Indonesia abolishes PCR test before travel
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A diplomatic / official vaccination holder who accompanies a ministerial or higher visit, a person under the age of 18, a person who presents a recovery certificate for the new coronavirus, and a medical certificate stating that vaccination is not possible due to health reasons. Is exempt from the obligation to present a vaccination certificate.
The Indonesian government has removed the obligation to present a negative certificate for the PCR test of the new coronavirus at the time of entry from May 5th ... → Continue reading
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See belowNegative certificateAt the same time, it is mainly required when traveling to other countries.
Certificates that correspond to inoculation certificates have been around for a long time, and there are records that they already existed in the 18th century.In the international frameworkbased onyellow cardHas been used.Since it can be proved that the patient does not get an infectious disease by retaining the antibody, the holder of the vaccination certificate can move freely...Especially worldwideNew coronavirusSince the epidemic, it has started to attract attention.
measlesUnlike infectious diseases in which the antibody is maintained once it is affected, for infectious diseases in which the efficacy of the antibody disappears, not only is it ineffective but also has an adverse effect unless an appropriate expiration date is set. ..Antibody testThe accuracy of is not perfect, and it is said that the possibility of false positives and false negatives cannot be ruled out...It has also been pointed out that the number of inspections required is an unrealizable number, leading to a division of society..
The need for international standardization, privacy protection, and counterfeit prevention are stated in the 2021 issues announced by the Royal Society of the United Kingdom on February 2, 19.To solve this problem, a Geneva-based international standardization body for ITEcma InternationalAnnounced international standardization in March.Already an international standard (ISO / IEC 24643: 2020), ECMA-417 was revised in August 2021 and the third edition was published, and an example of application to vaccine passports was added to Annex B...According to this standard, forged certificates can be found in real time and personal information can be protected, but the implementation, operation, management, etc. of the system are outside the framework of this standard..
Negative certificate of new coronavirus
Since the epidemic of the new coronavirus, it has become virtually impossible to travel abroad (entering from other countries) in almost all countries, and in some exceptional cases, at the time of entry.PCR testNegative certificate is now required.
For entry into Japan, it is necessary to show a PCR test certificate within 72 hours before leaving the country..
New Coronavirus Vaccination Certificate
In Japan, from July 7th, acceptance of grant applications began at each municipality..
Japan Airlines has been provided by Daon of the United States since October 21American airlines,British Airways,Iberian airlines, な ら び にAeringusStarted operation of the digital certificate application "VeriFLY" already used by..Prior to this, in April 21, the Commons Project, a non-profit organization in Switzerland, is promoting in collaboration with the World Economic Forum.The common pass verifies whether the test results issued by the medical institution meet the immigration standards of the host country, and the test results are digitally certified as "common pass".IATA (International Air Transport Association)The "IATA Travel Pass," which is being promoted by 23 airlines around the world and participating in efforts toward commercialization, is also conducting demonstration tests on commercial flights..
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- ^ ""Vaccine Passport" is expected to be issued in late July Chief Cabinet Secretary”. NHK (July 2021, 7). 2021/7/21Browse.
- ^ a b "10 Reasons You Should Not Introduce an Immunity Passport”. Nature Japan (May 2020, 5). 2020/9/8Browse.
- ^ "Ecma International approves new edition of ECMA-417 Standard”(May 2021, 8). 2021/8/23Browse.
- ^ "(PDF)”. P. 15 (October 2021). 2021/8/23Browse.
- ^ "About presentation of inspection certificate". Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/7/28Browse.
- ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs-List of countries / regions where the new corona vaccination certificate for overseas travel can be used (as of July 7)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs Overseas Safety Homepage. 2021/7/21Browse.
- ^ "About new corona vaccination certificate for overseas travel”(Japanese). Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. 2021/7/28Browse.
- ^ For the first time in Japan, it has become possible to register a vaccination certificate using the digital certificate application "VeriFLY".
- ^ Started initiatives with three digital certificate apps "Common Pass", "VeriFLY", and "IATA Travel Pass" for safe, secure, and smooth travel
- Alexandra L Phelan (May 2020, 5), “COVID-19 immunity passports and vaccination certificates: scientific, equitable, and legal challenges” (English), Lancet, two:10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 31034-5, ISSN 0140-6736, PMC 7198144, PMID 32380041 , Wikidata Q94538330
- Daniel B Larremore; Kate M Bubar; Yonatan H Grad (July 2020, 7), “Implications of test characteristics and population seroprevalence on'immune passport' strategies” (English), Clinical infectious diseases, two:10.1093 / CID / CIAA1019, ISSN 1058-4838, PMC 7454323, PMID 32687149 , Wikidata Q97596370
- Teck Chuan Voo; Hannah Clapham; Clarence C Tam (June 2020, 6), “Ethical implementation of'immunity passports' during the COVID-19 pandemic” (English), Journal of Infectious Diseases, two:10.1093 / INFDIS / JIAA352, ISSN 0022-1899, PMC 7337820, PMID 32582943 , Wikidata Q96687967
- Katrina Andrea Bramstedt (August 2020, 8), “Antibodies as Currency: COVID-19's Golden Passport” (English), Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, two:10.1007 / S11673-020-09996-5, ISSN 1176-7529, PMC 7445692, PMID 32840824 , Wikidata Q98719212
- Agam Bansal; Chandan Garg; Rana P Padappayil (July 2020, 7), “Optimizing the Implementation of COVID-19“ Immunity Certificates ”Using Blockchain”, Journal of Medical Systems 44 (9): 140, two:10.1007 / S10916-020-01616-4, ISSN 0148-5598, PMID 32683501 , Wikidata Q97590686
- Call for participation on vaccine passport international standardization --Ecma International (ecma-international.org)
- Ecma Internationalhttps://www.ecma-international.org/wp-content/uploads/ECMA-417.pdf
- Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients with Infectious Diseases
- Imported infectious disease
- Quarantine officer
- Infection control
- Vaccine test package
- About submission of "copy" of vaccination certificate -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- About new corona vaccination certificate for overseas travel -Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- COVID-19 "Immunity Passport" -WHO
- WHO opposes "immunity passport" Even if it recovers, there is a risk of infection again --BBC News