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🧳 | [2022 latest version] 28 recommended sightseeing spots in Hakodate!Night view, park, church, hidden spot


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[2022 latest version] 28 recommended sightseeing spots in Hakodate!Night view, park, church, hidden spot

 
If you write the contents roughly
There are 908 islands in the area of ​​about 126ha, and bridges and walking paths connecting the islands are also maintained.
 

In Hakodate, Hokkaido, which is located by the sea, there are historical buildings and parks, spots with beautiful night views, hot springs, etc. → Continue reading

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Through travel information and small stories from all over the world, we propose a lifestyle that makes you feel like traveling.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Sidewalk

SidewalkWhat is (unwinding)?PedestrianThe road for the passage.

In road traffic etc.roadwayIt is a part of the road that is structurally divided for the passage of pedestrians.It is generally installed at the end of the road and is one step higher than the roadway.In a broad sensePeople 歩 くRefers to all roadsPromenade(Promenade) AndGreen path-Nature trail(Long-distance nature trail) Etc. are also included.

Sidewalk in road traffic

History

Western

The sidewalkAncient romeAlready existed in the age ofCarriageAnd pedestrian separationTransportationAppeared to plan[1]..The use of carriages was popularEuropeThe road to separate pedestrians has existed for a long time.Also, ancient RomePompeiiAn example of the maintenance of a stepped sidewalk can be seen in the ruins of.The purpose of installing this stepped sidewalk in Pompeii isVesuviusIt is said that this was to prevent passersby from being swallowed by the muddy stream of rainwater flowing from the volcano.The sidewalk maintenance is flourishing17st centuryAfter that.1666,UKThe sidewalk was set up for the first time in1762The Westminster Pavement Law stipulates specifications such as the installation of sidewalks on all roads in the jurisdiction and the cross slope of sidewalks.Sidewalk installation in this eraDeveloped country TheUnited KingdomMet.

1782ToParisA sidewalk with a raised side at the end of the road has also appeared.However, the reason for installing the sidewalk in Paris was different.1184Philip Auguste built a cobblestone road with the opinion of the samurai doctor, Rigall, because the castle man dumped the sewage mixed with manure on the road.However, the sewage of the road at the end of the 12th century, as the stone road did not solve the problem but rather made it odorous.Seine riverA sewage ditch was constructed.However, sewage also accumulated in the sewage ditch, and the odor increased further on summer days.Underground two centuries laterSewerBegan to be built,1832Was extended to 44 kilometers, but at homeWC,kitchenIt wasn't connected to, and people were still dumping filth on the road.For this reason, in order to protect pedestrians from filth, a stepped and higher road was installed on the sidewalk for the first time as a sidewalk, similar to London.[2][3].

Japan

JapanThen,BakumatsuIt is believed that the term "sidewalk" itself did not exist until modern times, as vehicles with wheels were an exception and the roads were basically pedestrians.[1]..In addition, there was no culture or concept of "sidewalks" that only pedestrians could pass on Japanese roads.[1]..Sidewalks appeared on Japanese roads from the end of the Edo period when horse-drawn carriages were introduced.MeijiIn the early days,Open portMade inForeign settlementSo, there is a theory that the sidewalk was born first.[1]..It is the first style park in Japan in Yokohama City, and is also known as the birthplace of Japanese tennis.Yamate ParkIs said to be the first promenade in Japan to be built around it.[4]..The reason why this promenade was created is1862(Bunkyu2 years)8/21Occurred inNamamugi IncidentSo, the Englishman who stayed in YokohamaRichardsonWhen the four of them went on a picnic to the Tama River,Satsuma Domain-Hisamitsu ShimazuIt was triggered by an incident in which he was slashed and killed by a group of Satsuma Domains who crossed in front of the procession while riding.[4]..The consular officers of each countryEdo ShogunateOn the other hand, as a result of repeatedly requesting the establishment of a promenade and a park to enjoy picnics and long-distance riding of horses with peace of mind, the Shogunate allowed the establishment of a promenade and a park, and the cobblestone promenade was completed prior to the park.[5].

In addition, Ginza BricktownCan be said to be an early representative example.In addition to this, there was only one exchange with foreign countries during the isolation period.NagasakiIs the birthplace of Japanese sidewalks[1].

In the old record that humanitarianism as a sidewalk was improved,1805(culture2),Tokaido Of京都Hioka Pass in OtsuThere is a record that a road was constructed to distinguish between the road on which people walk and the road on which people walk.[1]. Also,1872(MeijiIn 5 years), it was mentioned on the roads in Tokyo that Bashamichi and humanitarian roads should be distinguished and trees should be planted at the boundaries.[1].

The need for sidewalks began to be recognized, and it was not until full-scale maintenance.1903It was after the first automobile was imported into Japan in (Meiji 36).[1].1919(Taisho8 years)Street structure ordinanceIncorporated pedestrian roadway separation under certain conditions.the 1960sRapid frommotorizationByTraffic accidentOccurred frequently.A high percentage of pedestrians among the fatalities in traffic accidents[6], Recognizing that the separation of pedestrian roads is insufficient, the installation of sidewalks was promoted as a traffic safety facility.1972(Showa47 years) to 5,590KilometersThe extension of the sidewalk was1975(50)Spring:39,000 kilometers, nearly seven times the growth[7].

Japanese legal sidewalk

Definition

Road structure ordinance
A part of the road that is partitioned by a curb line or a fence or other similar structure to be used exclusively for the passage of pedestrians. (Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 1)
Road Traffic Law
A part of the road partitioned by a curb line or a fence or other similar structure for use by pedestrians. (Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 2)

In addition to the sidewalk, the Road Structure Ordinance states "Bicycle pedestrian road""BicycleAnd the part of the road for "pedestrian traffic" is defined separately.On the other hand, there is no bicycle pedestrian road or a corresponding term in the Road Traffic Act, and what was created as a "bicycle pedestrian road" in the Road Structure Ordinance is treated as a "sidewalk" in the Road Traffic Act.Generally, a bicycle pedestrian road is regarded as a so-called "sidewalk where bicycles can pass" according to the road sign of Article 63-4, Paragraph 1 of the Road Traffic Act.

Construction

Article 11, Paragraph 3 of the Road Structure Ordinance stipulates that the width of sidewalks should be 2 meters or more, and 3.5 meters or more on roads with many pedestrians.Bicycle pedestrian roads are 3 meters or more, and roads with many pedestrians are 4 meters or more.

Devaluation of the sidewalk to the height of the sidewalk with the roadway and the stepped sidewalk for the purpose of entering the site along the roadway is called devaluation of the sidewalk. be able to.

The height of the curb that separates the road and the sidewalk is basically 15 cm.

In the past, the basic structure was a mount-up structure in which the height of the sidewalk surface was the same as that of the curb, but in this structure, the so-called "wavy sidewalk" can be undulated by devaluing the sidewalk. As a result, there were obstacles to the passage of wheelchairs.Therefore,Traffic barrier-free lawNotification of "general standards for sidewalks, etc."[8]Has been revised to be based on a semi-flat structure that makes the difference between the sidewalk surface and the road surface 5 cm, so that visually impaired people can recognize the sidewalk, while curbs are devalued but the sidewalk surface is not devalued. I made it.

Pedestrian convenience promotion road system

The pedestrian convenience promotion road system is a system that designates roads that allow pedestrians to pass and stay comfortably and comfortably in order to build a busy pedestrian-centered road space.[9].. Popular nameHokomichiIt is called a system[10]。これにより、大通りを再構築して、車道を減らし、歩道を拡幅し、そこにサイクルポートやベンチ、テーブルといった歩行者利便増進施設を置き、占用者を公募してオープンカフェなどを作ることが円滑にできるようになる。道路法等の一部を改正する法律(令和2年法律第31号)により創設された。

Similar to a sidewalk

Roadside belt
With the roadBound line-Road markingThe part of the road partitioned by (white line).It is installed near the roadside on a road without a sidewalk or on the side of the road where the sidewalk is not provided, in order to use it for pedestrian traffic or to maintain the utility of the roadway.
Pedestrian road
A road used exclusively for general pedestrian traffic, or a road where vehicles are prohibited for the safety and smoothness of pedestrian traffic.Sidewalks are part of the road, while pedestrian roads (in principle) cover the entire road.
Bicycle pedestrian road
A road used exclusively for general traffic of pedestrians and bicycles, or a road where vehicles other than ordinary bicycles are prohibited.Bicycle pedestrian roads are generally part of the road, whereas bicycle pedestrian roads (in principle) cover the entire road.

Sidewalk in a natural park

Trail

Mountain trails generally refer to roads prepared for use by people for mountain climbing and trekking in natural environments.[11].

Exploration sidewalk

Exploration trails are roads designed to explore scenic spots and natural resources such as mountains, plateaus, rivers, lakes, wetlands, coasts, and waterfalls.[11].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Ken Asai 2001, p. 120.
  2. ^ Namiki Oka Pavement and Sewerage Culture Theory Sosha 
  3. ^ Satoshi Suzuki, "Michi: From Ancient Egypt to the Present," Gihodo Publishing, 1998 ISBN-4 7655-1591-5
  4. ^ a b Rom International (ed.) 2005, p. 211.
  5. ^ Rom International (ed.) 2005, p. 212.
  6. ^ Aya Ikuta (May 2019, 5). “Why are there so many traffic accidents in Japan that kill pedestrians? Ask an expert "I could have prevented it if I had a pole" [Otsu accident]". Huff postJapanese version. 2019/6/8Browse.
  7. ^ March 1976, 3 House of Representatives Construction Committee
  8. ^ About the general structure of the sidewalk --Director of Urban and Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Director of Road Bureau
  9. ^ Cabinet order decided on the enforcement of the law to partially revise the Road Law, etc.-The system of pedestrian convenience promotion roads, automatic operation assistance facilities, and specific vehicle stop facilities will be enforced from November XNUMX, XNUMXnd year of Reiwa. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism press release material
  10. ^ Hokomichi Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  11. ^ a b "Part 3 Technical Guidelines by Facility Chapter 1 Sidewalk". Ministry of the Environment. 2019/7/24Browse.

References

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外部 リンク

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