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🚌 | Secure access from subway station by on-demand bus Osaka Metro conducts demonstration experiment in Osaka city


Photo On-demand bus based on Osaka Metro's corporate color OM Bright Blue

Securing access from subway stations by on-demand bus Osaka Metro conducts demonstration experiment in Osaka city

 
If you write the contents roughly
The fare is 210 yen for adults and 110 yen for children, which is the same as the route bus that runs in the city.
 

From March 2021, 30, Osaka Metro will conduct a demonstration experiment of "on-demand bus" in Ikuno Ward and Hirano Ward in the southeastern part of Osaka City. → Continue reading

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Fee * Adult: 210yen

Transit Bus

Transit Bus(Rosen Bus) is operated by setting routes mainly on general roadsbus.highwayFor long-distance route buses (intercity express buses) that run mainly onExpress BusSee also.

Japanese route bus

Route bus under the Road Transport Law

Definition

JapanWhat is a fixed-route bus inMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismThanRoad transport lawIt is a type of regular route operation (Article 4-3 of the Road Transport Law Enforcement Regulations) performed by a general passenger car carrier that has obtained the permission of the "general passenger car transport business" stipulated in Article 3.[1].Shared busAlso called (Noriai Bus)[2].

In addition to fixed-route buses, regular route services (Article 3-3 of the Road Transport Law Enforcement Regulations) are also available.Express Bus,Community busAnd so on[1].. Of these, what is the definition of a shared bus (route bus) in the "general shared passenger car transportation business"?[3]

  • Those that carry an unspecified number of passengers.
  • FareThose that are paid transportation to receive.
  • Those that operate regularly.
  • Bus route (Operation system) Is defined.
  • Generally, the start and end points of the operating system orBus stopGet on and off at (Free boarding and alightingEtc.).

Say something.

Types of general passenger car transportation business[1]
TypeMode of operationExample of operation mode
General passenger car transportation businessRegular route serviceLocal buses, highway buses, community buses, shared taxis, etc.
Irregular operation of routesCommunity buses, demand-type transportation, shared taxis, etc.
Area operation
General charter passenger car transportation businessCharter Bus
General passenger car transportation businessTaxi

A permit (business permit) is required to carry out a general passenger car transportation business.[1].. The "general passenger car transportation business that carries an unspecified number of passengers together" as stipulated in Article 4 of the Road Transport Law is collectively referred to as "Article 4 shared".[1].. "4 Article shared" includes route buses, highway buses, community buses, demand traffic, shared taxis, etc.[1].. In the case of regular route operation, there is a license system (upper limit license system) for route extension and fare charges.[1].. In addition, the establishment or change of the bus stop is a post-notification system.[1].

In addition, although it is generally called a "route bus", privately-owned passenger transportation (paid transportation operated by municipalities such as municipal buses, paid transportation for public transportation blank areas, paid transportation for welfare), etc., as stipulated in Article 79 of the Road Transportation Law, is common. It is distinguished from the passenger car transportation business (Article 4 of the Road Transportation Business Law) and is a registration system.[1].

run

According to Article 12, it is prohibited to start (early departure) before the prescribed departure time, so if you arrive at the stop early, stop it even if there are no passengers boarding from the stop or passengers in the car Adjust the time. However,Closed door systemIf you arrive early at a stop that only handles disembarkation on the introduction route, you can depart before the prescribed departure time without adjusting the time as soon as the passengers disembark.

DepopulationOn the local route, most of the passengers board the bus from the starting point, and there are often no passengers boarding from the middle of the bus, and only alighting often continues. Therefore, when there are no passengers, the crew members stop the operation without permission.Bus stopMay occur. If any of these actions are discovered,Department of TransportationBased on the Road Transport ActAdministrative sanctionsIn addition to receivingMunicipalitiesからSubsidyWhen receiving and operating[4]There is also a problem that a refund request will be made. Under the Road Transport Law, it is possible to discontinue operation based on the required procedures in advance.[5].

2015 January,Yamato Transport Iwate Kita MotorUsing the local busMixed passengersStart transportation.2017 In September, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced the mixed loading of freight passengers on fixed-route buses.DeregulationWas expanded[6].

Bus operation

Current route buses are mainly in local citiesmotorizationAnd declining birthrate and aging populationDepopulationDue to the progress of the conversion, the operation situation is quite difficult.

The operation of such a deficit line has been covered by the surplus of the chartered bus business,Road transport lawThe amendment eased new entrants in the bus business, leading to excessive competition, making it impossible for many bus companies to maintain a deficit route.With the revision of the law, it has become possible to reduce or abolish routes without the consent of residents, and the number of routes is being reduced or reduced one after another.Also, due to the deterioration of the business environmentbankruptcyThere are also bus companies that do this.Also,Railway lineAlong with the abolition ofAlternative bus routeIn the case of, most of the railway lines that were originally abandoned were replaced by railway lines that were originally difficult to manage (exception:Meitetsu LineAs a result, the number of users continued to decrease after the bus was converted, and as a result, the chronic deficit did not improve, and there were a number of cases in which bus routes that were supposed to replace the railway were also abolished. Therefore, in order to avoid abandoned lines, public funds will be input, non-regular employment crew members will be actively used, and stickers will be put on the bus stop signs of abolished routes and reused on new routes, etc. There are many places where the route can be managed by thoroughly cutting down the places where the cost can be saved.

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAs of 2017, we are providing support through the "Regional Public Transportation Securing and Maintaining Project" for deficit routes with 1 to 15 users per day.[7].

To improve profitability,AdsTo serveWrapping vehicleAnd空港Strengthening of communication routes, branching of companies by region, outsourcing of operation operations to other companies, etc. are being carried out.

In big cities,subwayIn many areas, the route network has been reduced in line with the expansion of the route network.In addition, in big citiesTraffic jambyDiamondMaintaining punctuality (average speed 15 per hour)kmThe biggest issue is (basically assembling diamonds).About this recentlybus laneInstallation andPublic vehicle priority system(PTPS) introduction,Nagoya guide way busLike a bus passage construction (Guideway bus TheGuide rail typeTrainFor treatmentBus exclusive roadnot,Dedicated track, Etc.), such as the disadvantages of buses that are often hampered by scheduled traffic due to traffic congestion and congestion, are being tried to positively improve.

In addition, "Community busThe approach is also taken.TokyoMusashinoof"MubusIs known as a successful example.Only for children and students in depopulated areas where community buses do not operateSchool BusPick up and drop off atPublic transportationThere are also districts that are substituting route buses by running a paid transportation business for vacant lots.[8].

In addition,Osakaof the bus"Red busLike a small bus to enter a small area at a flat rate,100 yen busThere are also areas that are planning to increase the usage in the form called.TimetableIn some cases, the number of users has increased due to the distribution of.

Buses of railway companies are often separated from the automobile department (direct management) of the company. Since the 1970s, a partial spin-off of the company's direct-operated bus in the form of separating a part of the business areaNankai Electric Railway,West Japan Railway,Keisei Electric RailwayThere is an example in which it was carried out in the etc., but since the 1990s, the number of operators who completely separate the bus business is increasing. But,UnionIn some cases, due to reasons such as the relationship with the company, the spin-off or conversion into a subsidiary does not proceed.

In order to maintain the vehicles necessary for operating its own vehicle, the bus operator must beCar maintenance shopOwn the bus車 検I often do it myself[9].. Even if there is no dedicated maintenance shop, it is not uncommon in this industry to maintain a specific garage or base, obtain certification as an automobile maintenance shop, and carry out vehicle inspection, maintenance, repair, and small-scale modification. In addition, as a measure for effective use of equipment and personnel and securing sales, we are widely engaged in vehicle inspection and maintenance not only for vehicles related to our group but also for local taxi operators/transporters and general users' private cars, large vehicles, etc. However, it is not uncommon for a route bus company to have one aspect as an automobile maintenance/repair business. Also, necessary for driving a carAutomobile liability insurance,Car insuranceVarious centered oninsurance OfagencyWork[10]And car sales[11],gas station[12]In some cases, a bus company directly manages various automobile-related businesses.

When direct buses are abolished, there are cases where transfer discounts are offered between existing bus routes in order to reduce the decline in convenience.

Classified by bus

Basically, Japanese fixed-route buses stop at all stops on the route.Local trainMost of the services are equivalent to, but the time zone is limited (morning and evening) on ​​routes that have tourist spots, local routes that run long distances, and urban areas.At rush hourThere are routes that operate high-class buses such as limited express trains and express trains during the daytime hours.Some vehicles use the regular fixed-route bus type (see below).Charter typeThere are places to use, and it varies depending on the route and operating company. Express busSee also

Vehicle features

Currently, almost all fixed-route buses in JapanSecond-class driver's licenseHaddriverOnly one person is on boardOne-man drivingThe so-calledOne-man busIt is operated asForwarding,試 運 転If passenger transportation is not involved, etc.,First-class driver's licenseYou can drive in).1970 eraUntil the first half, collection of fares, opening and closing of doors,Railroad crossingCheck safety at places such as and guide when backing upconductorWas a one-man ride, but because of labor cost savings,1980 eraAlmost one-man operation. Therefore, the current route bus vehicle is basically a one-man specification and the equipment for the conductor is omitted.

Many of the buses of Japanese route buses are often provided with doors at the front and middle of the left side of the vehicle. Depending on the region, business operator, and route, vehicles with two doors in front and behind (some cities), vehicles with only one door in front (mainly in rural areas), front/middle・There are also vehicles (some businesses in large cities) that have doors installed at three locations behind them. But the so-calledBarrier-freeIn response to this, non-step and one-step vehicles have been introduced in recent years, and due to the structural relationship, doors are being integrated in two places, the front and the middle.

As of 2021New coronavirusFrom the viewpoint of preventing the spread of infection, the front row may not be available, although it differs for each bus operator.

The front door is located beside the driver's seat, and the fare will be settled when getting in and out using the front door.Fare box) Is generally placed.

Many seats face the direction of travel, but the seats between the front and rear doors on the left side of the vehicle (mostly)Priority seat) Often faces the side.On routes with a particularly large number of passengers, most seats are installed sideways, increasing the number of passengers.

Once there was a large step between the road surface and the guest room,wheelchairIt was difficult for the elderly to use, but in recent years, the body and equipment have been improved, and the wheelchair can be lifted up, and the body can be lowered by using air pressure when getting on and off,Non-step busBarrier-free is progressing, such as lowering the floor of the guest room and increasing the number of buses that make getting on and off easier by eliminating the step with the floor at the entrance of the front and center of the car body (a small part is also behind). There is.However, there are many drivers and businesses who refuse to get on and off in wheelchairs due to the route environment.[13][14].. In addition, the bus operator mayhandicappedIf you refuse to board2016 May 4Was enforced onLaw on promotion of elimination of discrimination due to disabilityMay be considered as "unfair discrimination on the grounds of disability", which is prohibited by. In addition,Public busIn such cases, the law requires legal obligations to government agencies (for private businesses).Duty of effort)Rational considerationMay be considered to have neglected to provide.

Formerly an old sightseeing bus vehicleCurtain,FareIn many cases, the fare box and other equipment for fixed-route buses were installed and converted to fixed-route buses.High deckerThe number of such modifications is decreasing due to the introduction of buses and the barrier-free route buses.In recent years 2012 (Heisei24 years) The service ended on March 3th.Kyoto City Transportation BureauThe vehicle used for the regular sightseeing bus inAquariumshuttle(Kyoto StationBeforeUmekoji ParkThere is an example used for the inter-access route).

How to get on and off

As a general rule, according to the Road Traffic Act, for regular buses,Bus stop(Bus stop) or in front of the stationBus terminalGet on and off at. In a section where the number of passengers is extremely small, such as in a section where the number of passengers is extremely small, you can get on and off at a place other than the bus stop by signaling the driver.Free boarding and alightingIn some cases.

The fare isFlat rate systemIn the case of (mostly in urban areas) and when the amount of money increases depending on the distance (Anti-kilometer system-Section system) There is.

In the case of a flat rate system in urban areas, board the driver from the front door, pay the fare, and get off from the rear or center door.[15]"Pre-ride and post-arrival paymentWas adopted a lot,TokyoFlat fare area,Kanagawa Of横 浜 市,Kawasaki City,AichiNagoya city,OkinawaNaha(For private businessesNaha bus),Hyogo OfItami City,AmagasakiAnd so on. Also in small and medium cities and countiesCommunity busIt may be adopted in a limited way.

In the case of a kilometer-based or section-based fare, board from the rear or center door[16]And pay the fare when exiting from the front door ``Pay back before getting onIs the basis. It is no exaggeration to say that this method is overwhelmingly more common in Japan than the former, and is used by most bus operators. AlsoOsakaAnd Hyogo prefectureKobe City such asKansaiBig cities andNagano OfMatsumoto(For private businessesAlpico Transportation・OldMatsumoto Electric Railway Bus)likeFlat fare area routesEven so, there are many cases where this method is adopted.

In addition, a general route bus that travels a long distance has a long boarding time, a small number of boarding and alighting times, and also has the purpose of providing as many seats as possible.busIs often adopted.In this case, the doorway is common to the front door.Pre-ride before exit and post-paymentWill be[17]. further,Hakone Tozan Bus(Kanagawa)Konan Bus(Aomori), Even businesses that have middle doors and rear doors but do not use them for getting on and offPre-ride before exit and post-paymentIt becomes.

"Deferred paymentIn the case of the "method", the general payment method is that a number is assigned to each boarding place when boarding.Numbered ticketOr takePASMOEtc.Prepaid Transportation CardsTouch the card reader on the entrance side to record the boarding.When getting off, put the fare according to the numbered ticket number confirmed on the fare table into the fare box next to the driver's seat, or touch the IC card to the card reader on the fare box side to pay the fare.

In addition, there is also a method called the credit boarding method, which tells the driver the destination and puts the fare to the destination in the fare box when boarding (Yokohama municipal bus's distance section and Kanagawa Chuo Kotsu Yokohama city line, Tokyo Bay City Kotsu,Otone TransportationEtc. in this methodPre-ride and post-arrival paymentIs). In addition, there are very few routes that we still use, but there is also a way to get on without getting a numbered ticket and tell the bus stop when you get off to pay the fare.

As a special case, there are also routes in the past where the boarding and alighting methods change during the operation, with a stop as a boundary.Kanagawa Central TransportationYamato Sales Office(Currently transferred to Kanagawa Chuo Kotsu Higashi)Town 71 systemWas applicable. This lineMachida Bus Center(TokyoMachida-shi)WhenNakayama Station(Yokohama-city kanagawa prefectureGreen District) Was tied, but in the middleAobadai Station(The same cityAoba-ku) Borders the Machida sidePre-ride before exit and post-paymentMethod, Nakayama sidePre-ride and post-arrival paymentIt was operating as a method.

Pros and cons

otherPublic transportCompare with.

Strong Points

  • The distance between bus stations is shorter than the distance between train stations
In particularFree boarding and alightingIf the section is adopted, there is an advantage that you can get on and off at a place other than the bus stop.
  • highwayAdvantageous in car type classification
Commander 9mMore than 30 passengers or gross vehicle weight 8tEven on the above buseshighwayClassified as "large vehicle"[18].
Buses other than route buses with a vehicle length of 9 m or more and a gross vehicle weight of 8 t or more or a passenger capacity of 30 or more are treated as "oversized vehicles".

Disadvantage

bus laneRoads without traffic are vulnerable to traffic jams and cause traffic jams.AlsoJapanese highwayThere is no bus lane in.
If you get caught in a traffic jam, the operation will be delayed.In addition, traffic jams may occur due to buses that stop at bus stops.
Fukuoka City,Kitakyushu,Kumamoto-shiCentral part,Utsunomiya City OfMain streetIn some cases, the number of buses is extremely large and the operation system is concentrated in the center of the city, which is the cause of traffic congestion.However, in order to avoid such a situation,Nishitetsu busOn medium-haul routesUrban highwayThere are many routes that use.In Utsunomiya CityLight rail maintenanceTaking this opportunity, the bus routes running on the main street will be dispersed to the surrounding roads to eliminate traffic congestion.[19].
As a general rule, buses run in the leftmost lane of the road,交 差点In the case of a right turn, depending on the position of the bus stop in front of you, you will cross from the leftmost lane to the right lane, which may block the entire road (Kumamoto-shiTo avoid this at some intersections, turn right from the leftmost bus lane, and general vehicles turn left from the second general vehicle lane from the left.Traffic signalIs also for buses only).
  • Shortage of bus drivers
Class Two Large-sized Type Driver's LicenseDue to the absolute shortage of acquirers, there is a chronic shortage of drivers.
Some businesses are adopting a "training system" to acquire a large two-class driver's license from an ordinary car license and work to eliminate the driver shortage[20][21][22].
There are many traffic accidents involving buses. Roads are generally mixed traffic, and accidents due to reckless driving of other vehicles or jumping out of pedestrians cannot be avoided.
In addition, poor working conditions, oversupply of bus services and intensifying competition can lead even public transport buses to reckless driving.There are cases in some bus companies where buses actually overspeed.[23].
The bus is also a car,Fossil fueluse(EV busEtc.)Exhaust gasTo put into the atmosphere,Air pollution,(I.e.,Global warmingWe cannot avoid such environmental problems.
Hybrid systemFor buses and fuels equipped withNatural gasAlso in buses that useUrea SCR systemAn increasing number of buses have introduced environmentally friendly systems calledNitrogen oxideEfforts are being made to reduce harmful emissions.in recent yearsFuel cellThe introduction of buses is also being promoted by some businesses.

Supplementary information

  • In generalSystem numberLines with a line are called "systems", but depending on the operator, "-" (Ryukyu Bus Transportation,Kintetsu Bus) And “-route” (Keihan Bus) May be the official name. Detail isThe articleSee.
  • In many areas, it is customary for drivers to raise their hands and greet each other when they pass by a colleague in operation (same operator or parent company and subsidiary).Normal operation (ie)Bus jackIn some cases, it also includes the meaning of confirming with the driver that an emergency situation such as the above has not occurred.Depending on the region, it may be carried out between different operators (mainly intercity bus joint operating companies and companies related to capital, etc.).However,2010 eraAfter that, from customers etc.Inattentive drivingOr one-handed driving may result in complaints[24],Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismBecause they also want to refrain from raising their hands[25], Many businesses banned[26][27].

Shared bus operator

United States route bus

The United States of AmericaThen, the long-distance highway bus "GreyhoundIs famous, but intercity transportation is by bus and train,Passenger planeShave offDuffel Bag - New York City - Washington DCExcept for some sections such as between, it is almost a solemn place for passenger aircraft.

New York orLos AngelesIn large cities such as, and in rural urban areas, there are many route buses (transit buses) that connect the city or the city center with the suburbs, and most of them are 1.DollarIt operates at a fare of about 25 cents- $ 5.With buses in the same transportation bureausubway,Light Rail-TramA transfer ticket valid for 1-2 hours will be issued to transfer to, and there will be no additional charge.Bike rack on the front of the car body (BicycleSome buses have a mounting base).With the exception of a few large cities such as New York City, the main users of local buses in and around the city are:Private carCan't ownPoorIs. To encourage the use of public transportation in the city center, many bus terminals and subway stations in the suburbs of large cities also have free parking lots. Although commuting travel expenses are not common in the United States, some companies have contracted with the Transportation Bureau to free employees to use buses to reduce parking costs.

Widely used by the general public and tourists in exceptional cases in the United StatesNew York City Transportation AuthorityThe bus runs 24 hours a day, similar to the city's subway, and the fare is flat.There are 12,499 bus stops in the city, and all buses are equipped with elevators for people with disabilities and wheelchairs.The annual number of city bus users (2004) in each city in the United States is as follows.[1].

  1. New York 7.40 million
  2. Los Angeles 3.67 million people
  3. Chicago 2.94 million
  4. Philadelphia 1.63 million

European route buses

A fixed-route bus is set up along with trams as a means of transportation within the city.Suppressing the entry of private cars into the city (Park and rideTherefore, many cities are implementing measures that can be used free of charge in a limited section of central Tokyo. Also,UKThe famous second-floor bus is famous,2005 On December 12th, he was unable to board in a wheelchair and demanded that public transportation be provided in consideration of persons with disabilities by 9.European Union(EU) Older cars have disappeared for general use due to problems such as barrier-free access such as the inability to meet unified standards.However, it is running for sightseeing.

Korean route bus

South KoreaThe bus owner used to be on the route bus, but now the one-man bus is the mainstream.[28]..Local buses were sometimes called "autonomous buses" in the sense that passengers pay their own fees.[28].. In addition to regular buses, there are categories of seat buses that accept passengers with a limited number of seats[28].

Singapore route bus

SingaporeBuses are the first public transportation system, and the number of users is about 300 million a year.[29].. In 2001, the share of public transportation was about 6% for the bus business and about 2% for the subway business, but in 2012, the share of public transportation was about 4% for the bus business and about 3% for the subway business. Became[29].

Operation form

In Singapore, the bus operation modes are shared bus (Basic Bus Services), shared plus bus (Basic-Plus Bus Services), supplementary bus (Supplementary Bus Services), premium bus (Premium Bus Services), and special bus (Special Bus Services). , Shuttle Bus Services are divided into 6 types[29].

There are the following differences between the shared bus (Basic Bus Services) and the shared plus bus (Basic-Plus Bus Services).

  • Shared Bus (Basic Bus Services)
    • It runs daily from morning to night, and a bus stop is set up every 400m due to the part-time system and universal service (USO).[29].
  • Basic-Plus Bus Services
    • It is an express bus that operates during the morning and evening commuting hours on weekdays, and the time is about 20% shorter than the shared bus, and the usage fee is set higher than the shared bus.[29].

Supplementary Bus Services is an express bus that is operated during the morning and evening commuting hours on routes with many users (Scheme B) and school buses under the system introduced in 1974.[29].

Shared bus operator

In order to operate a bus business in Singapore, it is necessary to apply for a route and timetable in advance and obtain a bus service license (BSL) from the public transport council.[29].. Businesses operating 10 or more routes must meet the service standards and obtain a Bus Service Operator's License (BSOL).[29].

As of 2014, only two companies, SBS Transit Ltd. and SMRT Buses Ltd., have been licensed as bus service providers for shared buses and shared plus buses.[29].. Bus operators other than the two public transportation operators operate other bus operators as general bus operators.[29].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Basic knowledge of road transportation method”. Kanto Transport Bureau, Automotive Transportation Department, Passenger Section XNUMX. 2022/1/9Browse.
  2. ^ Official Homepage of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism General passenger passenger car transportation business (shared bus, route bus)
  3. ^ What is a general passenger passenger car transportation business (shared bus, route bus)? Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismChubu Transport BureauGifu Transport BranchOfficial website (accessed October 2020, 10)
  4. ^ The route bus was cut off in front of the end point for more than half a year "I wanted to return early"Asahi Shimbun digital(April 2017, 12) Viewed June 23, 2017
  5. ^ "Gifu Bus, service discontinued just before the end point, receive administrative guidance"Mainichi Newspapers』April 2017, 11 (viewed June 12, 2017)
  6. ^ "New movements in local public transportation-focusing on mixed cargo and passengers-"Development Bank of JapanJune 2018 (viewed July 6, 2021)
  7. ^ "Wasted taxes Taxes on depopulated bus users "Inflated""." Mainichi Shimbun "(November 2017, 11). 2018/11/16Browse.
  8. ^ EhimeYawatahama CityNichido districtExample.Source:Settlement support staff "Yawatahama, this and that" -Nichido district edition ①Yawatahama City Emigration / Settlement Support Portal Site (November 2018, 11) Viewed October 2, 2020
  9. ^ Hokkaido Central BusAt the Otaru maintenance shop inOtaruDistrict andNiseko BusMaintenance, at the Sapporo factorySapporoDistrict andSapporo Daiichi Tourist BusMaintenance, at the Sorachi factorySorachidistrict·AsahikawaOf sales offices and subsidiariesSorachi Central BusFor example, we also outsource vehicle maintenance.
  10. ^ Mie traffic,Showa MotorAnd many more.
  11. ^ As an exampleKusugaru Trafficetc.
  12. ^ As an exampleOdakyu Busetc.
  13. ^ "Chibakotsu apologizes Wheelchair users refuse to board the bus"Chiba Daily] June 2017, 4
  14. ^ "Refusal to board the bus due to wheelchair reason Complained to the Chiba Prefectural Committee"Chiba Daily" April 2017, 4
  15. ^ You may be able to get off from the front door only at the end point
  16. ^ In some cases, you can get on from the front door only at the starting point where the numbered ticket described below is not issued
  17. ^ Depending on the route, "Pre-ride, pre-paymentMay be
  18. ^ Basic fare model list Dorapura (East Japan ExpresswayOperated by). Toll car types may differ depending on the expressway.
  19. ^ = LRT station west extended Odori bus route reorganized Utsunomiya City examination Shimotsuke Shimbun July 2017, 7 morning edition
  20. ^ Bus driver recruitment information Kanto bus(Retrieved September 2017, 10)
  21. ^ Training driver (application guidelines) Keikyu Express Bus(Retrieved September 2017, 10)
  22. ^ Bus driver recruitment Akita Chuo Kotsu(Retrieved September 2017, 10)
  23. ^ "Passenger complaints "dangerous" Route buses on the east coast of the main island of Okinawa, frequent sudden braking due to overspeed, drivers, "not in time" on time". Ryukyu Shimpo (September 2018, 9). 2021/9/11Browse.
  24. ^ Example:"About bus driver customs". Shimane (Matsue City Transportation Bureau) (December 2017, 9). As of July 15, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/9/7Browse.
  25. ^ "Implementation of general guidance and supervision given to drivers of commercial vehicles by automobile carriers Manual, bus operators, Volume 2 Main volume (pdf) ”. Safety Policy Division, Automobile Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. P. 28 (June 2018). As of November 6, 2020オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/9/7Browse.
  26. ^ Example:"2021 Safety Report (pdf) ”. Hakone Tozan Bus. pp. 3-4 (July 2021, 7). As of September 8, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/9/7Browse.
  27. ^ Example:"Efforts to prevent recurrence of improper handling of bus fares (report) (including Yokohama Municipal Bus Crew Handbook) (pdf) ”. Yokohama City Transportation Bureau. p. 61 (Handbook, page 50) (February 2013, 2). As of February 19, 2021オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2021/9/7Browse.
  28. ^ a b c Tadayuki Masuda "Korean Step Up 20" (Sanshusha, 2007), p. 14
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tomohiro Nakata. “Bus Business Structure and Initiatives in Singapore”. Transportation Economic Research Institute. 2022/1/9Browse.

References

  • Fumihiko Suzuki"Current / Future of Route Bus" "Same Part2" Grand Prix Publishing, 2001

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Trip program with route bus as the main

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