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🧳 | Point site "Moppy" starts exchanging points with transportation electronic money Received at Seven Bank ATM


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Point site "Moppy" starts exchanging points with transportation electronic money Received at Seven Bank ATM

 
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Until June 6, we will carry out a campaign where the exchange fee will be free.
 

The point site "Moppy" operated by Ceres is linked to the Seven Payment Service and receives Seven Bank ATMs ... → Continue reading

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Exchange fee

Exchange fee(Koukan Tesuryo,British: interchange fee) Is mainly for accepting transactions where the card is usedbankWill be paid in betweenCommissionIs a term used in the card industry to describe.Usually in sales and service transactions, the bank that sells some goods[Note 1](Hereinafter referred to as "acquiring bank") the customer's bank to purchase[Note 2]The fee paid to (hereinafter referred to as the "issuing bank").Also, in the case of cash transactions, the exchange fee is paid by the issuer to the acquirer and sometimes reverse exchange (British: reverse interchange) Etc.

Credit card or debit cardAttransactionThen, the bank issuing the card of the paying transaction deducts the exchange fee from the amount paid to the acquiring bank processing the credit card or debit card transaction of the member store.The acquiring bank will often say "from the transaction amount to the exchange fee and often"(English editionAcquiring bank or(English editionPay the seller an amount minus both additional fees for (ISO).however,TMJFor cash withdrawal transactions, fees are paid by the issuing bank to the acquiring bank.[Note 3].

These charges are unique to your credit cardnetworkSet by[1], It is the largest component of various charges for credit cards, and some estimates correspond to 7% to 9% of these charges.And in general, you pay less than the percentage.Interchange fees have a complex price structure, including card brand and region, jurisdiction, credit card, debit card type, accepting merchant and merchant size, and transaction type.[Note 4]It may be affected by such things.The exchange fee is usually the ratio of the total purchase price to the flat rate.[Note 5]Is added.AmericaSo the average commission is about 2% of the transaction amount[2],European UnionIn the EU, interchange fees are limited to 0.3% of the transaction amount for credit cards and 0.2% for debit cards.[3].

In recent years, interchange fees have become a controversial issue in the United States and have been the subject of regulatory and antitrust investigations.WalmartMany large companies such as have strong bargaining power for commission prices[4]Some prefer cash or PIN-based debit cards, but most believe they cannot refuse to use major network branded cards.This is true even if the exchange-led fee exceeds the profit margin.[5].AustraliaIn some countries, such as the exchange fee is set significantly lower, but in the United States(English editionAccording to a survey, the savings enjoyed by traders are not passed on to consumers.[6]..This fee is also subject to several ongoing proceedings in the United States.

Overview

The exchange fee isVisa,master CardIt is set by each company's own payment network.

In the United States, card issuers now have about 300 billion annually from interchange fees.DollarI have earned more than that. Visa[7]And mastercard[8]The exchange fee collected by the company totaled about $ 2004 billion in 260. In 2005, it was about $ 307 billion, an increase of about 2001% compared to 85.

The origin of interchange fees is a matter of some controversy.In many cases, it is assumed that it was conceived to maintain a proper relationship between the issuer and the acquirer and to attract them to the bank's network.but,Georgetown UniversityA study by Professor Adam Levitin of the Law Center shows that interchange fees were originally thought of as a way for banks to circumvent American interest and true lending laws.[9]Most of the fees are usually sent to the issuing bank.The issuing bank's exchange fee is extracted from the amount collected by the trader, etc., when the merchant makes a credit card transaction or a debit card transaction for payment through the acquiring bank.Banks are trusted customers[Note 6]Want to make a profit on the interchange fees charged to the trader, rather than earning a lot of late fees and interest from[10].

The exchange rates vary for a variety of reasons.As an example, a "premium credit card" that provides rewards (British: premium credit card) Usually have a higher exchange rate than standard cards[11]..Transactions made using credit cards generally have higher rates than transactions with debit cards, which are usually higher than transactions with PIN debit cards.Non-direct sales such as telephone and internet[Note 7]Is subject to higher exchange rates than transactions with cards that are generally presented directly.This is due to the risk of fraudulent transactions and the increase / decrease in the ratio.It is important to note that exchanges are an "industry standard" for all traders.This is provided to promote the issuance of goods and the like to be sold and to attract the issuing bank to issue a specific brand and the like.Higher exchanges often facilitate the issuance of specific brands, etc.schemeOften a tool for[12].

(English editionAccording to a January 2007 poll by, only about one-third of the general public asked for a fee to redeem.When I explained to those people once, 1% said "US Congress"We should force credit card companies to provide better information to consumers."[Note 8]I talked to[13].

Controversy

Price agreement

Regulatory authorities in some countriesPrice agreementAs a potential example of, we question the collective determination of exchange rates and rates.In particular, groups such as the US-based Merchants Payments Coalition and Merchant Bill of Rights also claim that interchange fees are higher than necessary.[14]..Issuing banks claim that reducing interchange fees increases the cost of cardholders and reduces their ability to meet the rewards of already issued cards.

Consumer welfare

Federal ReserveA 2010 public policy study conducted by the company concluded that aspects of the interchange fee compensation program would result in non-trivial money transfers from low-income households to high-income households.Reducing trader fees and card rewards could increase consumer well-being.[15].

By region

The United States of America

Payment card exchange fee / seller discount antitrust proceedings

(English editionIt is,2005/This is an American class proceeding filed by merchants and industry groups against many financial institutions that issue Visa, Mastercard, and other payment cards.The proceedings were filed by price adjustments and other allegedly anti-competitive trading practices in the credit card industry.The settlement was preliminarily approved by the judge overseeing the case in November 2012, but the majority of the plaintiffs in the nominated group opposed it, and many decided to refuse the settlement.

2013/12,United States District CourtJudge John Gleeson has handed down a $ 72 billion settlement[16]..The settlement will reduce interchange fees for merchants and traders and protect credit card companies from proceedings in the future.[17].

Legislative and parliamentary investigation

The US Senate hearing focused on surrounding exchange tariffs and card operating rules.2006/, Visa and Mastercard have both published reports summarizing some pricing schedules and card rules, but continue to be under pressure to publish complete documentation.2007/1, Chairman of the Senate Banking Commission(English editionIs about the practice of the credit card industryHearingQuote the exchange fee in, and in March the fee will beNome ColemanRe-criticized by Senator[18].. April 2007,Microsoft OfBill GatesIs onlineMicro paymentHe cited high interchange fees as an important reason Microsoft considers it uncompetitive.

2007/3, Mastercard changed the fee structure, "basic" under the credit cardTierAnnounced that it will be split into two new tiers.Wall Street JournalArticle[19]"It's getting harder to tell if new interest rates are rising on average."[Note 9]And said.Of MastercardSpokespersonJoshua Pires said that this new structure "provides a more sophisticated way to split a credit card portfolio."[Note 10],(English edition(NRF) adviser Mallory Duncan said, "They can maximize the income they are pricing for each tier as absolutely as possible."[Note 11]I told him.

2007/7/19,House Judiciary CommitteeAn organization called the Task Force for Antimonopoly held the first hearing to investigate certain issues of interchange fees. NRF adviser Duncan testified as well as a representative of the credit card industry.パ ネ ルOf the subcommittee leadingJohn Cognard"I attend the hearing openly, but the credit card company bears the margin, and the increase in interchange fees doesn't hurt the merchants, and ultimately the consumer."[Note 12]Said[20].

2010/10/1,(English editionOf the 2010Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection ActEffective as the last addition to.As a result, banks are offered in checking deposit productsIncentiveBegan to limit.Others have announced that they will start charging customers for card usage.[21].

That same month, Visa and Mastercard focused on the issue of competitiveness in the exchange market.Antitrust lawIn proceedingsU.S. Department of JusticeReconciled.The two companies agreed that the trader displaying the logo would reject certain types of cards, or offer discounts to consumers by using cheaper cards.[22].

European Union

2002/,European CommissionArticle 81 of the EC Treaty prohibiting anti-competitive arrangements[Note 13]Exempted from Visa's multilateral exchange fee[23]..However, this exemption is2007/12/31Has expired.United KingdomSo, Mastercard(English editionReduced the interchange fee during the investigation by.

2007/1, European Commission(English editionAnnounced the results of a two-year survey of the department.The report focused on paying cards and interchange fees.When the report was publishedNeelie Kroes"The current level of interchange fees in many of the schemes we have considered does not seem to be justified," said the Commissioner.[Note 14]Said.The report called for further research on this issue[24].

2007/12/19, European Commission, Mastercard andMaestroIt has decided to ban MasterCard's multilateral exchange fees for international transactions of cross-border payment cards with branded debit cards and consumer credit cards.The European Commission has stated that this fee is Article 81 of the EC Treaty prohibiting anti-competitive agreements.[Note 13]Concluded that it violated[25]..Mastercard isCourt of first instanceAppeal the European Commission's decision.Although the appeal is pending, MasterCard has temporarily abolished the multilateral interchange fee.

2008/3/26, European CommissionEuropean Economic AreaWithin (EEA)(English editionVisa multilateral exchange fees for transactions and "respect all cards"[Note 15]Rule[Note 16]Started investigation[26].

Antitrust authorities in EU member states other than the United Kingdom are also investigating Visa and Mastercard exchange fees.As an example, 20071/4,PolandConsumer Protection Agency has set a total of 20 million to 1 banks that jointly set Visa and MasterCard interchange fees.ZlotyFined (about $ 5,600 million)[27][28].

2015/3, European Parliament has decided to limit the exchange fee to 0.3% for credit cards and 0.2% for debit cards[3]..The limit applies only to personal cards with intermediaries, such as cards issued to businessesAmerican ExpressDoes not apply to cards issued by[29].

Australia / New Zealand

2003/,Reserve Bank of AustraliaDemanded a significant reduction in transaction fees from about 0.95% to about 0.5%.One of the notable results is(English editionThe use of debit cards has decreased and the use of debit cards has increased.AustraliaWas established by credit card networks such as Visa and MastercardpolicySo, "no additional charge" that prohibits merchants from charging credit card usage fees to cardholders (British: no surcharge) I also deleted the rule.Australia is also considering changing the debit card exchange rate and eliminating the exchange fee altogether.2016/2, Competition and consumer correction (payment surcharge) method[Note 17]Became a law[30].

2006/,new Zealand(English editionFiled a proceeding against Visa and Mastercard.It claims that interchange fees fix prices and significantly reduce competition.[31].2009/The proceedings were settled outside the court just before the proceedings began in the fall. "Rules at no additional charge" are prohibited, retailers can hand over transaction costs for Visa and Mastercard to customers, and card issuers will charge their own exchange fees within the limits set by Visa or Mastercard. I was able to set[32]..Also, all New Zealand MasterCard issuers have announced that they will charge a maximum fee.[33]..European Commission2013/Published a report reviewing the outcome of the settlement, showing that many merchants and traders are paying higher to accept credit cards than they were before the settlement.[34].

footnote

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注 釈

  1. ^ (English editionAlso called.
  2. ^ (English editionAlso called.
  3. ^ For machine maintenance.
  4. ^ Online, over-the-counter, phone orders, whether the card will be used for transactions, etc.
  5. ^ State including tax
  6. ^ Customers who have something credible, such as paying the full amount every month.
  7. ^ Also called a transaction that does not show the card.
  8. ^ British: the United States Congress "should compel credit card companies to better inform consumers"
  9. ^ British: makes it difficult to determine if the new rates, on average, are rising.
  10. ^ British: allows us to have a more sophisticated way to break up our credit card portfolio,
  11. ^ British: They are pricing each tier at the absolute most they can so they can maximize their income.
  12. ^ British: While I come into the hearing with an open mind, I do believe the burden of the proof lies with the credit card companies to reassure Congress that increasing interchange fees are not harming merchants and ultimately consumers.
  13. ^ a b British: Article 81 of the EC Treaty that prohibits anti-competitive arrangements
  14. ^ British: present level of interchange fees in many of the schemes we have examined does not seem justified.
  15. ^ British: Honor All Cards
  16. ^ Merchants must accept all valid Visa branded cards
  17. ^ British: Competition and Consumer Amendment (Payment Surcharges)

Source

  1. ^ "United States Securities and Exchange Commission FORM S-1”(English) (October 2007, 11). 2020/1/25Browse.
  2. ^ Andrew Martin (January 2010, 1). “How Visa, Using Card Fees, Dominates a Market”. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/05/your-money/credit-and-debit-cards/05visa.html?pagewanted=all 2020-01-025 View"The fees, roughly 1 to 3 percent of each purchase, are forwarded to the cardholder's bank to cover costs and promote the issuance of more Visa cards." 
  3. ^ a b “Commission welcomes European Parliament vote to cap interchange fees and improve competition for card-based payments” (English) (Press Release), European Commission, (March 2015, 3), http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-4585_en.htm 2020/1/25Browse. 
  4. ^ The Interchange Debate: Issues and Economics - Wayback machine(For archived March 2008, 3)
  5. ^ Fumiko Hayashi. “A puzzle of card payment pricing: why are merchants still accepting card payments?" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  6. ^ United States Government Accountability Office (June 2009). “Rising Interchange Fees Have Increased Costs for Merchants, but Options for Reducing Fees Pose Challenges" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  7. ^ Visa USA Inc. Interchange Reimbursement Fees - Wayback machine(For archived March 2012, 2)
  8. ^ "Interchange Fees, Program & Rates" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  9. ^ UCLA Law Review - Wayback machine(For archived March 2015, 4)
  10. ^ Liz Moyer (July 2007, 7). “The World's Most Exclusive Credit Cards" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  11. ^ Nicolas Beique (November 2016, 11). “Understanding Qualified, Mid-Qualified & Non-Qualified Credit Card Processing Fees" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  12. ^ Christine Layton (February 2013, 2). “What is Interchange-Plus Pricing?" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  13. ^ Molly Hennessy-Fiske (April 2007, 4). “Card issuers, retailers at odds" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  14. ^ Merchants, pay attention to rising credit-card fees - Wayback machine(For archived March 2008, 2)
  15. ^ Scott Schuh, Oz Shy, Joanna Stavins (August 2010). “Who Gains and Who Loses from Credit Card Payments? Theory and Calibrations" (English). 2020/1/25Browse.
  16. ^ Court approves controversial interchange fee settlement - Wayback machine(For archived March 2014, 1)
  17. ^ EPC: NRF appeal of interchange settlement a “political ploy” - Wayback machine(For archived March 2014, 1)
  18. ^ Sen. Coleman statement - Wayback machine(For archived March 2007, 12)
  19. ^ Robin Sidel (March 2007, 3). “MasterCard Alters Fee Structure" (English). Wall Street Journal. 2020/1/25Browse.
  20. ^ US lawmaker wants proof credit card fees don't harm - Wayback machine(For archived March 2008, 2)
  21. ^ David John (March 2011, 3). “The Durbin Debit Card Interchange Fee Cap Hurts Consumers" (English). The heritage foundation. 2020/1/25Browse.
  22. ^ Visa, Mastercard settlement means more flexibility for merchants - Wayback machine(For archived March 2011, 1)
  23. ^ "Commission exempts multilateral interchange fees for cross-border Visa card payments" (English). European Commission (September 2002, 7). 2020/1/25Browse.
  24. ^ "Competition: Commission sector inquiry finds major competition barriers in retail banking" (English). European Commission (September 2007, 1). 2020/1/25Browse.
  25. ^ "Antitrust: Commission prohibits MasterCard's intra-EEA Multilateral Interchange Fees" (English). European Commission (September 2007, 12). 2020/1/25Browse.
  26. ^ "Antitrust: Commission initiates formal proceedings against Visa Europe Limited" (English). European Commission (September 2008, 3). 2020/1/25Browse.
  27. ^ Unlawful practices of banks - Wayback machine(For archived March 2008, 2)
  28. ^ Sector inquiry in the banking sector - Wayback machine(For archived March 2008, 2)
  29. ^ "The REAL facts about credit card interchange fee capping" (English). Head for Points (September 2015, 4). 2020/1/25Browse.
  30. ^ "Credit, debit & prepaid card surcharges". Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (September 2016, 6). 2020/1/25Browse.
  31. ^ Dr. Stephen Gale and Ben Gerritsen (August 2011). “COMPETITION POLICY AND CREDIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES IN NEW ZEALAND". 2020/1/25Browse.
  32. ^ Commerce Commission and Visa reach agreement to settle credit card interchange fee proceedings - Wayback machine(For archived March 2015, 1)
  33. ^ Understanding Interchange - Wayback machine(For archived March 2014, 12)
  34. ^ Evaluation of the 2009 interchange and credit card settlements: Research report - Wayback machine(For archived March 2015, 7)
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  1. ^ Searched 10 places such as Hosei University Molotov cocktail and stone throwing case "Asahi Shimbun" June 1970, 45 (Showa 6) Evening edition 26rd edition 3th page
  2. ^ Recommendation-Revision of the Civil Code for the formation of a gender-equal society
  3. ^ NHK NEWS WEB March 2014, 6
  4. ^ EU referendum: What is it and when is it? M. Wilkinson, The Daily Telegraph, 22 Feb 2016
  5. ^ "Takahiro Oba dies Chunichi, Kintetsu, playing in Nankai". Nikkan Sports(July 2016, 7). http://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/1680104.html 2020/12/1Browse. 
  6. ^ Süleyman II Ottoman sultan Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. ^ "Illustrator Shusei Nagaoka dies, 78 years old”. Sankei News (February 2015, 6). 2020/11/14Browse.
  8. ^ 김종필 전 국무 총리 별세… 향년 92 세
  9. ^ "Former Prime Minister Kim Jong-pil dies 92 years old A key player in normalizing diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea”. Sankei News (February 2018, 6). 2020/11/3Browse.
  10. ^ 126 volumes of comics.Kochikame Chronology | June 2001, 6 Giboshi Mandarin Birth as Scheduled Delivery, Shueisha, Kochikame.com (This is the official website of the Kameari Koenmae police station in Katsushika Ward). --Retrieved February 2017, 2.
  11. ^ "Hatoful Boyfriend Official Fan Book"Ichijinsha, August 2012, 10.ISBN 978-4-7580-1280-5. 
  12. ^ "Idol Master Xenoglossia". Sunrise-Bandai visual. 2014/6/24Browse.
  13. ^ "Dengeki G's magazine],ASCII Media Works, February 2010, p. 11.
  14. ^ "Private Akihabara Academy official website". front wing. 2014/6/24Browse.
  15. ^ Katsura Hoshino "D.Gray-man Official Fan Book Grey-no-Keisei"ShueishaJump Comics>, 2008, page 55.ISBN 978-4-08-874248-9. 
  16. ^ "UNDER NIGHT IN-BIRTH". Ecole software-French bread. 2014/6/24Browse.
  17. ^ "Welcome to Pia Carrot !! GOSE | Character> Miho Saimeiji". Cocktail soft-French bread. 2014/6/24Browse.
  18. ^ Because the overseas version is released before the Japanese version.
  19. ^ "The first sonic the hedgehogIs on June 6, when it was released overseas.[18].
  20. ^ "TBS animation "Love Com" official website". TBS・ Shueisha ・Toei animation. 2014/6/24Browse.
  21. ^ "Character «Ichapuri! [MOONSTONE Cherry] ” MOONSTONE. 2014/6/24Browse.
  22. ^ BANDAI NAMCO Pictures ed. "Aikatsu Stars!Idol Name Kan (TV Super Hyaka Pucchigumi) Shogakukan, 2016, pp. 26-27.ISBN 978-4-09-750418-4. 
  23. ^ In-game, from "Information from management"
  24. ^ "character". [Official] Kings Raid | Super Real-time 3D Battle RPG. 2020/7/9Browse.
  25. ^ "TLS official website □ Summer pounding!After-school communication □". ASCII-Enterbrain. 2014/6/24Browse.
  26. ^ Yoichi Takahashi "Captain Tsubasa 3109 days full record" Shueisha, 2003, p.42.ISBN 4-08-782789-5. 

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