S. ForcesAs a strategic transport aircraft for intercontinental transportC-5Etc. were used. Entering the 1990s, it can be operated even at an airfield with an undeveloped front like the C-130, and can be transported between continents.C-17Has been developed and is active in transportation from the continental United States to Europe and the Middle East.
oldUSSR,RussiaThen, he was enthusiastic about developing an aircraft as a means of transportation because the land is widely available and there are few oceans available.for that reason,Il-76,An-124From large machines such asAn-2We are developing many transport aircraft, including small aircraft such as.In addition, Russia has a particularly harsh winter climate, and not all airfields are in good condition.Therefore, all of the former Soviet transport aircraft have the advantage of being able to operate even on rough terrain.
The main modern military transport aircraft
- Grumman C-1 trader
- Grumman C-2 Greyhound
- Lockheed C-5 Galaxy
- McDonnell Douglas C-9(DC-9-30）
- Hawker C-12 B200 Super King Air
- McDonnell Douglas C-17 Globemaster III
- Gulf Stream C-20 (Gulfstream III, IV）
- Lear jet C-21 (Learjet 35A）
- シ ョ ー ト C-23 Sherpa
- Boeing C-32(Boeing 757-200）
- (Gulf Stream V）
- Boeing C-40 Clipper(Boeing 737-700）
- Lockheed C-130 Hercules
- Lockheed C-130J Super Hercules
- Lockheed MC-130 Combat Talon
- Douglas C-133 Cargo Master
- Boeing C-135 Stratlifter
- Boeing C-137 Strathliner(Boeing 707）
- Lockheed C-141 Star Lifter
- McDonnell Douglas KC-10 Extender
- Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker
- Boeing KC 767
- Bell H,Boeing H V-22 Osprey
- Bell V-280 Barrow (under development)
- Boeing KC-46 Pegasus(In development)
- Lockheed Tristar
- Antonov An-2
- Antonov An-12
- Antonov An-22 Anchey
- Antonov An-26
- Antonov An-28
- Antonov An-30
- Antonov An-32
- Antonov An-70
- Antonov An-72 Cheburashka
- Antonov An-74 Cheburashka
- Antonov An-124 Ruslan
- Antonov An-225 Muriya
- Embraer C-390(In development)
- Transport Allianz C-160 Transall
- PZL (en)
- Ilyushin Il-214(In development)
Typical transport aircraft of the past (some are active)
- Curtiss C-46 command
- Douglas C-47 Skytrain(DC-3）
- Douglas C-54 Skymaster (DC-4）
- Douglas C-74 Globemaster(DC-7）
- Curtiss C-76 caravan
- Douglas C-118 Liftmaster (DC-6）
- Douglas C-124 Globemaster II
- Douglas C-133 Cargo Master
- Boeing C-75 Strathliner(モ デ ル 307）
- Boeing C-97 Strato Freighter (モ デ ル 377）
- Boeing C-98 Clipper(モ デ ル 314-Flying boat）
- Lockheed C-121 Super Constellation (L-1049 Super Constellation）
- Bad RB / C-93 Conestga
- マ ー テ ィ ン JRM Mars
- Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle
- Abro yoke
- Handley Page Hastings
- Blackburn Beverly
- Armstrong Whitworth Argosy
- シ ョ ー ト Belfast
- Mitsubishi Type XNUMX land transport aircraft
- Kawanishi Type XNUMX transport aircraft
- Mitsubishi Type XNUMX land transport aircraft
- Aichi Type XNUMX transport aircraft
- 中 Type XNUMX transport aircraft(AT-2）
- Kawanishi Type XNUMX transport flying boat
- Kawanishi Type XNUMX transport aircraft
- Mitsubishi Type XNUMX transport aircraft
- 中 零 式 輸送 機
- Tachikawa B-type transport aircraft(Lockheed L-14 Super Electra）
- (I.e. Complete freighter
- Tachikawa Complete twin-engine advanced training aircraft type
- international Complete transport aircraft
- Kawanishi Clear sky
- NIPPI XNUMX trial small transport aircraft
- Kawanishi Blue sky
- Tachikawa Ki 92
- international Ki 105
- Arad Ar 232
- Junkers Ju 52
- Junkers Ju 252
- Junkers Ju 352
- Gotha Go 244
- Messerschmitt Me 323 gigant
- Siebel It 204
- ^ As an aircraft redesigned from a bomber, it has been active for a long period of about 60 years.B-29 A family of derivative aircraft is known (B-29 → C-97 → Pregnant Guppy → Super guppy）
- ^ The left side of the aircraft is equipped with a cargo loading / unloading port.rudderWas on the starboard sideShipDerived from the habit of.In ship terms, the port side is called the Port side, and the starboard side is called the Starboard side (changed from the Steering board side to the Starboad side).Space shipAlso follows this.
- ^ As a variant, the Canadian exCanadaiaCompany (currentBombardierCompany)CL-44Swing tail type is known.
- ^ A flat and large-area floor can be created even with a low wing arrangement, but for this purpose, the floor structure cannot be arranged unless it is above the central wing structure, so it is impossible to lower the floor.
- ^ Ground effectHowever, if the distance from the wing to the ground can be secured, it will be a multi-stage type.flapUsingTABLEPerformance improvement can be expected.
- ^ Horizontal stabilizer Vertical tailA format that can be attached to the top of the.
- ^ However, the fact that West Berlin could be maintained by air in the blockade of Berlin was also due to the fact that the Soviet troops that blocked West Berlin waited without attacking transport aircraft or airfields.
fact,Battle of Stalingrad,Battle of Dien Bien PhuThen, when the siege forces attack the transport aircraft and airfields constantly, for the safety of the transport aircraftparachuteIn addition to the reduced transportation efficiency, there were a number of cases in which the dropped supplies were swept away by the wind and scattered or dropped into the enemy's territory.The German and French troops, which had to rely on airlift for supply in both battles, were eventually cut off and defeated.
- ^ Heibonsha World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition