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Tram(Romedensha) is mainly道路Lay onOrbit(Combined track) "Road railroad" (British: Tram, Tramway, Streetcar,alone: Tram)Electric trainIs.To a similar systemLight rail transit,Tram train,Rubber tire tramAnd so on.
What is a road railroad?cityWithin and thatSuburbsA relatively short distance railroad laid on the roadPassenger transportUsed as a means.On the roadsafe area,SidewalkGet on and off the vehicle fromStopIt is a transportation system that is characterized by short intervals.
Regular trainUnlike, the track is laid on the road.Dedicated track(JapaneseOrbit methodIn addition to some routes that have a new track)City areaThen some undergroundElevatedThere is also a route that is separated from road traffic.
It exists in about 50 cities in about 400 countries in the world.Germany,RussiaIs particularly well developed.Termination in Western countriesLoop lineIs used, and many cities operate with single-door, single-cabin-type vehicles.Barrier-freeFrom the point of view20st centuryAfter the end, it was re-evaluated that you can get on and off from the road surface,Europe,ChugokuIt is being actively maintained and extended, and opened in new cities.Also in EuropePublic transportAs in the city centerPedestrian spaceThere are also many forms of getting into.
Japan (modernized tram)
1954/(ShowaIt was developed before the war in the United States in 29)PCC carFollowing the trial by introducing the technology of1956/(Showa 31)Regular trainIncorporating the design of modernized trains,Streamlined style OfLightweight structure,Right angle cardan drive system,Dynamic brakeAdopting highAcceleration / decelerationA Japanese-style modernized tram of about 5 km / h / sec was born, but at that timemotorizationWith the road with many cars due to the expansion ofCombined trackThen, it becomes difficult to take advantage of its high performance, and after that, the vehicle cost is low.Hanging drive systemA conventional vehicle was manufactured by.
Japan (next generation tram / LRT)
1980/(Showa 55)Japan Railway Technical AssociationA new type of tram that is a further improvement of the modernized tramLight trainHowever, in general, only the recognition of vehicle renewal was widespread.the 1990sAfter that, in EuropeUltra low floor carWith the spread of trams, the next generation of trams and the United States and EuropeLight RailThere was a movement to pay attention to the trend of.Therefore, in Japan, next-generation trams are often called "light rail (LRT)".1997/(Heisei9 years), assembled by importing trolleys and electrical parts from GermanyKumamoto City Transportation Bureau type 9700 trainSince its introduction, the next generation of trams featuring ultra-low-floor vehicles has progressed.ToyamaAs you can see in the example ofCompact cityIt can be said that the next generation of trams is generally recognized as a transportation system integrated with oriented urban development.
The concept is slightly different from that of light rail transit (LRT) outside Japan.Light RailSee "Concepts" in.
In Japan, the "next generation" of tram systems has been discussed and points to the following characteristics, but it is not clearly defined.Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismThen, this is called LRT (Light Rail Transit / next-generation tram system).
- Policy support such as positioning in city planning and regional planning
- Dedicated track,Center reservationSecuring punctuality by means of, etc., and express delivery such as improving operating speed (However, in the city center, combined tracks are also possible to improve convenience)
- Cooperation with existing transportation
- Improvement of fare collection system (prepaid card,Credit boarding methodIntroduction etc.)
- Ease of getting on and off (trainUltra low floor(Improvement of track and tram stop, etc.)
- Comfort, quietness, reliability
Toyama Light Rail[Note 1]It is,JR West JapanOldToyama Port LineTo tramToothThird sectorTakes over the management2006/(18)4/29Opened in.At the time of opening, all vehicles will be replaced with next-generation trams and incorporated into the city planning of Toyama City, and there is also an idea to regard this as the first next-generation tram in Japan.A third-party organization that collects information such as light rail in the United Kingdom,Light Rail Transportation Association (Light Rail Transit Association: LRTA)Combined trackThe section is part of the city center, most of itDedicated railway sectionBecause it is directly connected toTram trainIs classified as.
the 2020sSince then, even in cities where trams have never been operated, LRT is the axis.Compact cityOriented town development is being carried out.Utsunomiya CityThen, Japan's first all-line new LRTIsUtsunomiya light railIs being built to make it a compact city...In the above-mentioned LRTA, the Utsunomiya Light Rail is classified as "Tram (tram)".
LRTA is JapanEnoshima Electric Railway,Hiroshima Electric Railway Miyajima Line,Chikuho Electric Railway,Keifuku Electric Railway(Randen),Tokyu Setagaya Line,Hankai Electric Orbit6 lines are classified as railways equivalent to light rail.
Utsunomiya light rail
Sapporo City Transportation Bureau
Hiroshima Electric Railway
"Green mover max'
Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau
Kagoshima City Transportation Bureau
Toyama regional railway
Hankai Electric Orbit
- Paris: Newly opened in 1992 (T1Route).The vehicle is TFS-2 type.
- Rouen: Newly opened in 1994.The vehicle is TFS-2 type.
- Strasbourg(Strasbourg tram): Newly opened in 1994.Initially smallRubber tire type subway(VAL) Was planned to be introduced, but it was canceled.
- Lyon: Newly opened in 2001.The vehicle isCitadis.. In 2010Lyon Saint-Exupery International Airport"Rhone Express", which directly connects to, has opened.
- Bordeaux: Newly opened in 2003.The vehicle isCitadisBased onGround level power collection methodIt also supports running in the section where (Innorail type) is introduced.
- Nice: Newly opened in 2007.The vehicle isCitadisBased on, it also supports running in non-collecting sections with batteries.
- Toulouse: Newly opened in 2010.The vehicle isCitadis.
- United Kingdom
The road rail was originally in the cityCarriage trainBorn as, it spread throughout Europe and the United States in the 1840s.
After that, problems such as bad odor caused by horse manure occurred along the railway line, so attempts were made to use a power source other than horses, and although there were steam engines, electric power was the most widespread.this is1879/ToGermanyElectric company,Siemens BerlinexpositionでdemonstrationIt started running, and electricity was supplied from the third rail.1881/In the suburbs of Berlin(English edition,German version）Test operation started at1883/Regular service has started in.
In the United States, electric tracks (trams)1886/ToAlabamaMontgomery,PennsylvaniaScrantonStarting with the laying in, it will spread in each city.Especially in the country, the system is advanced by making it a dedicated track and improving the driving speed to connect cities.Inter UrbanAlso developed intothe 1920sHas reached its heyday.
But at the same time,Private carWith the spread of trams, the trend of abolishing trams has begun in many cities.the 1970sAt the beginning, trams and suburban trains (Inter Urban) Was abolished in 4% of its heyday, and the remaining 6% was slowly becoming a rut, and the Soviet Union (the Soviet Union) became the "world's largest tram-owning country".Russia).
Even in parts of EuropeSecond World WarBy this flow laterUK,ParisAbolished in cities such as[Note 2]..On the other hand, the former Soviet Union, Eastern European countries, andWest GermanyThen,Second World WarAfter that, I used the tram.
In West Germany, due to the spread of cars, it was abolished in half of the cities that had introduced trams, but it was positioned as an important means of transportation within the city.Articulated trainFor inputting and collecting faresCredit boarding methodMany cities have endeavored to increase transportation capacity and productivity, such as by introducing.The restructuring of the route network was also actively carried out.
In addition, while extending the route to the suburbs, it ran at high speed without being affected by traffic jams, secured a dedicated track to ensure punctuality, and further promoted undergrounding in the city center.This methodStadtbahnIt is called.This Stadtbahn was stuck in the development of a new transportation systemThe United States of AmericaAffectsthe 1970sEntered by the Federal Department of Transportation Urban Mass Transport AuthorityLight Rail The word (LRT) is defined.
FranceThen,the 1980sFrom the latter half of the year, instead of the above-mentioned "Stadtbahn" and "light rail" trends, new initiatives for trams began and later spread to continental European countries.In Japan, it is called the next generation of trams.
Vehicles loaded with storage batteries are being developed and put into practical use without using overhead wires..
1890'sItalyOn a road railroad powered by a steam engine
ExistingSan Francisco cable car
The world's first tramGross Richterfelde Road Track
BucharestTram.Model V3A, 1971/1993
The etymology isEnglish"Tram"Low GermanDerived from "Traam",axle,BeamMeans.In englandThe Brecknock and Abergavenny Canal Of1798/10 month 17 dayArticles of IncorporationThe word "Tramroad" appears for the first time in.This tram road is an iron L-shapeRail"Tramway" refers to mining railways and light railways...The word tramway is1826/Was used for the first time in. The word "tram-car" is1873/Used from..Currently, "Tram" is often used in European countries.
North AmericaThe word "Streetcar" inGermanIt was transferred from and has been used since 1840...However, as electrification progressed, it was often called "Trolley" or "Trolley car".This "trolley" is derived from "Troller"Overhead lineWhen getting power fromCurrent collectorAt the tippulleyHas come to be called this way because it rolls along the overhead line..
JapanIn, the tramOrbit methodIs applicable toRailway Business LawGeneral based onTrainIs clearly distinguished from.City Planning ActStipulated inUrban facilityDue to the classification of tramsCity planning roadIt is classified as a "special street".
Treatment on the road
othersRoad Traffic LawThen "tram"[Note 3]TorailDefined as "a car driven by"Therefore, according to the law,Traffic lights[Note 4],road sign(Road closed,slow down,pauseIncluding etc[Note 5]）Road marking(Pedestrian crossing, etc.Including etc[Note 6]),Top speed,Sudden brakingProhibition, keeping distance between cars, railroadRailroad crossingIt is subject to restrictions such as when passing.Orbital floorVehicle traffic inside,StopProtecting passengers at交 差点Priority inEmergency carPrescribe the priority of.
As a management form,MunicipalitiesbyLocal public enterprise(Traffic bureau),generalPrivate railwayThe same pure private company,Third sector companyThere is due to.In addition, it should be notedCityOperated byTramOf course, trams are often called "trams" regardless of the management body.
The vehicle isBogey carIn principle, the length of the vehicle is generally about 12m.In addition, in order to increase the transportation capacity, some articulated vehicles with a length of about 2 m or 3 m, which are equipped with three or four bogies on two or three bodies, are also used.[Note 7].
The drive system has a simple structure and is easy to maintain for many years due to the limited space under the floor.Hanging drive systemHas been adopted, but in recent vehicles,Right angle cardan drive system-Hollow shaft parallel cardan drive system-TD parallel cardan drive systemIs adopted, and there are some exceptions in the ultra-low-floor tram where the space of the drive device under the floor is further restricted.[Note 8]exceptBody mount cardan drive systemHas been adopted.
The control method controls the motor by directly switching the main circuit with the direct controller in the driver's cab.Direct controlMethod and cabMain controller (master controller)Switch the command line of the control circuit byMain controllerControl the main circuit of the motor viaIndirect controlDepending on methodResistance controlHas been adopted for many years, but in recent vehicles, it is widely used as a train control method for Japanese electric railways.VVVF inverter controlHas been adopted[Note 9].
On the other handField chopper controlとField addition excitation controlHas no adoption example,Armature chopper controlAs for, only two cars were introduced at Nagasaki Electric Tramway.In the brake system, the brake valve in the driver's cab is opened and closed to pressurize or depressurize the brake cylinder from the supply air damage via a direct pipe to obtain the braking force from the compressed air created by the air compressor.Direct brakeHas been adopted for many years, but in recent vehicles, it is widely used as a brake system for trains on Japanese electric railways.Electric command type brakeHas been adopted.The acceleration is about 3km / h / sec, but nowadays, some vehicles have high acceleration / deceleration performance of about 3-5km / h / sec.In the 1960s, the Sapporo streetcar had non-electrified sections, so only a few road railcars were manufactured.
railHas adopted a grooved rail or grooved guide rail with a ring edge path through which the HT (High Tee) rail and the flange of the wheel pass, which can handle the thickness of the road pavement and the load of the rail, and the former is straight. Used in sections, the latter used in curves and turnouts.When laying HT rails, it is necessary to provide an annular path through which the flanges of the wheels pass.
The rail and the road surface have the same structure so that there is no difference in elevation. Most of the pavement of the track is a flexible pavement with stone slabs, but recently, concrete with reinforcing bars, Rigid pavement is used for maintenance-free use of mortar, asphalt, and concrete slab blocks.In addition, the outer part of the trackbed has a slope of about 1/20 toward the roadway, and rainwater due to rainfall flows to the roadway and is drained, but between the rails of the trackbed that are horizontal. Since rainwater tends to overflow along the rim road, sewage ditches that cross the track are installed at regular intervals to guide the rainwater from the rim road to the gutters of the road.
Combined trackIn principle, the position of the track is in the center of the road.The reasons for this are that the round trip of automobile traffic on the road is divided, the drainage of the road surface is easy, and traffic disruption on the street corner can be avoided, but when crossing the road when getting on and off. There are drawbacks such as contact with automobiles.In addition, in order to ensure smooth passage of automobiles, the width of the roads on the left and right is 2 m or more for two lanes, and the width of the road when laying a road surface track on the road is that of the double-lane track in the center. It is said that the width is 5.5m and the road width of two lanes on the left and right is 5.5m x 2 = 5.5m, and the width of the sidewalks on the left and right is added to the width of 2m or more.
The radius of the curve is small in relation to the road, and the minimum radius is about 18 m, which complicates the slope of the road, so it is a curve.CantIs not provided.The slope depends on the road, but the steepest slope on the main line is 40 ‰, and the slope at the stop is 10 ‰ or less for starting conditions and safety.
Since the maximum speed is limited to 40km / h and it takes time to wait for traffic lights and get on and off, there are many routes with lower nominal speeds than bicycles..
Tram stop etc.
StopThis is also called a tram stop.The distance between the stops is around 500m for convenience.
Also, for the safety of users, at the stopsafe areaAlthough signs and safety protection equipment are installed, they are not installed due to the width of the roadway, and there are places where a white line is drawn on the roadway and it is simply painted in blue or green so as to surround it.
The signal is called a track signal, and because it is a driving that controls the vehicle interval by the driver's visual inspection to ensure security, there is no other than a turnaround terminal, a branch point, an intersection, etc., near an intersection, a branch point, a crossover line, etc. On the overhead lineTrolley contactorInstall several switches to operate the switch, train signal, and traffic signal of the turnout.
In addition, Hiroshima Electric RailwayThen, when the approach of the train is detected by the trolley contactor at the intersection, a train priority signal that extends the green light at the intersection is installed to facilitate the operation of the train...In addition, in the single-track section, a signal indicating the number of vehicles and the direction of travel in the single-track section may be installed at a stop where there is a crossing so that both operation similar to automatic block system on a railway and continuous operation can be performed. is there.
Operation status display system
By collecting and grasping the passing information of trains with vehicle detectors installed at each stop, it is used to notify the approach to the next stop and adjust the operation interval to prevent dango driving where trains are operated in succession. Ru.
For the introduction concept, open, and discontinued trams in Japan, see "List of trams in Japan"checking.
Restored the early tramHakodate City Enterprise Bureau Transportation Department"30 type'
1995/(7)Hiroshima cityBy the 2nd circuit surface train summit held in6/10Was established on Tram Day.This is 6 = ro (RoadFace), 10 = Ten in English (face)ElectricityCar)punby.On tram days, campaigns and events are held to promote the benefits of trams.
Commonly known as "Chinchin train"
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There are two theories, one is the underfloor bell with the driver's foot to alert passers-by.Foot gong) Comes from the sound, and the other isconductor DriverOr the driver was ringing to signal the conductorbell(Orbell) Is derived from the sound.The sound of the bell was used with the following meanings.
- The train is runningStopIf you make a single "chin" when approaching, "stop because there are passengers" or "stop"
- If you ring "Chinchin" twice, "Can I pass because there are no passengers?" Or "Good"
- In addition, if you hear "Chinchin" twice while the vehicle is stopped, "I'm getting on and off, can I leave?" Or "OK"
- "Chin Chin Chin Chin" and 3 or more consecutive hits are "Stop immediately" or "Stop (emergency stop)"
Even nowToden Arakawa Line,Hankai Electric OrbitAll vehicles (Hankai Tramway is only foot gong,501 type,1001 type"Sakai Tramway", and1101 typeIs not equipped with. ) Can be heard at the time of departure.However, currently all trains[Note 11]Because it is a one-man operation, it is not used for communication between conductors and drivers mentioned above, and it is positioned as a departure signal for passengers.. Also,Hakodate City Enterprise Bureau Transportation DepartmentOperates only in the summerHakodate High ColorIn addition,Tosaden TransportationYou can hear it with the disembarkation signal sound other than 100 type, 590 type, 2000 type.Restoration issueBut this bell was used as.Although it is not used in the Hankai Tramway Model 161 No. 161 "Restored car in the 40's", it has been reproduced.
After the warBy remodeling the bell with continuous soundElectric bells and buzzersVehicles that were replaced with or newly made with only a buzzer appeared, but the number of sounds and the content of the transmission follow those of the bell era.Even nowHiroshima Electric RailwayThen, the car body is longJacobs bogieThe buzzer is used to signal the conductor and the driver because it is operated two-on-one. There is no difference in the departure signal that sounds twice in a row, but the buzzer makes a "squeak, squeak" sound.
In addition, except for tramsNagoya Railway(However300 seriesSubsequent vehicles will be changed to a 2-stroke buzzer)Keihan Electric Railway-Hankyu Corporation-Hanshin Electric Railway-Kinki Nippon Railway-Nankai Electric Railway-Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line-Osaka Municipal Subway-Chikuho Electric RailwayEtc.One-man drivingExcept for the route, the signal is left by hitting the bell twice.in the pastKobe Electric Railway,Eizan Electric RailwayI also went there.Especially on the Kansai route, where there are many companies that originated from trams.Even in KantoKeisei Electric RailwayAnd its groupShin-Keisei Electric RailwayandHokuso Railway, Also, the direct destination where the Keisei Electric Railway crew will continue to be on boardShibayama RailwayThen, the buzzer is given twice when the train departs, and once when the stop is approaching, which is a tram-type signal.
Depending on the area, it was also called "Kankokanko Train" because of the difference in sound.
- Orbital transportation sophistication business
- JapaneseHow to revitalize and regenerate local public transportationamong,Ultra low floor trainIntroduction andLRTThe name of the maintenance project that is supposed to be improved or newly established.
- Center reservation
- ReservationIs a type of combined track, and a track was laid by visually and physically separating the boundary between the road and the track so that ordinary automobiles could not enter the track at normal times.Semi-dedicated orbitThe center reservation is the name when it is laid in the center of the road.Not only the track but also the station facilities (stops) that get on and off it are located in the center of the road, so there is a drawback that you cannot avoid crossing the road when using it, but most Japanese trams have a track in the center of the road This format is forbidden to enter.The decisive difference from the dedicated track is that emergency vehicles such as disasters and accidents can run, although general vehicles cannot pass through.
- Side reservation
- Side reservationIs the name used when a semi-dedicated track is laid near the edge of the road so that passengers can get on and off the track directly from the sidewalk.It is a laying method that guarantees absolute safety for pedestrians, but on the other hand, vehicles that want to stop on the roadside are restricted, soTaxi,Cargo handlingMany vehiclesDowntownThen it tends to be shunned.Although there were sections in Japan where this was the case, it was not widely used as a laying method.[Note 12]..In recent years, the demand has been gradually recognized and the number of cases where it is adopted is increasing.
- If the track is a double track, bring the upper and lower lines together to one side of the road.Single side reservation(Kumamoto, Kagoshima station square, etc.) and lay the upper and lower lines separately on the left and right of the roadDouble (dual) side reservation(Sapporo tramOf the city center lineSapporo station squareEtc.).Sapporo streetcarSasara trainCan only bounce snow to the left in the direction of travel, so this section without a snowfall location is under orbitRoad heatingIt corresponds in.
- Center pole
- A method of erecting overhead wire pillars between the tracks of the upper and lower lines on the center reservation line.The scenery is better than the method of hanging overhead wires from utility poles and buildings on the side of the road (side pole method).There are also cases of adoption on railway lines (such as Otsuka Station on the Yamanote Line).In the days when there were not many utility poles, it was common because of the necessity, but as the number of utility poles on the side of the road increased, the center pole disappeared.However, as town development that emphasizes landscape spreads nationwide, it has become disliked that structures such as wires that hang overhead wires along with electric wires and utility poles on major streets are stretched over the road, and it is a neat city. The adoption of center poles that match the purpose of regaining space is gradually increasing.[Note 13]..In JapanToyohashi Railway Higashida Main LineIn the section in front of the stationKagoshima TramandOkayama Electric TrackIn, most of the center reservation section is converted to a center pole.
- Side pole
- The side pole is an overhead wire pillar installation method that has been adopted by the majority of existing trams in Japan.Mainly, overhead wire pillars are erected on the roadside on both sides of the road or near the pedestrian road boundary, or a building is used to install an overpass structure made of wires or steel frames that cross the street, and then the overhead wire is hung over the track. In most cases.In addition, in the case of center reservation, there is also a method of setting up an overhead wire pillar at the boundary between the track and the road.In addition, all single poles in the single track section are included in the side poles.As the number of wires and structures in the air and columnar structures on the roadside increases, it is often regarded as a factor that oppresses the scenery of the street, and sometimes it is one of the main drawbacks of trams and the main reason for denying the introduction or survival. It may be done.
- Deflection structure orbit
- A structure in which the road surface resists shearing force due to traffic load but does not resist bending force and bends. In the case of a combined track, it has a crushed stone pavement (regardless of whether the surface is stone pavement or asphalt pavement). Applies to..Rails are laid on the crushed stone track bed via sleepers in the same way as ordinary railways.A structure that has been used for a long time in combined orbits.If the number of automobiles in the track is increased, the load will cause the track to be damaged quickly, and it will be necessary to increase the number of track maintenance operations.
- Rigid structure orbit
- A structure in which the road surface has a strong resistance to bending force due to traffic load, and in the case of a combined track, a structure without a crushed stone track bed and a strong concrete track bed is applicable...It was developed in response to the increase in track destruction due to the passage of automobiles on the combined track, and the concrete pavement board was laid directly on the roadbed without constructing a crushed stone track bed, and the rails were directly on the pavement board or via concrete sleepers. Attached by double elastic fastening..Pavement with asphalt etc. is applied on it.Since the vehicle load on the rail is stably distributed by the concrete pavement plate, there is no need to make the rail itself a heavy rail...Even after the adoption of this structure, there were cases where track destruction progressed due to an increase in the weight of the automobile, and even among the rigid structures, improvements such as the articulated block structure were promoted.
- Passenger flow
- A method in which the doors of the vehicle are divided into those for boarding and those for getting off, and passengers pay the fare while moving between them.At its peakSapporo tramThen, 2 carsOrganizationIt was supposed to get on from the rear vehicle, pay the fare, and then get off from the front vehicle.
- Ground level power collection method
- Under the name of "APS (Alimentation par le Sol)"AlstomA current collection system developed by a subsidiary of the company, divided into short segments.Third railIs laid and electricity is passed only to the segment through which the train is passing.Since there is no need for overhead wires, there are fewer obstacles and it has the advantage of good appearance.BordeauxIt was put into practical use in.
- Underground groove current collection method
- Conduit current collection method, underground third rail method, and conduit method.A feeding line is buried between the tracks, and current is collected by the current collecting shoes extending from the lower part of the vehicle body.It was used in various places such as London and New York,1963/Last disappeared in Washington, DC.
- High speed train
- A term used to distinguish a normal train (railroad) that is not a tram from a tram.
- Urban high speed train
- A railway that is planned and designed not to stop at a traffic signal, as opposed to a "tram" that has to stop at a traffic signal at a street intersection.Englishrapid transitIt is a translation of "Urban facilityAs one ofCity Planning ActIt is stipulated in Article 11, Paragraph 1.
|[How to use footnotes]|
- ^ As of May 2020, 2Toyama regional railwayMerged with
- ^ Paris tramIt is,2006/12/16However, the section is completely different from the one before the war and is not relevant.
- ^ It inherits the concept of "railcar" in Article 2 of the Road Traffic Control Law of the predecessor law, and refers to the one that complies with the track law rather than the meaning of a tram in a narrow sense.
- ^ Police officer or Traffic patrolIncluding hand signals by
- ^ Includes pedestrian crossings, bicycle crossings, horns, and horn sections.
- ^ Includes pedestrian crossings, bicycle crossings, and no-stop areas.
- ^ The maximum length by law is 30m.
- ^ Right angle hollow shaft laminated rubber drive systemIt was adoptedHiroshima Electric Railway 5000 seriesandWN joint type parallel cardanIt was adoptedKagoshima City Transportation Bureau 7500 seriesIs applicable.
- ^ The first practical use of VVVF control with high energy-saving effect in Japan is the tram of the Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau.
- ^ "饋"Common kanjiSince it is outside, it is sometimes written as "feeder".
- ^ By the time No. 6152 was active, the Tokyo Toden Ordinance stipulated the above rules for how to ring, and it was actually used.
- ^ In the past, it runs through Okayama city from north to southNational Highway 53 OfJoint grooveDuring constructionOkayama Electric Track OfKiyobashi LineThere is a case where the track was temporarily relocated to the shoulder. "Cities and Roads in Japan" Gakugei Publishing Co., Ltd., December 2006, 12, p. 30.ISBN 4-7615-4078-8.
- ^ Sapporo streetcar in 1994 (6) In front of Sosei Elementary School (currently in front of Shiseikan Elementary School) --There is an example of Susukino
- ^ LRT introduction support: What is LRT (Next Generation Tram System)?(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
- ^ "Request for tram supportToyama Light Rail Co., Ltd.
- ^ Light Rail Transportation Association (Light Rail Transit Association(Archive as of September 2019, 9): Classification by LRTA).
- ^ About Haga / Utsunomiya LRT vehicles Utsunomiya City Official Website
- ^ Network type compact city formation vision Utsunomiya City Official Website
- ^ Charles J. Van Depoele Soylent Communications.
- ^ Marker Details: First Electric Cars. Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development.
- ^ Next-generation trams are "overhead line-less" Battery vehicles are in the commercial stage
- ^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary January 2013, 1 Search / Browse
- ^ Railway Guinness Book of Records Japanese version p.8 (1998, Ikaros Publishing)
- ^ a b Online Etymology Dictionary January 2013, 1 Search / Browse
- ^ Middleton, William D. (1967). The Time of the Trolley, p. 60. Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN-0 89024-013-2.
- ^ Road Traffic Law Article 2, Paragraph 1, Item 13
- ^ The "tram" that attracts attention was actually inefficient! | Local Lines / Public Transportation | Toyo Keizai Online | New Standards for Economic News
- ^ a b Hiroshi Kubota"Railway Engineering Handbook"Grand prix publication 1995 pp.310-312
- ^ From Railroad Pictorial No. 614 "Special Feature: Tokyo Toden".
- ^ a b c d Yukinori Nishimura "Tram Track Structure" ("Railway journal』October 1980 issue (NO.10) pp.164-50 publication)