[Map symbol quiz] Is it just like a bamboo grove?"○ ground" which is familiar as panda's rice
If you write the contents roughly
Bamboo is a plant classified into the grass family and the bamboo subfamily.
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In the past, a very large group was sometimes referred to as the Bambusoideae, but now it isGrass Phylogeny Working Group "Bambusoideae in the narrow sense" defined by (GPWG) in 2001Bambusoideae sensu stricto) ”Is standard.
In English, the (narrowly defined) Bambusoideae Bamboo Collectively called (Bamboo Is sometimes used in a narrower sense), in this sense Bamboo Is usuallyBambooTranslated as.
Positioning within the Gramineae family
In the past, there is a theory that it was the first branch in the Gramineae family.Bambusoideae (Bambusaceae) Was sometimes made independent.
In the currently known strain,OryzoideaeAlong with (Poaceae), it is included in BEP clade, which is an evolved group in the Gramineae family. "BEP" is the name of three subfamilies Bambusoideae,Ehrhartoideae,Pooideae OfAcronym.
According to the classification by GPWG, the subfamily Bambusoideae is Takeren (bambuseae) When Olyreae It was divided into reams.
TakerenKimotoBamboo (woody bamboos) Also called, in a broad senseBamboo(SasaEtc.). Although it is said to be "wooden", it is secondary to normal woody, although it is made into wood.Hypertrophic growthI don't.on the other hand,Olyreae RenHerbBamboo (herbaceous bamboos), Which is a normal herb.
But Sungkaew et al. (2009)According to the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Bambusoideae, the Bambusoideae are not monophyletic but divided into two strains, tropical Bambusoideae and temperate Bambusoideae.Tropical big bamboos with OlyreaeSister groupsThe temperate Kimoto bamboos are sister groups to all of them.From this result, they selected temperate woody bamboo from Takeren. Arundinarieae It should be divided into reams.
- ^ Sungkaew, Sarawood; et al. (2009) “Non-monophyly of the woody bamboos (Bambuseae; Poaceae): a multi-gene region phylogenetic analysis of Bambusoideae ss”, Journal of Plant Research 122 (1) two:10.1007 / s10265-008-0192-6
Poaceae(Rice orPoaceae) Approximately 700 genera and 8000 species belong toAngiospermsMonocotyledonsBig ofBranchIs.Widely distributed around the world.. Old timesGramineae(Cajon) orGramineaeAlso called.
leaf TheParallel pulseMany of them are long and thin.Some are twisted at the base and turned upside down.There are basal leaves that grow from the root and foliage that grows in the middle of the stem.SusukiSome have many rooted leaves, such asReedSome have many foliage.Some have crawling branches and rhizomes and crawl sideways.
The base of the leaf wraps around the stemLeaf sheathForm, butSedge familyIt is unlikely that both ends of the petiole will fuse to form a tube.In addition, a fin-like protrusion is formed at the tip of the leaf sheath, which is called (yozetsu).The leaf blade may swell all the way to the leaf sheath, which is called the leaf ear.There are many groups that use leaf tongue and leaf ear as a guide for species identification.
StemHas knots, leaves are attached to each knot, and roots appear on the circumference.The stems are often hollow, with sharp knots.Stems can become woody and stiff, especiallyBamboo subfamilyThings are strong enough to be used for timber.however,CambiumBecause there is no such thing, it does not grow and become fat.Depending on the classification system, Bambusoideae may be separated from Gramineae and treated as Bambusoideae.
Gramineae plantsPollinatorBy the windAnemophilyHas evolved into..Therefore, thatflowerHas lost petals and often has long, hairy pistils.also,InflorescenceWas deformedSpikeletsThe unit is called, and this is a setEarTo form.In the grass family, in the spikeletCubDried as it maturedfruitTie thisCaryopsisCalled.Each caryopsis has an outer lemma, an inner lemma, and sometimes a bract.Rice huskWrapped in and crowded.Although it is an air medium, it feeds on pollen.FliesFriends andBeeInsects such as these are often seen, and some bees specialize in pollen of the Gramineae family.however,ErgotInsects gather on the ears of grasses infected with ergot.ConidiaThis is to secrete honey containing.
In the relatively inferior ones, the spikelets are in the form of many similar flowers, and in the more advanced ones, partial degeneration and various specializations are seen.In some cases, differentiation of male and female flowers can be seen.For more informationApplicable itemPlease refer to.It should be noted that such characteristics are important characteristics indispensable for the classification of the genus of the Gramineae family.Therefore, when identifying an unknown grass family, it is recommended to examine the one just before the flower blooms.
In grasslands where dicotyledonous plants grow, the top layer tends to be concentrated and the inside tends to be dark, but the grasslands formed by grasses have stems and leaves, so the light reaches the roots. Enters.
Rice(Rice),Wheat(wheat),corn,Barley,RyeIn a narrow sense, the caryopsis part is edible.穀物And all belong to the Gramineae family.otherssugar cane,BambooIt contains many familiar resource plants.Susuki,Pampas grassAlso belongs to the Gramineae family.Grains must be small and remove rice husks from a large amount of caryopsis, and further remove hard pericarp (refined grain, seikoku), and the use of grains has progressed with the development of techniques for efficiently performing these. A group of people with excellent skills will soon文明There is a historical background that has prospered as.
Typical usage example
- More informations
- Feed / grass-typegrassreference
The Gramineae are some of the early branched subfamilies that are primitive and estranged from each other.BEP clade(Rice, wheat, bamboo, etc.),PACAD cladeIt is divided into two large monophylies (corn, millet, Japanese millet, Japanese pampas grass, etc.).BEP clade と PACAD clade Are sister groups to each other.
There are various theories about how to divide them into subfamilies and reams, but they are becoming more and more organized as the lineage becomes clear.Shown hereGrass Phylogeny Working Group There are about 12 subfamilies of 40 subfamilies.moreover Micrairoideae There is also a theory that admits subfamiliesBut according to recent research Micrairoideae Is not a monophyleticThe position is uncertain.
Subtribes are omitted, and only important genera and species are listed.
Primitive grass family
Anomocroa subfamily Anomochlooideae
It is the most basic group of Gramineae, and is a sister group to all other Gramineae groups. Both of them belong to one genus, and both grow on the floors of lowland forests in Central and South America.
- Anomochloeae : Anomochlia Anomocroa genus
- Streptochaeteae : Streptochaeta Streptochaeta
Bamboo subfamily Bambusoideae
BambooKind.There is also a theory that it once diverged first in the grass family,Bambusoideae Bambusaceae In some cases.
- bambuseae ――What is the stem?
- Bamboo : Bambusa multiplex-Houochiku
- Chimonobambusa : Chimonobambusa
- Phyllostachys Phyllostachys : Mousochiku-Madake-Bee-Bamboo bamboo
- Semiarundinary : Narihiradake-
- Shibataea : Okamezasa
- Sinobambusa : Touchiku
- Tetragonocalamus : Chimonobambusa
- Arundinaria : ・
- Pleioblastus : ・ ・Medake-
- Pseudose : Yadake-
- Sasa : ・ ・Kumazasa-Sasa kurilensis
- Sasamorpha :
Rice subfamily Oryzoideae Tomo.
Dasypoa subfamily Pooideae
Spikelets tend to degenerate from the tip in the case of many flowers and two flowers.
- Hogaeri Gaya Ren Brylkininae
- Bromes Chahiki Ren Bromeae
- Melica nutan ream Meliceae
- Phaenos permatideae
- Strawberry Dasypoa Poeae
- bentgrass : Agrostis gigantea-
- ira : Aira caryophylus
- Alopecurus aequalis Alopecurus : Alopecurus aequalis-Setogaya
- Oats Oats : Oats-Oat
- Beckmannia : Beckmannia serrata
- Quaking-grasses Briza : Greater quaking-Little quaking grass
- Calamagrostis : ・ ・
- Dactylis Dactylis : Duck(Orchardgrass)
- Deschampsia : ・Deschampsia antartar-
- Fescues Festuca : ・Scorpionfish-Toboshigara
- Hierochloe : ・
- Koeleria :
- Ryegrass Lolium : Hosomugi (Perennial ryegrass)・Festuca perensis(Italian ryegrass) ・Lolium temul
- Strawberry genus(Genus Nagahagusa) poa : Poa annua-Strawberry tuna
- Phalaris phalaris : Reed canary grass-Canary grass
- Phleum : ・Red-bellied frog
- Polypogon : Polypogon fugax
- Trisetum : Trisetum bifidida-
- Vulpia : Vulpia myuros
- Barley Ren Triticeae
MicrairoideaeIf you accept subfamilies PACCMAD clade Sometimes.
- Arundineae Arundineae
Trumpet subfamily Centothecoideae
- Lophatherum : Lophatherum
Higeshiba subfamily Chloridoideae
- Chloris : Chloris gayana-
- Cynodon : Dactylis
- Goosegrass Eleusine : Goosegrass-Finger millet
- Lovegrasses Eragrostis : Teff-Eragrostis ferrugine・ ・Cina Dales's Megaya-Eragrostis multicause
- Leptochloa : Azegaya
- Sporobolus : Sporobolus fertilis-Higeshiba
- Lawngrass Zoysia : ・Zoysia tenuifolia-Onishiba-Nagami Onishiba
The spikelets tend to have two flowers, and the lower one tends to bear no fruit.
- Ushikusa RenAndropogoneae
- Andropogon : Meriken Kalkaya
- Schizoachyrium :
- Arthraxon : Arthraxon hispidus
- Bothriochloa : Capillipedium parvi
- coix : Juzudama-Pearl barley
- Lemongrass Cymbopogon : ・lemongrass
- Dimeria : Dimeria ornithop
- Erianthus :
- Eulalia : ・
- Hemarthria : Hemarthria sieboldii-
- Imperata : Imperata cylindrica
- Platypus Ischaemum : platypus-Kekamonohashi
- Microstegium : ・Japanese stiltgrass
- Miscanthus : Susuki-Ogi・ ・
- Phacelurus : Phacelurus latifolia
- Pogonatherum : Poginatherum crinit
- Saccharum : sugar cane-
- Sorghum Sorghum : Sorghum・ ・Johnsongrass-Sudangrass
- Themeda :
- Corn genus Zea : corn
- Eccoilopus : Eccoilopus
- Chaboushi no Shippei Eremochloa : Eremochloa opera
- Isachneae - MicrairoideaeIf you accept subfamilies Micrairoideae Included in the subfamily.
- Panicgrass Panicum : Millet-Panicum-Panicum bisulea
- Echinochloa : Hie-
- Oplismenu hirt Oplismenus : Chijimizasa
- Setaria viridis Setaria : Sasakibi-Setaria viridis-Millet-Setaria pumila
- Crowngrass Paspalum : Suzumenohie-Kishuusuzumenohie-Dallis grass
- Digitaria Digitaria : Digitaria ciliaris-Akimehishiba
- Pennisetum : Chinese fountain grass-Napier glass
- Spinifex : Spinifex littoralis
- Thuarea : Thuarea involuta
- Eriachneae - MicrairoideaeIf you accept subfamilies Micrairoideae Included in the subfamily.
- Micraireae - MicrairoideaeIf you accept subfamilies Micrairoideae Included in the subfamily.
- ^ a b c Kitamura Shiro,Gen Murata(Japanese) "Primary Color Japanese Botanical Encyclopedia" Kimoto Hen II (Revised 10th edition), Nursery School Co., Ltd., Yodogawa-ku, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture, May 1983, 5.ISBN 4-586-30050-7.
- ^ a b Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; et al. (2008), “Large multi-gene phylogenetic trees of the grasses (Poaceae): Progress towards complete tribal and generic level sampling”, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 488-505
- ^ Grass Phylogeny Working Group Home Page
- ^ DNA Data Bank of Japan Adopted by (DDBJ)
- Takemasa Osada "Japanese Gramineae Botanical Encyclopedia" (enhanced version)平凡 社, February 1993.ISBN 978-4582506136.