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Garuda Indonesia approves debt restructuring plan by court

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Given the outlook for the increasingly competitive aviation industry, Garuda Indonesia's business plan will focus on becoming a competitive airline and will strengthen its recovery. "

Garuda Indonesia has announced that its debt restructuring plan has been approved by the Central Jakarta District Court.About 96 ... → Continue reading


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CompetitivenessWhat is (competitiveness)?Company,National economyetc,competitionThere isMarketEven in the environment, it means having the ability to sell and supply products and services sufficiently.More details will vary depending on the field used.

Business AdministrationCompetitiveness in Japan means the ability of a company to develop products and services with profits in related markets in Japan and overseas.The competitiveness of a company isPriceNot only R & D, location, service, quality, etc. are also constituent factors.[1].

MacroeconomicsCompetitiveness, which is often used in economic policy,International competitivenessIsWorld marketIt means the competitiveness of nations, regions, cities, etc. in Japan.Comparisons and indicators evaluated from the perspective of whether economic geographical conditions, systems, and policies that are favorable to companies belonging to the target country are being proposed have been proposed.[2][3], As a representativeSwitzerland OfInternational Institute for Business Development"World Competitiveness Yearbook" by (IMD),World Economic Forum(WEF) "World Competitiveness IndexThere is.However, as will be described later, there is no fixed definition for the terms competitiveness or international competitiveness used in these fields.It is also difficult to uniquely determine an objective index of competitiveness.

Competitiveness in a company

Concept of competitiveness in business administration

competitionIsresource,customer,Sales,market shareIt is that market participants compete for such things.Individual participants "suppliers" who provide the target products and services provide the customers with the products and services with the best and most favorable conditions in the market, so that the suppliers can provide the products and services.Price, Quality, service,DesignCompetition will occur.Suppliers in this competitive environment will continue to develop to secure their advantage, which in turn will be competitive.[4].

Price competitiveness

Occurred on the businesscostIf the company is in a position to sell the goods in the market at a price higher than the above and generate an appropriate profit for the capital on the income statement, the companyPrice competitivenessIt can be said that there is.Price competitiveness is especially important in the market for standardized products.Trading companies can handle a large number of products, reduce the cost per product, and enhance price competitiveness.

Non-price competitiveness

Factors other than price, such as quality, service, design, and reliability of delivery, are also essential to the sale of a product.The more choices you have in manufacturing and designing a product, the more important it becomes.In addition, the high level of recognition of companies and products is also a major factor.Therefore, in modern timesMarketingAnd trade marketingNon-price competitionIt has become an important means in.

From the perspective of microeconomics

MicroeconomicsIn this case as well, the competitiveness at the corporate level is mainly targeted.A target company can be considered to be "competitive" if it produces long-term profits in the domestic or international market and at the same time has an advantage over its competitors.In modern times, market competition is often fierce, and companies must evaluate and understand their position in the market for various factors such as design, price, brand awareness, and location.These evaluation methods are common methods for measuring competitiveness.A company that cannot find its own strengths and secure a certain position in the market loses its significance.In this way, competition in the market economy determines the survival of a company.[2][5]

International competitiveness in macroeconomics

Whether it makes sense to think of competitiveness at the macroeconomic level is controversial and can be broadly divided into three different views.International competitiveness is an insubstantial term,Buzz wordIt is a way of thinking that it is considered to be, a way of thinking that finds meaning in discussing export opportunities, and a way of thinking that finds meaning when considering national framework conditions such as policies.

The idea of ​​considering it as an insubstantial term

According to this idea, it is the companies that compete, not the national economy.Losing the competition in the national economy does not mean that it will leave the world market, go bankrupt, or lose its marketability altogether.Each country is constant in the world economyComparative advantageA mechanism that adjusts each other's competitiveness works.AlsoTradeIs that one country wins and the other country losesZero sum gamesNot of all the countries involvedProductivity improvementBy the way繁 栄Leads to.[6]In short, the concept of international competitiveness does not exist clearly, it is just an illusion that the nation is regarded as a company.[7]..The image of the national economy competing with each other is that of politicians.ProtectionistEncourage actionFree tradeI think it is dangerous to lose the advantage of.[8]

Counterexamples / counterexamples considering economies of scale

But on the other hand, I do not completely agree with this view.economistThere is also.It is true that countries that engage in international trade inevitably have a comparative advantage in some fields and are responsible for the international division of labor.AlthoughEconomy of scaleThis may result in the acquisition or loss of more advantageous disciplines.[9]An example is given below.

  • Meiji Era OfJapanThen, it is an industrial development that protects a specific industry until it becomes internationally competitive.Tariff policyI took.This tariff policy continued as a policy to become internationally competitive in other fields as well.As a result, Japan was able to build a substantial industrial base in specific fields and secure a comparative advantage with high productivity and significant wage increases, while reducing the non-target economic sectors. ..[10]
  • 1970's NetherlandsThen,Natural gasThe current account surplus due to the development of resources has led to a currency appreciation,Dutch diseaseOccurs.Export prices have risen, imports have become cheaper, and the domestic industrial sector has shrunk.The contraction of the industrial sector is offset by the growth of the resource sector.However, natural gas reserves will eventually be depleted and the resource sector will eventually be forced to shrink.Theoretically, the contraction of the resource sector will lead to the devaluation of the currency, and the comparative advantage of the industrial sector will be restored.But policy makers andPaul KrugmanSome economists, such as, have expressed concern that the longer the industrial sector shrinks, the more difficult it will be to recover its share in the international market, partly because of the negative effects of economies of scale.Therefore, the short-term luck of developing natural resources leads to a permanent loss of market share and a reduction in average wages that should have been earned.[11]
  • Implementing monetary policy that is smaller than in other countries will lead to currency appreciation and a decline in price competitiveness (rising export prices and lowering prices of imported goods).The conventional wisdom in economics is that the monetary tightening policy will stagnate the industrial sector along with other sectors, but it will recover once the monetary tightening is over.However, some economists say that if the industrial sector's stagnation "prolongs", economies of scale will have a negative effect and international market share will not fully recover even after monetary tightening. Warning.This phenomenon is, for example, the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.Margaret ThatcherIt occurs in the first phase of.[12]

The idea of ​​finding meaning in export opportunities

International competitiveness in this view is regarded as an export opportunity, that is, the ability to sell goods externally.It is noted here that the opportunities for companies in the region to sell goods abroad are also affected by macroeconomic factors.

The price competitiveness of the country is mainlyExchange rateWhen,ProductivityAffected by two factors: wage growth and price growth (unit labor cost)[13].

Exchange rate

When the nominal exchange rate of a currency falls, exports become relatively cheap and imports become relatively high.A rise in the nominal exchange rate has the opposite effect.In other words, devaluation leads to strengthening price competitiveness, and devaluation leads to a decrease in price competitiveness.However, the intentional devaluation of the nominal exchange rate has the opposite effect on other countries.Beggar thy neighbor policyIt is also described as.Also, competitive devaluation of currencies among multiple nations,Currency depreciationThere is also the possibility of falling into.

Wage restraint measures

Fixed exchange rate systemThen, wage restraint will increase price competitiveness and make the current account profitable.[14].Currency integrationWas doneEuro areaBut this phenomenon is seen.Chronic current account surplus can be interpreted as regional strength (or weakness).Chronic current account deficits can also cause a serious economic crisis.

Floating exchange rateThen,Current account balanceWage restraint will lead to a sustained improvement in international price competitiveness only if the deficit is eliminated.However, if wage restraint improves international price competitiveness and the current account becomes profitable, the domestic currency will be evaluated and the price will rise, exports will become expensive, and price competitiveness will decline again.[15][16]In other words, if we take measures to curb wages for price competitiveness and try to make the current account profitable, the exchange rate will rise and the effect will be canceled out.For example, in the early 1970sBretton Woods systemThere is Germany after the end.At that time, Germany's wage level was below average in international comparisons and was superior in labor productivity.However, a floating exchange rate system was introduced worldwide, andGerman markForeign exchange fluctuations have undermined its superiority.[17]

On the other hand, some argue that wage restraint measures should be evaluated from the perspective of the domestic economy, not from the perspective of the outside world.[17]Some argue that if wage restraint measures result in a rise in the home currency, even if nominal wages do not rise, the fall in import prices will benefit the people.[16]In Germany, where wages were curtailed from 1999 to 2007, inflation was adjusted.Real wageSlightly declined, domestic demand grew at an annual rate of 0.6%, but the German economy grew with exports.However, this also has the aspect that other countries did not take measures to curb wages.If other countries also took competitive wage restraint measures, they would cause mutual stagnation in domestic demand, and it would be quite difficult for Germany to grow by exporting.[18]

Difficulty in assessing price competitiveness

Theorized general equilibrium in international tradeHexcher-Oleen modelIn the real world, unlike, countries are already exchanging international commodities through trade.The products we handle are in the world economyArbitrageThroughbalancedAnd the price has already converged.This shows that commodity prices in the world market are reasonable regardless of the above exchange rates and the like.Price competitiveness in this situation is virtual and makes the evaluation method difficult.Therefore, the potential price competitiveness is estimated from the changes in the market share of each field of economy and industry in the world market and the indicators such as the comparative advantage index.However, in the ever-changing economic environment, it is usual for specific economic and industrial fields to shrink while other fields to expand, and there is no method for evaluating price competitiveness using indicators in specific fields. There is also a counterargument that it is appropriate.[19]

The idea of ​​finding meaning in the evaluation of the national framework

In this view, international competitiveness is high.National incomeAnd highStandard of livingShows the nation's ability to realize.Especially with productivity growthGDPThe growth of is used as an index.[20]

Diamond model

Michael porterIt is,Empirical researchIn the above, the four determinants that give the economic sector of the target country an advantage over other countries are expressed as the "diamond model".[21]

  • Basic conditions of the place:InfrastructureQuality and employee productivity.Employee productivity is related to education / technical level, wage level, diligence, accuracy, and sensitivity.
  • Domestic market demand: The degree of price and quality demands from domestic customers.High demands force the target industry to be innovative and of high quality.
  • Value chain quality: Whether the supplier industry and related industries related to the target industry are geographically close and competitive.With this, good employees, patents and material exchanges are easy.
  • Corporate governance and competition: The quality of corporate management style and organizational structure.Also, is there fierce competition in the domestic market?

According to this model, nations can improve their international competitiveness by optimizing infrastructure and education, promoting innovation and competition.

Indicator of international competitiveness

Attempts have been made to weight a large number of collective indicators in order to assess international competitiveness.SwissInternational Institute for Business DevelopmentThe "World Competitiveness Yearbook" published by (IMD) and the ranking of "many growth opportunities" economic zones created by WEFGlobal Competitiveness Report'[22]There is.

The World Competitiveness Yearbook consists of the following four indicators, each of which has five subdivided items.[23].

  1. economic situation
  2. Government efficiency
  3. Business efficiency
  4. infrastructure

The Global Competitiveness Report consists of the following three indicators:[23].

  1. Basic conditions- systemMechanism / infrastructure /Macro economyStability保健-Primary Education
  2. Efficiency promotion factor- Higher education-Job training・ Efficiency of the goods market ・ Efficiency of the labor market ・Financial marketSophistication, technology responsiveness, market size
  3. Sophistication factor-Business sophisticationInnovation

International competitiveness in economic policy

As mentioned above, the word "competitiveness" is originally derived from business administration and cannot be applied to the national economy as it is in its original usage.Doing so will lead to a misinterpretation of international economic relations.Also, if it is diverted to the place of economic policy, it may lead to a big loss.[24][25]Therefore, when using this term in economic policy, it needs to be redefined with great care.

Each country has established advisory bodies and government agencies on competitiveness.for example,The United States of America,Canada,Mexico"North American Competitiveness Council" as a working group of three North American countries[26]There is.In addition, although it was suspended in 1997, it aims to improve the competitiveness of its own country.President,Congress"Competitiveness Policy Council" to make policy recommendations to[27]Was in the United States. The EU has a "Competitiveness Council (COMPET)" that deals with the competitiveness of the entire EU region.[28]There is. As a nation within the EUIreland[29],Greek[30],Croatia[31],FurthermoreBasque Country[32]There are organizations and advisory bodies that deal with competitiveness.

In Japan's policy making, terms of competitiveness and international competitiveness appear at least in the 1950s.[33][34].. When analyzing Japan's sluggish competitiveness since the beginning of the 21st century and utilizing it in policy proposals, the GDP ranking, the number of patent applications, the above-mentioned International Competitiveness Index and the World Competitiveness Yearbook are cited.

The current law aims to break through the slump in Japan.Industrial Competitiveness Enhancement LawHas been in force since 2013[35]..The term "industrial competitiveness" as used in the law is defined in Article 2 as "the ability to achieve high profitability by securing high productivity and sufficient demand in industrial activities."However, the law mainly targets tax incentives and regulatory incentives for Japanese companies, and does not describe foreign exchange, wages, prices, finance, involvement in the world market, etc.

International competitiveness and Japanese economy

The mainstream of the economic theory from 1919 to 1931 was the lack of international competitiveness of Japan due to the decrease in external reserves due to the current account deficit.Currency appreciation,DeflationIt fell into the idea of ​​export competition and absolute advantage to weed out inefficient sectors and increase international competitiveness.[36]..Most of the successive cabinets at that time also interpreted that international competitiveness came from a high cost structure.物 価・ Aimed at a deflationary policy aimed at reducing wages[36]..This is a correct and absolute advantage-based idea.In addition, with the progress of deflation,Nominal wageWill decrease, butReal wageForeign currencyBoth denominated export prices will soar.

Made in September 1985Plaza agreementAs a result, the yen's appreciation rapidly progressed, and the price competitiveness of Japanese products in the international market declined.[37]..At the same time, labor costs have risen compared to other industrialized countries, so the profitability of comparative advantage industries (export manufacturing companies) that had production bases in Japan[38]Was lost[37].

Bubble burstLater in Japan, international competitiveness means export competitiveness, "Japan's international competitiveness is the economy.GlobalizationIt is decreasing due to the influence of. "" (Due to the decline in international competitiveness) of Japanese industryHollowing outIs progressing. The view that[39]..The decline in Japan's international competitiveness has become apparent since the 1980s.DeflationIt has been prominent since the latter half of the 1990s after the burst of the bubble economy that fell into the keynote.[40]..In response to this decline in international competitiveness, Japanese manufacturing production bases have low labor costs.AsiaMoved to the area and exported from there to third countries (Triangular trade)It became so[37]..On the other hand, however, the electrical industry, which suffers from a significant decline in profitability, has achieved high growth in real labor productivity.[41] .

Pointed out misuse of "international competitiveness"

International competitivenessExchange rateThe concept of international competitiveness, which ignores the exchange rate, is because it fluctuates depending on the situation.EconomicsDoes not exist in[42].

In addition, various researchers and research institutes define international competitiveness based on their own judgment and prejudice.[43]..In fact, manyeconomistAs pointed out, there is no idea of ​​international competitiveness, especially in macroeconomics.Face productivity, even if the concept of international competitiveness has substantive meaningPeopleA rigorous attempt, such as systematic, exists on the fact that, in parallel with the criticism of the vague and wrong concept of international competitiveness.[44]Needs to be elaborated.

As an exception, the relative ratio of export companies in their own country and other countries due to the macroeconomic environmentProfitability fluctuationsIn the sense of (= terms of trade index / real effective exchange rate index), there is an example where a suitable term was not found and this term was intentionally used.[38].

Export competition

For example, in JapanRyutaro KomiyaBut in the first place, it is criticizing what economic power (international competitiveness) is.[45]. Also,Foreign countriesNow, regarding the practicality and misuse of the concept of international competitiveness, especially in the context of national competitiveness.Paul Robyn KrugmanLanoeconomistMade a lively criticism[46][47], Pointed out in the same way as Ryutaro Komiya.This is because export competition (export competition in which countries compete for the amount of GDP in trade)Zero sum games) There is no such thing as competition.[48].

It should be noted that international competitiveness is regarded as export competitiveness.CountryTo eliminate the difference between domestic and foreign prices as an index of living standards by using the growth rate of the share of exports in the world's total exports.Purchasing power parityPer capita measured inGDPUse the growth rate of (GDP)[49]It turns out that there is no relationship between international competitiveness and standard of living.[50].

As a matter of fact, such competitiveness is a clear mistake, and no internationally developed country, to any extent, in mutual economic competition.Whether the sector has or does not have economic tradeEconomic welfareThe level is firstProductivityDetermined by[46].

Therefore, it is fundamentally wrong to aim to improve competitiveness in this sense.Because competitiveness supremacy exploits workersUnemployment rateDeteriorates, and the profits of private companies remain unchangedNational interestBecause it does not become[51].

Also, there is no self-cleaning effect in the market.World financial crisis,Lehman shockas well as the European sovereign debt crisisIt is clearly appearing in.Captivated by the principle of competitivenessemploymentThe United States, which has promoted the liquidation of the United States, and vice versapolicyIt was adoptedGermanyIn comparison, GermanyLabor market OfRegulationIt is resistant to the financial crisis because it has strengthenedUnemployment rateIs lower than the United States[51].

Balance of payments

In particular, in the balance of payments, the media and economic commentators like to refer to the term international competitiveness and misuse it.

Current account balanceIs wrong to think that is determined by reflecting international competitiveness[43]..Basically short termTrade balance・ It is the domestic and overseas economic fluctuations that regulate the movement of the current account balance.industry OfHollowing outAnd the decline in international competitiveness have nothing to do with[39]..In addition, it is wrong to equate the current account surplus with economic growth and to regard the current account deficit as the decline of the country's economic power.[52].

The size of the trade surplus is neither a manifestation of "international competitiveness" nor the closedness of the market.[53]..For example, Japan's accumulation of capital and investment overseas is the flip side of the trade surplus, not evil.[54].

Trading nation

In addition to the concept of international competitiveness, the idea of ​​a trading nationYusuke ShiozawaVarious economists have raised dissents[55][56]..If the trend is to aim for export-dependent economic growth, economic growth that leads to people's well-being is impossible, and economic growth is desirable through a domestic demand-led service economy that does not rely on exports.[55].TradeIs very necessary, but the external demand-dependent economy, in which the idea of ​​prioritizing production creates a long-term stagnation, is a problem, and it is necessary to break away from it.[57].

How to think that increasing the productivity of a trading partner is a decrease in the international competitiveness of one's own countryComparative advantageIt is a simple mistake that contradicts the basic principle of.It is theoretically possible in the short term, but practically unlikely.[58]..In addition, the idea of ​​seeking the cause of the hollowing out of industry at high cost does not understand the comparative advantage at all.Absolute advantageEvidence of falling into thinking based on[58].


  • International competitiveness in macroeconomics means the competitiveness of nations, regions, cities, etc. in the global market.International competitiveness is a collection of the competitiveness of companies belonging to the target nation, region, city, etc.[59].
  • For academic and quantitative analysis of international competitivenessEconometricsThe model is utilized[60][61][44].
  • Peter DruckerAccording toknowledge(Technology・ Skills) become the basis of economic power, and knowledgeProductivityThat is the source of competitiveness[62].
  • 資本主義Underneath, the driving force of a company is potentially to maintain and enhance its competitiveness.
  • The concept of competitiveness is everywhere, but for example,AmericaJapanThe way of thinking is very different.In Japan, when it comes to gaining competitiveness,政府 SubsidyTo give and try to be strong[63]However, arbitrary industrial protection is meaningless and has not actually been effective.


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  61. ^ “National Competitiveness: A Question of Cost Conditions or Institutional Circumstances?”. () 15 (3): 197–218. (2004-08-12). two:10.1111 / j.1467-8551.2004.00415.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2004.00415.x/full. 
  62. ^ Nihon Keizai Shimbun Hen "A masterpiece of economics that changed the world"Nikkei newspaper publisher<>, July 2013.ISBN 978-4-532-19684-4.https://nikkeibook.nikkeibp.co.jp/item-detail/19684. 
  63. ^ "Understanding with the latest keywords! Introduction to the Japanese economy"Nihon Keizai Shimbun<>, July 2002.ISBN 978-4-532-19142-9.https://nikkeibook.nikkeibp.co.jp/item-detail/19142. 

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外部 リンク


Airlines(Kokugaisha) is a fee (airfare) collected from the user.aircraft(mainlyairplane)Usingpassenger,cargoOrganization to transport.AirlineAlso called (airline).


An airline company is a type of air carrier, and the air carrier includes an airline company and a consolidation carrier that uses the airline company. If the shipper makes a contract with the consolidator, the contract carrier is the consolidator and the actual carrier is the airline[1].

Warsaw ConventionThere is no definition of air carrier in such treaties[1].

The companies that operate cargo flights include the cargo divisions of passenger airlines, specialized cargo airlines,DHL(DHL Aviation) AndFedex(FedEx ExpressThere is a case where a global integrated logistics company such as ), skips the dedicated machine in-house.

Some companies undertake not only transportation but also operation and maintenance of aircraft owned by other companies.

Depending on the airlineCharter flights,Air taxiDoing business.

Airlines of each country

米 国

In the United States, the Civil Aviation Law was enacted in 1938, and new entry into the aviation market was regulated to protect airline operators[2].. The Act also established the Civil Aviation Commission (CAB)[2].

Under the Carter administration in 1978Aviation Deregulation LawRegulation was gradually relaxed regarding new entry into the aviation market, airfare, and route setting[2].

In January 1982, the route permission system was abolished.[2].. In January 1983, the fare permission system was abolished.[2].. The Civil Aviation Commission (CAB) was dissolved in December 1984.[2].


The EU Airline Liberalization Agreement is an international agreement, which proceeded in three stages and was completed in April 3.[3].

Within the EU, the nationality clause of airlines was abolished by the Liberalization of Aviation Agreement.[3].. As a general rule, airlines in the EU will be able to freely enter international flights, and full transportation rights will be granted with the exception of environmental and airport circumstances.[3].. Fares can also be set by airlines in the EU to set free fares on routes within the region, and countries can interfere with excessively high or excessively low fares, but airlines can sue the EU Commission in the case of dissatisfaction.[3].


JapaneseAviation lawArticle 2 defines as follows.

Paragraph 17 In this Act, "air transportation business" means the business of transporting passengers or cargo for a fee using an aircraft in response to the demand of others.
Clause 18 In this Act, "International Air Transport Business" means an air transport business between a point within Japan and a point outside Japan, or between locations outside Japan.
Clause 19 In this Act, "Domestic regular air transportation business" means the air transportation business carried out by aircraft that set routes between various parts of Japan and travel at a certain date and time.
Clause 20 In this Act, "Aircraft-using business" means the business of using aircraft to perform contracts for acts other than the transportation of passengers or cargo in response to the demand of others.

In Japan, the companies (businesses) that operate the business mainly prescribed in Article 2, Paragraph 18, and Paragraph 19 of the Civil Aeronautics Act are often called "aviation companies." By the way, the air transportation business of Article 2, Paragraph 17 of the Civil Aeronautics Act is to transport according to the demand of others, including regular air transportation business, chartered transportation of personnel and supplies, sightseeing flight, etc.[4].

There are two major airlines that operate the regular air transportation business in Japan.Japan AirlinesAll Nippon Airways'Full-service carrier', new entry airline'emerging airline' due to deregulation policy started in 1986,'Low price'Cheap airline"are categorized[5].


Early days to World War II

1909, DELAG was established using a rigid airship for aviation business (Zeppelinreference).

191312/13, LeafyairplaneThe first airline usingFloridaSt. PetersburgTampaIn service with 29 round trips a day between (1 km)[6]. It was an airmail carrying a single passenger or a cargo of up to £1 on a biplane[6].

After that, the aviation business centered on the transportation of postal goods developed throughout the United States.[6]. Furthermore, in the First World War, aircraft became strategically important, and performance was markedly improved.[6].19275/20ToCharles LindberghSucceeded in a single non-landing flight between New York and Paris (flight distance 5,810 km) with a monoplane single-engine propeller aircraft.[6].

in Japan's case,Second World WarbeforeJapan Air TransportAnd the posteriorJapan Airlines,Manchurian AirlinesThere were many national airlines and small airlines, but most of the news coverage and軍隊It is said that there were almost no air routes for transportation because of the relationship.

World War II-1970s

1944,Second World WarIt will be the basis of the later international civil aviation frameworkChicago ConventionWas signed[6]. Signing of the Chicago Convention A bilateral agreement on air transportation was signed between the countries[6].

Postwar in Japan194511/18,GhqBy the order of, the total ban on civil aviation and training, research, etc. on aviation at the individual level are suspended.[7], The aviation industry is almost wiped out.After that, seven Allied airlines (7 airlines trying to control domestic air rights before concluding a peace treaty)Northwest Airlines,Pan American Airlines,British Overseas Airlines,Canadian Pacific Airlines,Philippine Airlines,Civil Air Transport Company) Moved to establish JDAC (Japan Domestic Airline Company), so the Japanese government (Airline Agency)CabotageDenied by (own transportation right of domestic transportation) as a shield. This claim was accepted by GHQ,1951By former Japan Airlines officialsSpecial companyAsJapan AirlinesWas established, but at this point it is not possible to operate by Japan yet.Northwest AirlinesWas entrusted to the operation. Next day1952ToPeace treatyWhen you conclude and restore independence,JapanAtairplaneProduction and operation ofindustryAs an aviation business begins to flourish.1972Country (former Ministry of Transport, presentMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) Policy, 3 major airlines,All Nippon Airways,Toa Domestic Airlines(Later merger with Japan Airlines) System (45/47 system) Has been established, Japan Airlines international and domestic trunk lines, All Nippon Airways domestic in general, Toa domestic airlines domestic domestic routes, the division of framework has been established.


In 1978Jimmy CarterLaunches air liberalization,Southwest AirlinesSuch asCheap airlineDeveloped rapidly[8].

In Japan,Ministry of TransportSo-called by the guidance of45/47 systemBelow, for a long time, Japan Airlines,All Nippon Airways (All Nippon Airways, ANA), Old:Japan Air System(JAS, currently merged with Japan Airlines, until 1988, Toa Domestic Airlines (TDA)), Japan Airlines has a three-company system, including all international flights and domestic flights.Main lineAll Nippon Airways has domestic flights and international charter flights, and Toa Domestic Airlines has domestic quasi trunk lines.Local lineHowever, in 1986, this framework collapsed, All Nippon Airways became an international scheduled flight, and Toa Domestic Airlines became able to advance to an international flight. All Nippon Airways advanced to an international scheduled flight from the same year. Toa Domestic Airlines changed its company name to Japan Air System in 1988, when it launched regular international flights. After that, All Nippon Airways grew to become an airline that is almost the same as Japan Airlines including international flights, but Japan Air System led to the management integration into Japan Airlines in 2002 due to the poor management.

Since the 1990s

Business crisis

In the past, in the event of international conflicts such as the Gulf War, it was observed that the demand for international aviation fell for about three years.

the 1990sからCheap airlineIn the meantime, a major reorganization was taking place due to cost reductions due to the rise of20019/11Occurred inAmerican terrorist attacksIn, the regular line aircrafthijackBeenskyscraperRush into, suicideterrorismThe shock caused by being used forCrude oil priceAs a result of rising fuel costs due to soaring prices, overall aviation industry management deteriorated. in America2005By the time 7 of the 4 major companiesBankruptcydid.

Each company made efforts to reduce costs such as restraining personnel expenses, and as a result, the brightness was finally visible, but in 2006, fuel cost soared,UKInPassenger plane bombing attempted terrorismIt has been put into a difficult situation again due to the discovery of.

This is also the case for Japanese airlines, especially for the Japan Airlines Group, which has long-haul international routes, and it had a significant impact on the route, but in Europe it was seen as a flag carrier in Switzerland and Italy. In many cases, the company was reorganized under the control of another multinational group. However, it started in earnest around 2013WesternIncrease in tourists visiting JapanLCCBy the middle of the 2010s, it will become a majorJALGroups andANAAll the groups have succeeded in being reborn as profitable companies. For about three years until the fiscal year 2015, when the highest net profit was renewed, a large number of major airlines with record high profits continued to appear.Iberian airlines(Kingdom of Spain) And other cases of reconstruction by other overseas airlines, the company has achieved profitability at an exceptional speed, and in particular, it has managed to rebuild itself without being under the umbrella of a particular foreign airline and is completely independent. It is evaluated by the point. Currently, it has returned to the previous state, such as ordering a new machine,Japan AirlinesANAIt is,21st centuryIs one of the most successful management restructurings.

Cheap airlineAs a result, the use in emerging countries has increased, and the domestic aviation industry is booming. It is also causing booms in other industries, such as hotel development near airports. Not only many foreign passengers,インターネットThe fact that various travel forms are becoming common in Japan is also thought to be the cause of the boom.

Alliance, Alliance (Airline Alliance)

Due to the above circumstances, airline companies around the world have been spurred by reorganization such as business integration and tie-ups, and are currently being consolidated into the following three groups.

Alliance disappeared

Management/labor problems

In Japan, whether the vested interests of the labor side (especially the crew union) in the time when it was protected by regulation until the 1970s have been declining,TrainOther ofTransportationUnlike 2006, labor-management problems have beenstrikeOften rush into.Job categoryThe fact that the union is separated due to such reasons is also rare in other industries. Furthermore, even if airline companies are merged, the labor union may remain, which complicates labor-management relations. Maintaining and maintaining smooth labor-management relations is one of the important management issues for Japanese airlines.

Whether the cost reduction due to deregulation since 1997 is affecting,Japan Airlines(JAL, Nikko) management conflicts, maintenance mistakes, operation mistakes, etc. have been revealed one after another, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has repeatedly conducted inspections and cautions. On the other hand, even in the emerging Skymark, maintenance mistakes were discovered many times due to mass retirement of mechanics etc.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs conducting an audit.

Competition between Shinkansen and airlines

Connects Tokyo with other big cities in JapanShinkansenHas been a challenge for many years, and in recent yearsTokaido Shinkansen OfShinagawa StationOpening of businessHokuriku Shinkansen OfKanazawa StationCompetition with competing routes such as the opening of business is becoming more intense.

Historically,Haneda-Withdrawal from most routes in the Tohoku area (Haneda-SendaiEtc.) and reduction (Haneda-Akita-YamagataEtc.). Haneda-Osaka,Hiroshima,FukuokaIn western Japan, such as, is playing a fierce competition for passengers. Airline companies are fighting the Shinkansen by offering discounted fares to the front, and between Haneda and Osaka, each company cooperates and operates a shuttle service that operates every hour. Also1994The Kansai International Airport opened and is shifting late flights to Kansai to strengthen the cover of Itami, which has a curfew (it cannot be reached after 21:00 due to noise issues).

In addition, the Shinkansen in the Tohoku area is strong,JR West Japan OfSanyo ShinkansenIt is,Discount ticketReluctant toJR TokaiOwned byTokaido ShinkansenPrice competitiveness is low becauseTohoku Shinkansen TheJR EastIt is said that it is easy to set a discount ticket by owning only the airline, and the airline avoids price competition with JR East.On routes that do not involve much railroads, Haneda-Fukuoka, Naha, Chitose and Osaka (Itami / Itami)Kansai)-Chitose and Naha are competing for share between airlines.

Disappearance of new entrants

in JapanAviation lawBy the revision of1997Has partially liberalized the setting of airfares, and Skymark Airlines (nowSky mark) And Hokkaido International Airlines (currently:AIRDO), But the three existing companies (two existing companies since 3) were forced to struggle to set the same amount of competitive fares, and Hokkaido International AirlinesCivil Rehabilitation LawApplication was applied for, and the business was rebuilt with the support of ANA and completed in March 2005.

There are many other companies that are planning to enter the market but have disappeared because they could not enter service.The walls of the two major airlines (Japan Airlines and All Nippon Airways) are thick, and most new entrants are struggling to establish a business model.In any case, it is the largest market, with a large amount of capital investment including aircraft, problems with the backyard system such as securing and maintenance of crew members, and above all.Haneda airportIt is not easy to establish services that are superior to those of the two major group companies, such as securing slots in Japan, and it seems that it is quite difficult to operate a new regular air transportation business in Japan.

Enclosure by mileage service

Aviation unionUtilized the aviation network by (Alliance)Mileage serviceThe enclosing of customers by the expansion ofJapan Airlines,ANAHas become an important sales strategy. All Nippon Airways since 1999Star alliance, Japan Airlines from 2007One worldJoin theSky teamIt covers the two major unions except. Japan Air System was called "mileage service" at that time.

Airlines that join SkyTeam in East AsiaKorean Air(South Korea),China Airline(Republic of China),Mandarin Airlines(Republic of China),China Eastern Airlines(People's Republic of China),Shanghai Airlines(People's Republic of China),Xiamen Airlines(People's Republic of China) Of 7 companies.

Direct ticket sales (using the Internet)

For domestic flights, after making a reservation at the airline's telephone window, at the travel agency windowAirline ticketI often boughtインターネットIn-houseWebsiteFrom the web pageReservation,Airline ticketTo enable the purchase ofTravel clubWe are working to reduce sales fees paid to.ADSLSo calledBroadband internet connectionInternet reservations have been expanded since around 2001, when was popularized. For domestic flights, there is also a reservation website jointly funded by ANA and Japan Airlines, like "Domestic.com".


  1. ^ a b Air carrier liability range Interlink, read January 2017, 1.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Yasuko Inoue, "Aviation Business Theory," Nihon Hyoronsha, 2008, p. 21. 
  3. ^ a b c d Yasuko Inoue, "Aviation Business Theory," Nihon Hyoronsha, 2008, p. 35. 
  4. ^ About permission for air transportation business Retrieved by MLIT, August 2017, 1.
  5. ^ 7th Aircraft Finance - Hitotsubashi UniversitySumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationEndowed lecture
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Encyclopedia of Transportation" Maruzen, 2011, p.172
  7. ^ Ordered a total ban on civilian aviation (November 20, 11 Asahi Shimbun) "Showa News Dictionary Vol. 19 8 / 17" p20 Mainichi Communications 260
  8. ^ "Encyclopedia of Transportation" Maruzen, 2011, p.174

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