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Immigration quarantine is XNUMX days at the hotel + XNUMX days at home

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Airlines are also expected to increase flights to Japan, South Korea and Southeast Asia.

Entry restrictions on Hong Kong will finally be eased from August XNUMXth. According to Hong Kong newspapers on the XNUMXth, currently immigration ... → Continue reading

 Hong Kong Post

"Hong Kong Post" was first published in June XNUMX as Hong Kong's first full-scale Japanese newspaper. We provide Japanese residents in Hong Kong and Japanese readers with seasonal information that supports business and life through Hong Kong in tabloids and electronic media.

Wikipedia related words

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Airlines(Kokugaisha) is a fee (airfare) collected from the user.aircraft(mainlyairplane)Usingpassenger,cargoOrganization to transport.AirlineAlso called (airline).


An airline company is a type of air carrier, and the air carrier includes an airline company and a consolidation carrier that uses the airline company. If the shipper makes a contract with the consolidator, the contract carrier is the consolidator and the actual carrier is the airline[1].

Warsaw ConventionThere is no definition of air carrier in such treaties[1].

The companies that operate cargo flights include the cargo divisions of passenger airlines, specialized cargo airlines,DHL(DHL Aviation) AndFedex(FedEx ExpressThere is a case where a global integrated logistics company such as ), skips the dedicated machine in-house.

Some companies undertake not only transportation but also operation and maintenance of aircraft owned by other companies.

Depending on the airlineCharter flights,Air taxiDoing business.

Airlines of each country

米 国

In the United States, the Civil Aviation Law was enacted in 1938, and new entry into the aviation market was regulated to protect airline operators[2].. The Act also established the Civil Aviation Commission (CAB)[2].

Under the Carter administration in 1978Aviation Deregulation LawRegulation was gradually relaxed regarding new entry into the aviation market, airfare, and route setting[2].

In January 1982, the route permission system was abolished.[2].. In January 1983, the fare permission system was abolished.[2].. The Civil Aviation Commission (CAB) was dissolved in December 1984.[2].


The EU Airline Liberalization Agreement is an international agreement, which proceeded in three stages and was completed in April 3.[3].

Within the EU, the nationality clause of airlines was abolished by the Liberalization of Aviation Agreement.[3].. As a general rule, airlines in the EU will be able to freely enter international flights, and full transportation rights will be granted with the exception of environmental and airport circumstances.[3].. Fares can also be set by airlines in the EU to set free fares on routes within the region, and countries can interfere with excessively high or excessively low fares, but airlines can sue the EU Commission in the case of dissatisfaction.[3].


JapaneseAviation lawArticle 2 defines as follows.

Paragraph 17 In this Act, "air transportation business" means the business of transporting passengers or cargo for a fee using an aircraft in response to the demand of others.
Clause 18 In this Act, "International Air Transport Business" means an air transport business between a point within Japan and a point outside Japan, or between locations outside Japan.
Clause 19 In this Act, "Domestic regular air transportation business" means the air transportation business carried out by aircraft that set routes between various parts of Japan and travel at a certain date and time.
Clause 20 In this Act, "Aircraft-using business" means the business of using aircraft to perform contracts for acts other than the transportation of passengers or cargo in response to the demand of others.

In Japan, the companies (businesses) that operate the business mainly prescribed in Article 2, Paragraph 18, and Paragraph 19 of the Civil Aeronautics Act are often called "aviation companies." By the way, the air transportation business of Article 2, Paragraph 17 of the Civil Aeronautics Act is to transport according to the demand of others, including regular air transportation business, chartered transportation of personnel and supplies, sightseeing flight, etc.[4].

There are two major airlines that operate the regular air transportation business in Japan.Japan AirlinesAll Nippon Airways'Full-service carrier', new entry airline'emerging airline' due to deregulation policy started in 1986,'Low price'Cheap airline"are categorized[5].


Early days to World War II

1909, DELAG was established using a rigid airship for aviation business (Zeppelinreference).

191312/13, LeafyairplaneThe first airline usingFloridaSt. PetersburgTampaIn service with 29 round trips a day between (1 km)[6]. It was an airmail carrying a single passenger or a cargo of up to £1 on a biplane[6].

After that, the aviation business centered on the transportation of postal goods developed throughout the United States.[6]. Furthermore, in the First World War, aircraft became strategically important, and performance was markedly improved.[6].19275/20ToCharles LindberghSucceeded in a single non-landing flight between New York and Paris (flight distance 5,810 km) with a monoplane single-engine propeller aircraft.[6].

in Japan's case,Second World WarbeforeJapan Air TransportAnd the posteriorJapan Airlines,Manchurian AirlinesThere were many national airlines and small airlines, but most of the news coverage and軍隊It is said that there were almost no air routes for transportation because of the relationship.

World War II-1970s

1944,Second World WarIt will be the basis of the later international civil aviation frameworkChicago ConventionWas signed[6]. Signing of the Chicago Convention A bilateral agreement on air transportation was signed between the countries[6].

Postwar in Japan194511/18,GhqBy the order of, the total ban on civil aviation and training, research, etc. on aviation at the individual level are suspended.[7], The aviation industry is almost wiped out.After that, seven Allied airlines (7 airlines trying to control domestic air rights before concluding a peace treaty)Northwest Airlines,Pan American Airlines,British Overseas Airlines,Canadian Pacific Airlines,Philippine Airlines,Civil Air Transport Company) Moved to establish JDAC (Japan Domestic Airline Company), so the Japanese government (Airline Agency)CabotageDenied by (own transportation right of domestic transportation) as a shield. This claim was accepted by GHQ,1951By former Japan Airlines officialsSpecial companyAsJapan AirlinesWas established, but at this point it is not possible to operate by Japan yet.Northwest AirlinesWas entrusted to the operation. Next day1952ToPeace treatyWhen you conclude and restore independence,JapanAtairplaneProduction and operation ofindustryAs an aviation business begins to flourish.1972Country (former Ministry of Transport, presentMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) Policy, 3 major airlines,All Nippon Airways,Toa Domestic Airlines(Later merger with Japan Airlines) System (45/47 system) Has been established, Japan Airlines international and domestic trunk lines, All Nippon Airways domestic in general, Toa domestic airlines domestic domestic routes, the division of framework has been established.


In 1978Jimmy CarterLaunches air liberalization,Southwest AirlinesSuch asCheap airlineDeveloped rapidly[8].

In Japan,Ministry of TransportSo-called by the guidance of45/47 systemBelow, for a long time, Japan Airlines,All Nippon Airways (All Nippon Airways, ANA), Old:Japan Air System(JAS, currently merged with Japan Airlines, until 1988, Toa Domestic Airlines (TDA)), Japan Airlines has a three-company system, including all international flights and domestic flights.Main lineAll Nippon Airways has domestic flights and international charter flights, and Toa Domestic Airlines has domestic quasi trunk lines.Local lineHowever, in 1986, this framework collapsed, All Nippon Airways became an international scheduled flight, and Toa Domestic Airlines became able to advance to an international flight. All Nippon Airways advanced to an international scheduled flight from the same year. Toa Domestic Airlines changed its company name to Japan Air System in 1988, when it launched regular international flights. After that, All Nippon Airways grew to become an airline that is almost the same as Japan Airlines including international flights, but Japan Air System led to the management integration into Japan Airlines in 2002 due to the poor management.

Since the 1990s

Business crisis

In the past, in the event of international conflicts such as the Gulf War, it was observed that the demand for international aviation fell for about three years.

the 1990sからCheap airlineIn the meantime, a major reorganization was taking place due to cost reductions due to the rise of20019/11Occurred inAmerican terrorist attacksIn, the regular line aircrafthijackBeenskyscraperRush into, suicideterrorismThe shock caused by being used forCrude oil priceAs a result of rising fuel costs due to soaring prices, overall aviation industry management deteriorated. in America2005By the time 7 of the 4 major companiesBankruptcydid.

Each company made efforts to reduce costs such as restraining personnel expenses, and as a result, the brightness was finally visible, but in 2006, fuel cost soared,UKInPassenger plane bombing attempted terrorismIt has been put into a difficult situation again due to the discovery of.

This is also the case for Japanese airlines, especially for the Japan Airlines Group, which has long-haul international routes, and it had a significant impact on the route, but in Europe it was seen as a flag carrier in Switzerland and Italy. In many cases, the company was reorganized under the control of another multinational group. However, it started in earnest around 2013WesternIncrease in tourists visiting JapanLCCBy the middle of the 2010s, it will become a majorJALGroups andANAAll the groups have succeeded in being reborn as profitable companies. For about three years until the fiscal year 2015, when the highest net profit was renewed, a large number of major airlines with record high profits continued to appear.Iberian airlines(Kingdom of Spain) And other cases of reconstruction by other overseas airlines, the company has achieved profitability at an exceptional speed, and in particular, it has managed to rebuild itself without being under the umbrella of a particular foreign airline and is completely independent. It is evaluated by the point. Currently, it has returned to the previous state, such as ordering a new machine,Japan AirlinesANAIt is,21st centuryIs one of the most successful management restructurings.

Cheap airlineAs a result, the use in emerging countries has increased, and the domestic aviation industry is booming. It is also causing booms in other industries, such as hotel development near airports. Not only many foreign passengers,インターネットThe fact that various travel forms are becoming common in Japan is also thought to be the cause of the boom.

Alliance, Alliance (Airline Alliance)

Due to the above circumstances, airline companies around the world have been spurred by reorganization such as business integration and tie-ups, and are currently being consolidated into the following three groups.

Alliance disappeared

Management/labor problems

In Japan, whether the vested interests of the labor side (especially the crew union) in the time when it was protected by regulation until the 1970s have been declining,TrainOther ofTransportationUnlike 2006, labor-management problems have beenstrikeOften rush into.Job categoryThe fact that the union is separated due to such reasons is also rare in other industries. Furthermore, even if airline companies are merged, the labor union may remain, which complicates labor-management relations. Maintaining and maintaining smooth labor-management relations is one of the important management issues for Japanese airlines.

Whether the cost reduction due to deregulation since 1997 is affecting,Japan Airlines(JAL, Nikko) management conflicts, maintenance mistakes, operation mistakes, etc. have been revealed one after another, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has repeatedly conducted inspections and cautions. On the other hand, even in the emerging Skymark, maintenance mistakes were discovered many times due to mass retirement of mechanics etc.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs conducting an audit.

Competition between Shinkansen and airlines

Connects Tokyo with other big cities in JapanShinkansenHas been a challenge for many years, and in recent yearsTokaido Shinkansen OfShinagawa StationOpening of businessHokuriku Shinkansen OfKanazawa StationCompetition with competing routes such as the opening of business is becoming more intense.

Historically,Haneda-Withdrawal from most routes in the Tohoku area (Haneda-SendaiEtc.) and reduction (Haneda-Akita-YamagataEtc.). Haneda-Osaka,Hiroshima,FukuokaIn western Japan, such as, is playing a fierce competition for passengers. Airline companies are fighting the Shinkansen by offering discounted fares to the front, and between Haneda and Osaka, each company cooperates and operates a shuttle service that operates every hour. Also1994The Kansai International Airport opened and is shifting late flights to Kansai to strengthen the cover of Itami, which has a curfew (it cannot be reached after 21:00 due to noise issues).

In addition, the Shinkansen in the Tohoku area is strong,JR West Japan OfSanyo ShinkansenIt is,Discount ticketReluctant toJR TokaiOwned byTokaido ShinkansenPrice competitiveness is low becauseTohoku Shinkansen TheJR EastIt is said that it is easy to set a discount ticket by owning only the airline, and the airline avoids price competition with JR East.On routes that do not involve much railroads, Haneda-Fukuoka, Naha, Chitose and Osaka (Itami / Itami)Kansai)-Chitose and Naha are competing for share between airlines.

Disappearance of new entrants

in JapanAviation lawBy the revision of1997Has partially liberalized the setting of airfares, and Skymark Airlines (nowSky mark) And Hokkaido International Airlines (currently:AIRDO), But the three existing companies (two existing companies since 3) were forced to struggle to set the same amount of competitive fares, and Hokkaido International AirlinesCivil Rehabilitation LawApplication was applied for, and the business was rebuilt with the support of ANA and completed in March 2005.

There are many other companies that are planning to enter the market but have disappeared because they could not enter service.The walls of the two major airlines (Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways) are thick, and most new entrants are struggling to establish a business model.In any case, it is the largest market, with a large amount of capital investment including aircraft, problems with the backyard system such as securing and maintenance of crew members, and above all.Haneda airportIt is not easy to establish services that are superior to those of the two major group companies, such as securing slots in Japan, and it seems that it is quite difficult to operate a new regular air transportation business in Japan.

Enclosure by mileage service

Aviation unionUtilized the aviation network by (Alliance)Mileage serviceThe enclosing of customers by the expansion ofJapan Airlines,ANAHas become an important sales strategy. All Nippon Airways since 1999Star alliance, Japan Airlines from 2007One worldJoin theSky teamIt covers the two major unions except. Japan Air System was called "mileage service" at that time.

Airlines that join SkyTeam in East AsiaKorean Air(South Korea),China Airline(Republic of China),Mandarin Airlines(Republic of China),China Eastern Airlines(People's Republic of China),Shanghai Airlines(People's Republic of China),Xiamen Airlines(People's Republic of China) Of 7 companies.

Direct ticket sales (using the Internet)

For domestic flights, after making a reservation at the airline's telephone window, at the travel agency windowAirline ticketI often boughtインターネットIn-houseWebsiteFrom the web pageReservation,Airline ticketTo enable the purchase ofTravel clubWe are working to reduce sales fees paid to.ADSLSo calledBroadband internet connectionInternet reservations have been expanded since around 2001, when was popularized. For domestic flights, there is also a reservation website jointly funded by ANA and Japan Airlines, like "Domestic.com".


  1. ^ a b Air carrier liability range Interlink, read January 2017, 1.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Yasuko Inoue, "Aviation Business Theory," Nihon Hyoronsha, 2008, p. 21. 
  3. ^ a b c d Yasuko Inoue, "Aviation Business Theory," Nihon Hyoronsha, 2008, p. 35. 
  4. ^ About permission for air transportation business Retrieved by MLIT, August 2017, 1.
  5. ^ 7th Aircraft Finance - Hitotsubashi UniversitySumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationEndowed lecture
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Encyclopedia of Transportation" Maruzen, 2011, p.172
  7. ^ Ordered a total ban on civilian aviation (November 20, 11 Asahi Shimbun) "Showa News Dictionary Vol. 19 8 / 17" p20 Mainichi Communications 260
  8. ^ "Encyclopedia of Transportation" Maruzen, 2011, p.174

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