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    University(university,British: college,university) IsAcademicResearch andEducationInHigher education.

    JapanCurrentSchool education systemThen,high schoolOrSecondary schoolGraduation, 12 years with regular courseSpecial educationThose who have completed the above, or equal to or higher than thisAcademic abilityProfessional for those who haveHigher educationIs supposed to do.Depending on the student's curriculum and fulfillment of completion requirementsBachelor of Science(Junior college,Bachelor,Master,Professional degree,Doctor)ofBachelor of ScienceThe award will be given (note that the name and definition of the degree also differ depending on the country or region).Universities are usually regarded as "schools that study the highest degree of learning" and are also called the highest schools.[1][Note 1].

    Birth of a university

    History of higher education institutions

    UniversityIs simply defined as a higher education institution7th century BCFoundingTaxira OfmonasteryWill be the oldest university.At Taxila Monastery, the equivalent of a degree was given to graduates.world Heritage OfTaxiraCurrent with ruinsPakistan OfIslamabadIt was in the northwest,6st centuryWas destroyed along with the city.Ancient indiaOnce inLearningAs a centerTaxira,Nalanda,KanchipuramIt is said that there was.

    387 BCToThe Ancient Greek OfphilosopherPlatoMade byAcademia(Athens) Then,Math,哲学Etc. are taught,CrusaderOr later,Islamic worldThrough the Middle AgesEuropeIt had a great influence on the establishment of the university.Besides, in Greece,HippocratesHometown ofKos IslandToMedical scienceschool,Rhodes IslandThere is a school of philosophy inア レ ク サ ン ド リ アToMuseum(Mouseion)Whenlibrary(Alexandria Library)was there.

    ChugokuThen.Former HanTeenager124 BCIs a government official training schoolTaixueWas established. ""Kanji""Summer: Says the school,YinAccording to him,weekIt says "Introduction".In the Zhou dynasty辟 雍It is also called. ""TributeThe royal system says, "Tenshi Mikoto Kyosei Gakugaku. Elementary school palace Minami no left, university suburbs.After the generationGuozijianPlayed the role of the highest school.

    5st centuryOf establishmentNalanda Monastery TheIndia OfNalanda ProvinceLocated inBuddhismHe was famous for his academic research centered on Buddhism, and taught not only Buddhism but also astronomy.In addition to the awarding of a degree equivalent, nowGraduate SchoolsThere is also a course equivalent toWestern Region,Persia,Arab worldPeople came to learn from.The donations and offerings of local enthusiastic Buddhists covered the operating costs and food expenses of the students, and at the peak, the number of students reached about 1, the number of teachers reached 1000, and the number of books in the collection reached 500 million. The buildings (one of the largest in the world) have been expanded by successive kings who valued Buddhism, and the campus area has reached about 10km x 5km, with a large tower in the center. It continued until the destruction by Muslims around the 12th century.

    6st centuryToThirst morningPersianTo (Gundeshapur)was there.

    in Japan,7st century OfEmperor TenchiIn the reign ofOfficials"For the purpose of trainingUniversity dormitoryWas founded.

    Caroling morningThen,Charlemagne Aachen(CurrentGermany OfNorth Rhine-WestphaliaA school named scola palatina (court school) was established in the city. (Brexgata University Academy) also by Carolingian leaders798, NowFrance OfNoyonIt was established in the suburbs.With the participation of scholars, rulers, priests, Charlemagne himself, etc., on the education of the general public, education of the ruler's children (as the next generation ruler), rulership, defense of the territory from invaders, waste We were discussing how to prevent it.These activities were the preparation for the university (universitas).

    EuropeThe first university in the Middle Ages in849ToByzantine EmpireAmoria dynasty3 feeemperorMichael V OfregentBuilt by Bardas MamikonianUniversity of ConstantinopleAt (or the University of Magnaura Palace) (or the next generationMacedonian RenaissancePioneer),9st centuryToUniversity of SalernoWas made.

    988FoundingAl-Azhar University(966Of establishmentMosque(Derived from)Egypt OfCairoLocated inIslamic law,Plato,ア リ ス ト テ レ スStudies of ancient Greece were conducted, and courses equivalent to graduate school were also conducted.

    History of universities (universitas)

    University is a modern Western language university (Yi: university,British: university,Buddha: university,alone: University), The history is12st century-13st centuryBegins with.Originally the Latin "universitas" (Universitas), And begins with the student guild (union).The world's first school rules were created as rules from student guilds to teachers (such as "do not take classes without permission from the student guild" and "not from the city without permission from the student guild").Later, a guild of teachers was created, meaning a coalition.Universities that mean guild = union have no hierarchical relationship between students, and it is closer to the original meaning to use "union" instead of "university" as the Japanese translation.[Note 2]..The term Universitas originally referred to the whole organization, but in particular it came to refer to the "Universitas societas magistrorum discipulorumque university teachers and student union Nari".[2].

    The earliest representative of the medieval universities is ItalyUniversity of BolognaAnd of FranceUniversity of ParisIs.Bologna University is a free city-stateBolognaWas born in. Since the end of the 11th century, "Corpus Juris Civilis』ResearchedIrneriusBologna, where many legal scholars had opened private schools, became famous as a school city with a law school, and students from all over the world protected their rights to citizens and city authorities. The origin of the university is the union that was formed by uniting for the purpose.Universities in this sense are spontaneously established, so it is not possible to clearly indicate the year of foundation.[3]..On the other hand, in Paris in the 12th century, there are many schools including the school attached to Notre Dame Bishop's Cathedral and the school attached to St. Genevieve Monastery.AbelardAlso often gave lectures in Paris. It was the beginning of the University of Paris that by the end of the 12th century these teachers had rallyed against the intervention of those in power.It is not possible to clarify when the University of Paris was established as a coalition of private schools, but it was approved by the King of France in 1200 and recognized as an autonomous organization by the Papal Bull's book "Father of Studies" in 1231. rice field.England OfOxford UniversityAnd of FranceUniversity of MontpellierIs also a naturally occurring university like this[4][Note 3]..In these early colleges, teachers and students may move to other cities in groups for some reason, thereby leaving Oxford University.Cambridge UniversityBut from the University of ParisUniversity of OrleansBut from the University of BolognaUniversity of PaduaWas born.Further by the PopeUniversity of ToulouseBut by the kingshipUniversity of Salamanca,University of NaplesWas established. In the 14th century, by the territorial princes of the Holy Roman EmpireCharles University,University of Vienna,Heidelberg UniversityWas founded one after another.

    In medieval Western Europe, universitiesFaculty of Theology(キ リ ス ト 教Training of priests),Faculty of Law(LawyerTraining),Faculty of medicine(Doctor(Training) with three advanced facultiesFree artsIt consists of 4 faculties and XNUMX faculties.ProfessionIt was a big role to train. With the increasing professionalization of society between the 12th and 13th centuries, similar demands increased for professional clergy. Before the 12th century, the intellectual life of EuropeConventWas entrusted to.The monastery is exclusivelyceremonyAnd involved in the study of prayer, a few monasteries were able to boast of true intellectuals.Canonical lawEsotericAbout researchGregorian ReformAccording to the emphasis of the bishop, bishops include logic and controversy for training clergy under canon law, as well as for use in sermons and theological discussions, and accounting for more effective financial management. He also organized the Bishop's Cathedral School to train clerics in the more secular aspect of church management.Many universities born by the end of the Middle Ages in the Western Latin ChurchCatholic churchIt was founded under the auspices of the Pope and secular monarchs.These universities are called "created universities", whereas Bologna University and the University of Paris are "self-sustaining universities".

    Learning is of the churchhierarchyIndispensable for promotion within, teachers also gained fame.However, demand soon exceeded the capacity of the Bishop's Shrine School, which was essentially run by a single teacher.In addition, tensions between students of the Bishop's Cathedral School and the citizens of smaller towns have increased, and the Bishop's Cathedral School has become.ParisAnd moved to big cities like Bologna.

    In the 13th century, about half of the highest duties in the church were occupied by master's degree holders (abbot, archbishop, cardinal), followed by more than one-third of higher duties by masters.In addition, some great theologians of the heyday of the Middle Ages,Thomas Aquinas,Robert GrosstestIs from a medieval universityScholasticismCan be said to be the product.The development of medieval universities included the widespread reintroduction of Aristotle from Byzantine and Jewish scholars, and Platonism in support of Aristotelian ideas.NeoplatonicismConsistent with the decline in popularity.

    Medieval universities did not have a campus.Classes are held wherever space is available, such as churches and homes, and universities are not physical locations, but groups of individuals who are united as a united guild of students and teachers. was.The university as a higher education institution known by this name is a product of medieval Europe and has no direct relation to the ancient educational institutions that existed in other parts of the world.

    Universities were generally organized according to two types that depended on who paid the teacher.The first type was in Bologna, where students hire teachers and pay salaries.The second type is in Paris, where teachers are paid by the church.This structural difference created other features.At the University of Bologna, students managed everything.In fact, teachers were often put under great pressure and disadvantage.In Paris, teachers ran the school.Therefore, Paris has become the number one place for teachers from all over Europe.In Paris, the subject matter was theology, as the church was paying.In Bologna, students chose more secular studies, and the main subject was jurisprudence.

    University research took six years for a bachelor's degree and another twelve years for a master's or doctoral degree.The first 6 yearsLiberal ArtsI studied at the faculty of the arts, which studies (= seven liberal arts) (arithmetic, geometry, astronomical, music, grammar, logic, rhetoric).Due to his close ties to scholasticism, which was a popular teaching method at the time, his emphasis was on logic.

    Once a Bachelor of Arts degree is obtained, students choose one of three faculties-the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Medicine, and the Faculty of Theology-to become a master's or doctor's degree.Theology was the most prestigious and most difficult area of ​​scholarship.

    Courses are set up according to books, not by subject or theme.For example, one courseア リ ス ト テ レ スBooks orBibleMay be based on books from.The course was not an option, the course was fixed and everyone had to take the same course.However, there were extraordinary choices depending on which teacher used it.

    The student entered college when he was 14 or 5 years old.Classes usually started at 5 or 6 am.

    The student was given protection.It was the emperor who gave the students privilegesFriedrich Barbarossa Of(English editionBy.No one is allowed to cause physical harm to the student, the student is only heard for crime in the ecclesiastical court, and therefore anyPhysical punishmentI was spared from.This gave students the freedom to violate secular law in an urban environment.In fact, many abuses have been made, and theft, rape, and murder were not uncommon among priestly but unscrupulous students.[5]..This led to uneasy tension with secular authority.Students sometimes "strike" by leaving the city and not returning for years.This is after a riot (initiated by a student) has killed a large number of students.1229Happened on a strike at the University of Paris.The students continued to strike and did not return for two years.Students are legally treated as quasi-priests[6][Note 4], Women were not allowed to enter college. In the 12th and 13th centuries, students were seen walking from university to university and dropping out and becoming wandering.[5]..They were prodigal clergy who couldn't get a regular job in the church,GoliardOr called an itinerary student (clerici vaganti).

    Popular textbooks for university researchPeter LombardIt is called "Propositional Collection".Theological students and masters were required to write extensive annotations on this textbook as part of the curriculum.Much of the medieval thought in philosophy and theology is found in scholastic literature annotations.Because scholasticism was a very popular teaching method.

    Any university with international excellence in EuropeHoly Roman EmpireByStudium GeneraleWas registered as (Studium Generale).Members of this facility were encouraged to disseminate their knowledge throughout Europe, as they often offer lecture courses at different Studium Generale.

    Modern university

    米 国Then.1636ToHarvard University(First as Harvard College) is born.

    United KingdomThen,Anglican ChurchUnder the initiative of中 世 OfguildFollowed the tradition of a typical university貴族Education is conducted at the university, and research is conducted by the private sector.AcademyIt was advanced and announced at.

    FranceThen,1806ToNapoleon BonaparteThe former local university was reduced to a vocational school, and the newly established Imperial University (L'Université impériale) Was supervised and supervised, and the model that the nation was in charge of the education of the people was adopted, and the research was also carried out at the academy.

    Of particular importanceLinguistPrussia Of政治家Was also famousWilhelm von HumboldtMade the skeletonUniversity of BerlinIs.The University of Berlin aims to acquire truth and knowledge based on independent research by researchers and students under the slogan of "academic freedom" from the state.Jurisprudence,theology,Medical scienceFocusing on traditional academic fields such as哲学Not only these three disciplinesnatural ScienceWe adopted a model that guides theoretical research in all academic fields, including.Berlin UniversityResearchEducationTo integraterevolutionBy changing the way of thinking, it became a model for universities in each country and supported the formation of its industry.[Note 5].. In the 19th century,History,Sociology,Pedagogy,folkloreNew academic fields such asMath,physics,ChemicalNot only has the existing academic field developed rapidly, but哲学からPsychology,History of philosophyThe basic fields of today's universities have almost revealed their skeleton.

    Graduate education will be emphasized in the United Kingdom and the United States.Johns Hopkins UniversityIs a representative university.

    20st centuryAfter becomingWesternMany universities will be born in countries other than the world.

    In Europe,Humanities-Social science-natural ScienceBut theoretical academic research was regarded as the main faculty of the university.again,Business Administration,Music,Art,engineeringAtCollegeWas positioned somewhat discriminatory[Note 6]However, it has gradually come to be recognized as a constituent faculty of the university.

    21st centuryWhen you enterInformation science,social welfare,Urban developmentFor example, new concept faculties that have never existed in the past have begun to be created in response to the domestic circumstances of each country in the world.

    University education in each country




    • CH Haskins Seizo Aoki / Translated by Tsuneji Miura "Origin of University" (2009, Yasaka Shobo)
    • Toshiya Yoshimi"What is a university?" (Iwanami Shinsho, 2011)


    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Therefore, the highest school =Tokyo UniversityIs a misuse.
    2. ^ "" In the current legal conceptCompany".The concept of association was originallyPopeTriggered by the excommunication ofACHATIt was a concept to avoid.
    3. ^ However, HaskinsOxford UniversityStates to have branched off from the University of Paris in the second half of the 12th century ("University Origins", p. 44).
    4. ^ In today's Catholic churchdeaconHe became a priest with an ordination to, but at that time both those who were ordained as lower-class sacred goods and, in a broader sense, the boy who shaved his hair in search of an ordination were priests.College students were ordained to lower sacred items (Richard Kiekhefer, Magic in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, p. 153).
    5. ^ United StatesPh.D.The system of is a typical example.
    6. ^ For example,GermanyThen, Hochschule (Hochschule) as a college is lower than Universität, which means a university, or a different kind.Hochschule) Was distinguished.Higher education #Germany.


    1. ^ "The University of Tokyo is not "the highest school in Japan"". INSIGHT NOW! (September 2007, 10). April 2021, 11Browse.
    2. ^ CH Haskins, The Origin of the University, Translated by Seizo Aoki and Tsuneji Miura, Yasaka Shobo, 2009, pp. 27-28.
    3. ^ "Western History Learned at University [Ancient and Medieval]" Minerva Shobo, p. 246.
    4. ^ Koichi Horikoshi and Takashi Jinno, "Medieval European History Learned from 15 Themes," p. 279.
    5. ^ a b Robert Dossour, Medieval European Life Magazine, Translated by Yasuji Kirimura, Ronsosha, 2014, pp. 324-325.
    6. ^ Robert Dosour, Medieval European Life Magazine, Translated by Yasuji Kirimura, Ronsosha, 2014, p. 305.

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