Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🧳 | [New York Travel Encyclopedia 10] Stylish lady "Chrysler Building" standing in the night sky


写真 

[New York Travel Encyclopedia 10] Stylish lady "Chrysler Building" standing in the night sky

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is said that the high-rise building, which was a famous landmark but had only offices and residences, is now planning to be reborn as a commercial building including restaurants, food halls and hotels.
 

New York, USA.Even if you haven't visited, you've probably heard of it.But where is it actually?degree… → Continue reading

 TABIZINE

TABIZINE is an off-time WEB magazine with the theme of travel and freedom.
Through travel information and small stories from all over the world, we propose a lifestyle that makes you feel like traveling.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Skyscraper

Skyscraper(Architecture) isHigh-rise buildingEspecially expensiveBuilding.SkyscraperAlso known as (chokouso building) (hereinafter, "skyscraper" is used).There is no unified and clear standard for how tall a building is called a skyscraper (#Definitionreference).

Definition

What height and number of floorsBuildingThere is no unified and clear definition as to whether to call a skyscraper.

Although the term "super high rise" is not used in Japanese law,Building Standards LawArticle 20 No. 1 sets different structural standards for buildings with a height of more than 60 m, and buildings with a height of 60 m or more are sometimes called skyscrapers.[1][2][3]..In addition, Shinjuku Ward, which is famous for having skyscrapers, is the "Shinjuku Ward Landscape Formation Guidelines".[4]However, the target of the "Guidelines for landscape formation of skyscrapers" is also "buildings with a height of more than 60 m".[5].. furtherAviation lawEven in Article 51, for properties with a height of 60 m or moreAviation obstruction lightsIs obligatory to install.

In the case of Japan, for example, "Kojien], "15th floor and above, or 100mBuildings with higher heights are often called skyscrapers. "[6]..Assuming that the floor height is 3-4m, the 15th floor is 45-60m, and there is a big difference in height between the 15th floor and above and 100m and above.To give an example of another book

BookPublicationDefinition
Mypedia平凡 社100m or more
Architectural EncyclopediaShokokusha100m or more or 15th floor or more
Architectural GlossaryArchitectural Institute of JapanAbout 15th floor and above

When,100m-About 15th floorAnd the value differs depending on the book.

The first skyscraper in JapanKasumigaseki Building(36th floor, 147m above ground)[7]..It was the tallest building before thatHotel New Otani(17th floor, 73m) was not called a skyscraper.

United KingdomSkyscrapernews.com is 150m high (500)ft) The above buildings are skyscrapers (skyscraper)[8]..Also, a supertall building (supertall tower) of 300m or more (up to 1,000m or less), or simply supertall (Super Thor) May be called.

Buildings with a height of more than 1,000 mHyper buildingCalled (Skyscraper, Skyscraper),Saudi Arabia OfJeddahUnder construction (Kingdom tower). 167 stories high about 1,008m (spiers height),2020/Is scheduled to be completed, and if completed, it is expected to become the world's first hyperbuilding.

Overview

In generalSkyscraperCalledSkyscraper(Matenro, meaning "high tower that rubs the heavens", English translation[6]).EnglishThen skyscraper (Skyscraper, "Shaving the sky"), Tower (tower,塔"), Spire (Spire, Also known as "spiers").

Home Insurance BuildingIs generally recognized as the first skyscraper to use a refractory metal skeleton on both the exterior and interior.[9]..The building was completed in 1884 and demolished in 1931.

Empire State Building The1972/ToWorld Trade CenterFor 42 years until the completion of the North Tower, it was the tallest building in the world.

The tallest skyscraper in the world has been around for over 50 yearsAmericaThe building was occupied, but in recent yearsAsiaWith the development of the economic power of each country, it has handed over its position.

Significance of architecture

Skyscrapers often have huge demand capacities, depending on their size.RedevelopmentWhen planning a project, skyscrapers are often adopted as buildings to be built on the site after land readjustment.

Professor Edward Glazer and others argue that skyscrapers enable economic innovation and people interaction.[10].

As a case where a skyscraper is builtReal estateBusinesses on high-priced landinvestmentWhen trying to recover investment funds, if you want to build a multi-story building to earn profits, resulting in a skyscraper, or if you want a large capacity in a limited land, land And cities, countries, etc.Landmark(symbol) For example.In addition, skyscrapers often have a height that is extracted from the surrounding area, which has a large impact on the surrounding area.So expensivedesignSkyscrapers with sex use the area, the building owner, and the buildingtenantHowever, if the building is not accepted from the surrounding area, it may be requested to correct it at the planning stage, or to revise the plan or injunction the building.LawsuitMay be raised.

Historical area (京都,Nara,TokyoSensoji TempleEspecially in Japan, there are many cases of lawsuits and opposition movements that "do not bring convenience to the surrounding area" against the tower condominium plan that is taller than the existing housing.[11]..It was also an early site for skyscrapers.Modernism architectureIs often dismantled and redeveloped, and supporters of classical modernism have begun to oppose it.[12].

As an example of energy saving measuresEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe government approved a plan to improve energy efficiency of skyscrapers in 2017, and is considering related legislation etc.[13].

Seismic structure

EarthquakeAnd wind pressure measures (Seismic structure) Is "in a conventional buildingRigid structureThere has been a demand for a structure that can withstand earthquakes and wind pressure (it can be compared to a person stepping on his legs in a running train to withstand shaking), but in a skyscraper, a building that can withstand the shaking and wind pressure of an earthquake to some extent is required. Entrust"Flexible structureIs the architecture of[14].

Furthermore, in the skyscrapers constructed these days, hydraulic devices (hydraulic dampers) are attached to the foundation, low yield point steel is sandwiched between the pillars (vibration control pillars), and the upper part of the building.Damperと 呼 ば れ るWeightMethods such as attaching to reduce shaking (both)Seismic control structure) Is adopted[15].

In addition, a method of separating the foundation from the upper building and mediating laminated rubber and bearings between the structures to allow the rolling itself to escape (Seismic isolation structure) Has also been developed.The seismic isolation structure is also effective for aging buildings constructed according to old structural standards, and there is even a seismic isolation retrofit (improvement, retrofit) construction method.However, since this method basically cuts pillars, jacks them up, and then attaches laminated rubber and bearings, the first floor is hollow (parking lot, bicycle parking lot, etc.) and a sufficient site can be secured. It is a condition that the burden of weight does not exceed a certain level.

Resonance with long-period ground motion

In general, the taller a building, the moreNatural vibration OfcycleBecomes longer[16]..Therefore, in skyscrapers, it is not a problem in low-rise buildings due to a huge subduction-zone earthquake.Long-period ground motionThe possibility of resonance with[16].

Examples of long-period ground motion in skyscrapers

2007/May 7 OfNiigata Chuetsu-oki EarthquakeThen,Roppongi HillsElevator for high-rise floors stopped urgently due to long-period ground motion[16].

2011/May 3Occurred inTohoku-Pacific Ocean EarthquakeTo the whole area of ​​eastern JapanLong-period ground motionThere has occurred.At this time, in the 23 wards of Tokyo, long-period ground motion class 4 was observed, andShinjukuNishi-ShinjukuThe skyscrapers in Japan were photographed as they swayed due to long-period ground motion.[17][18][19].

Dismantling method

Of a skyscraperDismantlingIn addition, the method of gradually demolishing from the top (crushing method), which is used for general buildings, is difficult because it is forced to work in high places.Therefore, in Europe and the United StatesDestruction and dismantlingIs mainly used, but in Japan, due to the handling of gunpowder, related legal and regulatory issues, and the concentration of buildings, the method of dismantling the construction in order from the top so as to reverse the construction[20], Using a jackDaruma doll dropHow to disassemble in order from the bottom like[21]Etc. are often adopted.Akasaka Prince Hotel,Resona Maruha BuildingIn the dismantling of, "Tekorep system" by Taisei Corporation[22]It was done by a method called dismantling in order.

Skyscrapers of each country

American skyscraper

United States flag The United States of America

The United States is a pioneer of skyscrapers in the world, and many of the big cities are populated with skyscrapers.In particularChicago,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Los AngelesIn, many skyscrapers are densely packed, so it is not sunny on the ground.

Also, nowadaysSan Francisco,Seattle,Minneapolis,Houston,Dallas,Detroit,Cleveland,Pittsburgh,Duffel Bag,Philadelphia,シ ャ ー ロ ッ ト,Atlanta,MiamiSkyscrapers can be seen in major cities in the United States.Also in medium-sized and smaller citiesIowaDes Moines801 Grand (801 Large),AlabamaMobilRSA Battle House Tower (RSA Battle House Tower),New York StateAlbanyErastus Corning Tower (Erastus Corning Tower), There are some cities where skyscrapers are built.

In Chicago, where skyscrapers originated,1890 eraSince then, New York has been deprived of the number one position in the world in the height battle for buildings.[Annotation 1], America's leading GMS (General Merchandise Store) chain,SearsAt the headquarters ofSOMDesignモ ダ ニ ズ ムArchitectureSears Tower(442.3m, nowWillis Tower)But1973/When it was completed, it regained the number one spot in the world from New York.

2013/IsAmerican terrorist attacksCollapsed inWorld Trade CenterOn the site of (528m)1 World Trade Center(541m) was rebuilt to become the tallest building in the United States and the third tallest building in the world.

Asian skyscrapers

1960 eraUntil then, the construction of skyscrapers was mainly in the United States, butAsiaWith the economic development of the region, the number of skyscrapers has gradually increased in Asia.JapaneseKasumigaseki Building(147m,TokyoChiyoda) AndKobe Shoko Trade Center Building(107m,HyogoKobe City),World Trade Center Building(162.6m, TokyoMinato-ku)Including,Hong Kong OfJardine House(Jerdine House: Daisuke Yawa, 178.5m),Singaporeof(OCBC Bank, Overseas Chinese Banking Corp Center: 201m), etc. are the early ones.Currently, construction of skyscrapers is progressing mainly in China, South Korea, and the UAE, where economic development is remarkable.

in Japan1970 eraから1980 eraThe construction of skyscrapers began in earnest, and the first one was in Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo.KakuhakuDistrict (currently:Nishi-Shinjuku) InYodobashi water purification plantSkyscrapers constructed by redevelopment (Shinjuku Fukutoshin),OsakaKita Ward, Osaka CitySkyscrapers (Umeda), At the time of completionEast AsiaTokyo became the tallest building in TokyoToshimaHigashiikebukuro OfSunshine 60(240m) and so on.

Japanese flag Japan

In Japan, in OsakaAbeno Harukasu(300m)や横浜のYokohama Landmark TowerMany buildings over 296m have been built in Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, etc., starting with (250m).2027/In degreesTokyoChiyoda390m in heightTorch towerIs scheduled to be completed.

Republic of Korea flag South Korea

South Korea is one of the most popular nations in the world for skyscrapers, and has the fourth largest number of skyscrapers over 250m in the world after China and the United Arab Emirates. In 198563 BuildingIs completed, JapanSunshine 60It became the tallest building in Asia at that time.A major Korean construction company has received orders for the construction of skyscrapers in each country, such as the construction of Burju Harifa as an interstate project with the UAE, and has world-class high-rise building construction technology and know-how.

2000年代以降、海雲台LCTトリプルタワー(412m)・(400m)・(333m)やパークワンタワー(333m)、北東アジア貿易タワー(305m)、海雲台斗山ヴィーブ・ザ・ゼニス(300m)、海雲台アイパークツインタワー(292m)、釜山国際金融センター(289m)、ソウル国際金融センター(284m)を筆頭に超高層ビルの建設ラッシュが起こり、2017年に第二ロッテワールドタワー(555m)が建設されると世界第四位の超高層ビルとなり、韓国ので最も高い建築物となった。現在、600m級の現代ワールドビジネスセンターが建設中である。

Democratic People's Republic of Korea flag north korea

North Korea's largest cityPyongyangThen, the construction rush has been steadily progressing since XNUMX, and the Future Scientist Street and the center of Pyongyang areRyugyong HotelSkyscrapers are standing around the core.

Republic of China flag Taiwan

Currently, the tallest skyscraper in Taiwan isTaiwan OfTaipei City Xinyi DistrictTo2004/Completed inTaipei 101(Taipei 101, formerly known as Taipei International Financial Center: Taipei International Financial Center), height 509.2m, 101 stories above ground, designedLi ZuyuanArchitects, construction centered on Kumagai GumiJV(Joint venture).In the lower layer2003/It has a shopping mall that opened in advance.Installed in this buildingToshiba elevatorDirect high speed to the observatoryElevatorThe speed ofMitsubishi ElectricBeyond that of the Yokohama Landmark Tower made byThe fastest elevator in the world(After that,2016/ToShanghai TowerMitsubishi Electric's elevator has set the world's fastest record).

Taiwan's second largest skyscraper1997/Completed inKaohsiung City OfKaohsiung 85 Building(Tuntex 85 Sky Tower, 85m), the same design as the Taipei 378, Chu-yuan Lee Building Office.It was the tallest building in Taiwan until Taipei 101 was completed.The height of the Kaohsiung 101 Building is currently the 85th in the world.

Flag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku

In China,1978/Begins withChinese Communist Party OfDeng XiaopingIs directed byReform and opening upDepending on the route1980/ToSpecial Economic Zone 深圳,Zhuhai,Shantou,Xiamen(laterHainan) Was set.afterwards1984/ToEconomic and technical development zoneIs set in 14 cities in the waterfront, and this movementShanghai,GuangzhouWhen big cities such as these are added, we see remarkable development of various cities from the inflow of foreign capital.and,Chinese economyWith the development ofTianjin,Chongqing,Changchun,Qingdao,Dalian,Chengdu,Wuhan,Shenyang, Many skyscrapers have been built in cities such as Xiamen.

Hong Kong flag Hong Kong

Hong KongThen, during the period of British rule1970 eraMany skyscrapers were built from.

Singapore flag Singapore

SingaporeThen,1965/ToMalaysian FederationAfter becoming independent fromLee Kuan YewWith the Prime MinisterPeople's Action PartyHas an authoritarian dictatorship, these areDevelopment dictatorshipWas told.Although it will be a thoroughly managed society, the economy will continue to grow significantly.Among them, in the center located in the southern part of SingaporeRaffles PlaceMany skyscrapers will be built in.Among these,Kenzo TangeDesignOUB Center(Overseas Union Bank Center: 280.1m)UOB Plaza(United Overseas Bank Plaza One: 280.1m), againKisho KurokawaDesignRepublic Plaza(Republic Plaza: 280.1m) is a skyscraper that represents Singapore.2006/IsKPFThe designed One Raffles Quay North Tower (245.1m) has been completed.

Malaysia flag Malaysia

MalaysiaThe capital ofKuala LumpurThen,Mahathir Bin Mohammad"By the former Prime MinisterLook East PolicyDue to economic policies such as ", Malaysia's economy has grown dramatically.capital·Kuala LumpurIn the redevelopment area "KLCC"1998/In addition, it was the tallest skyscraper in the world at that time.Caesar PeriDesign, Japanese second-tier general contractorHazamaOf constructionPetronas Twin Towers(Petronas Towers: 452m) completed, this building is a state-owned oil companyPetronasWas built by.Petronas Twin Towers alreadyTaiwan OfTaipeiAlthough overtaken by the Taipei International Financial Center in Taipei, it is still the tallest twin tower in the world.

United Arab Emirates flag UAE

Middle EastInvested as a logistics and financial base for economic developmentUnited Arab Emirates(UAE)DubaiIn recent years, many skyscrapers have been planted.2010/Is the tallest skyscraper in the worldBurj KhalifaWas completed.

Burj Khalifa (formerly known as "Burj Dubai") has an eave height of 643.3m, an antenna height of 828m, and the 162nd floor.Mohammed bin Rashid Earl McTum4, just the fourth year since he took office as Prime MinisterMay 1Completed in (local time), it has become the tallest building in the world, including the building currently under construction as of 2012.[23].

Philippines flag フィリピン

In the financial center of the PhilippinesMetro ManilaForm a cornerMakatiAnd the capitalManilaThere are many skyscrapers.

European skyscrapers

EuropeIt was rare because of the policy of protecting historic buildings, but it became acceptable as modern architecture moved away from box-like design to unique design, and in the 21st century, skyscrapers Construction is remarkable[24].. Especially,United Kingdom OfUKAndFrance OfParisAndItaly OfMilan,Germany OfBerlin,Frankfurt,Russia OfMoscowThe movement is becoming more active.

In Europe, where historic landscapes are important, there is not much construction of skyscrapers originally, with the exception ofSecond World WarWas destroyed inGermany OfFrankfurtAs a means of supplying offices when developing as a financial center in Germany and EuropeDeutsche Bank,Commerz BankSeveral 200m class skyscrapers were constructed.The corner where the skyscraper is builtMain RiverIt is a coined word that combines Manhattan with "Mainhattan".In Paris, in order to supplement the demand for offices in the city, the new city center "Défence" in the suburbsLa Defense(La Défense) ”was created, and in London,“Canary wharfA new city center called "Canary Wharf" was created.

At present, there are few examples of skyscrapers being built in small and medium-sized cities.However, the supply of real estate by traditional architecture in European cities has reached its limit, and the construction of central skyscrapers is beginning to be tolerated.

Russian flag Russia

oldSoviet UnionThe capital ofMoscowBut in the middle of the 20th centurySocialismAiming for the effect of raising national prestige under the systemStalinist styleSkyscraper was built.1930 eraから1940 eraOverSoviet palaceMany huge buildings were planned, includingMoscow State UniversityIt cannot be said that there are many things that have been realized, such as (240m), in terms of the number of plans, and most of the things that were planned ended up being just drafted.StalinHas been discontinued after his death.But of the Soviet UnionSatellite country,mainlyEastern EuropeIt also had a great influence on the architectural styles of each country.

In addition, 1920 eraPlanned from the early 1930s, before the establishment of the Stalinist style (Vladimir TatlinThe Third International Memorial Tower (400m in height, etc.) was also a novel design at that time, so many of the world's建築 家Affected.The Soviet architectural world itself during this periodLe CorbusierAt that time, he was greatly devoted to the ideas of architects who were at the forefront.

2000 eraWith the economic development of Russia (especially the development centered on the export of natural resources such as oil), the construction and planning of skyscrapers are progressing in Moscow.In particular2003/A high-rise condominium that imitates the Stalinist style completed inTriumph Palace(264.1m) isFrankfurt OfCommerz BankIt was the tallest in Europe, overtaking the building (259m).

1990 eraFrom the first halfMoskva riverAlongMoscow International Business CenterPlan "(MIBC,Moscow city) Is underway, and the skyscraper that is currently the tallest building in Europe is Moscow City.Federation Tower(374m).Another 354mAROUNDOr 338mMercury City TowerAnd 308m Eurasia Tower and other buildings are lined up.The Russian Tower, which was supposed to be the largest building when completed, was canceled due to the effects of the economic crisis and the delay in construction compared to other buildings.On the site trace,ru: Renaissance Moscow Towers There is a plan to build a twin tower. Two buildings, 335m (74th floor) and 290m (63rd floor), are planned.

また2018/にはサンクトペテルブルク郊外にLakhta Centerという5つの建築・構造物からなる複合施設が作られ、そのうちの超高層ビルは高さが462mで、ヨーロッパ及びロシアで最も高いBuildingIt became.

British flag United Kingdom

UKFormer harbor site in the eastern part of the cityDocklandsThe (Docklands) district has been redeveloped and "Canary wharfIt became a new city center called "Canary Wharf", and skyscraper office buildings were built one after another by the London Docklands Redevelopment Corporation (LDDC).It was the highest in the UK at the time of completionCaesar PeriDesignOne Canada Square(One Canada Square: 235.1m) ”and othersNorman Foster(Sir Norman Foster) Designed by SirHong Kong Shanghai Bank(HSBC, the name of the company building is "8 Canada Square": 199.5m) and designed by Caesar PelliCitibankTo a skyscraper such as (the name of the company building is "25 Canada Square": 199.5m), in the centerCity of LondonThe financial institution has relocated its headquarters from.

In the City of London, lined with historic buildingsSt Paul's CathedralThere was an unwritten rule that buildings higher than (111m) should not be built,1965/It was torn by the post office tower (currently BT Tower, 188m) built in.afterwards,1980 eraDue to the stagnation of the British economy up to, there was a call for skyscrapers, and the NatWest Tower (NatWest Tower)1993/IRA ProvisionalExploded by, now refurbished and "Tower 42”) And several skyscrapers beyond the cathedral were built.alsoLloydsInsuranceHigh tech architectureIt was rebuilt into a skyscraper, but many skyscraper projects have been canceled due to the landscape to this day.The exception to this was the realization.1992/Historical architecture, which was blown up by the IRABaltic ExchangeDesigned by Norman Foster, built on the site ofSwiss Li Headquarters Building(Also known as "Gherkin").2012/IsRenzo PianoTrigonal pyramidal skyscraper by design,The Shard London Bridge(London Bridge Tower, height 310m, 87 stories)River ThamesCompleted on the south side.

In future plans, in the City of LondonKPFThe design spiral skyscraper (height 288m, 63 stories) has been approved for construction after changing the original plan with a height of 307m.

German flag Germany

UnificationGermanyIs being revived as the new capital ofBerlinHigh-rise or skyscrapers are beginning to be built. "Potsdamer Platz"It is inHelmut JahnDesignSony CenterAndRenzo Piano(Renzo Piano) DesignedDaimlerTypical examples are Daimler City, as well as the Mitte district.Zoo Station(Zoologischer Garten) Skyscrapers are also used during redevelopment around (Zoologischer Garten).

In frankfurtCommerz Bank,Deutsche Bank,Messe TowerSkyscrapers over 200m have been constructed.So far, the only skyscrapers in Germany that can be seen are in Frankfurt, which runs through the city.Main RiverThere is a coined word "Mainhattan" that combines Manhattan and Manhattan.

French flag France

ParisThen, due to redevelopment from the latter half of the 1960s, at the southern end of the cityMontparnasse StationWas dismantled and on the siteTour Montparnasse(210m) was completed and the skyscraper of the building started.After that, it was prohibited to build skyscrapers in the city center,1980 era OfMitterrandBy the presidentPostmodern architectureAnd high-tech architecture was supplied and changed the appearance of the city.At the same time,Etoile Arc de TriomphePass throughParis history axisOn the extension of the city, in the western suburbs of the cityLa DefenseInternational conference hall in the districtGrand DarcheIncluding, skyscrapers of large companies representing France and foreign-affiliated companies were built one after another.New skyscrapers will continue to be built in the future.

Spanish flag Spain

Along the north-south route through the capital Madrid, there was a plan to create a large-scale business area and government office district during the Franco administration immediately after World War II.this is1970 eraAfter that, it bears fruit,Torre PicassoBuildings with a height of around 157m, including (100m), lined up.

Entering the 2000s at the northern end of Castellana StreetCuatro Torres Business AreaA redevelopment area called (CTBA) was created, and four buildings with a height of about 250m, which is one of the tallest in Europe, were lined up.

 Sweden

SwedenSouthern cityMalmoToScandinavianHighest inTurning TorsoThere is a building called (190m).Santiago CalatravaIt is a building with a unique shape designed by.

List

Transition of the tallest building in the world

CompletionimageNameCountry位置roofSpireRankdesignDismantling
1889/Auditorium Building 17.jpg (English edition)Flag of the United States (1877-1890) .svg The United States of AmericaChicago82m106m17 floorD. AdlerとL. Sullivan
1890/New York World Building New York City.jpgNew York World BuildingFlag of the United States (1890-1891) .svg The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク94m106m20 floorGeorge B. Post1955/
1894/Manhattan Life Insurance Company Building New York City.jpgManhattan Life Insurance BuildingUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク106m18 floor1930/
1895/Milwaukee City Hall Old Public Domain Photo.jpg (English edition)United States flag The United States of AmericaMilwaukee108m15 floor
1899/Park Row Building 1912 New York City crop.jpgPark Row BuildingUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク119m30 floor
1901/City Hall Philadelphia.jpgPhiladelphia City HallUnited States flag The United States of AmericaPhiladelphia156m167m9 floor
1908/SingerBuilding crop.jpgSinger buildingUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク187m47 floor1968/
1909/Met life tower crop.jpgMetropolitan Life Insurance Company TowerUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク213m50 floorFather and son
1913/View of Woolworth Building fixed crop.jpgWoolworth BuildingUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク241m57 floorCass Gilbert
1930/Chrysler Building, NY.jpgChrysler building
(Before extension)
United States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク282m77 floor
1930/40 Wall Street.jpg40 Wall StreetUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク283m70 floor
1930/Chrysler Building by David Shankbone.jpgChrysler building
(After extension)
United States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク282m319m77 floorWilliam Van Allen
1931/Empirestatebuilding.JPGEmpire State BuildingUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク381m449m102 floor
1974/WTC antes9-11.jpgWorld Trade Center
(1WTC / 2WTC)
United States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク417m526m110 floorMinoru Yamasaki2001/
1974/Sears Tower ss.jpgSears Tower
(Current:Willis Tower)
United States flag The United States of AmericaChicago442m527m108 floorSkidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM)
2004/31-January-2004-Taipei101-Complete.jpgTaipei 101Republic of China flag TaiwanTaipei448m508m101 floor
2010/Burj KhalifaUnited Arab Emirates flag UAEDubai636m828m168 floorSOM

Current height ranking

  • Ranking of height including spire and antenna. (The "roof" in the table is the height that does not include the spire and antenna. The "spier" is the height that includes them.)
  • Excludes buildings under construction.
RankingimageNameCountry / RegioncityroofSpireRankYear of completion
1 bitBurj KhalifaUnited Arab Emirates flag UAEDubai636.0m828.0m168 floor2010/
2 bitShanghai tower dec 26, 2014.jpgShanghai TowerFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuShanghai565.6m632.0m128 floor2016/
3 bitAbraj Al Bait TowersSaudi arabia flag Saudi ArabiaMecca530.0m601.0m095 floor2011/
4 bitPAFC SZ.jpgPing An International Financial CenterFlag of the People's Republic of China Chugoku深圳555.1m599.1m115 floor2017/
5 bitLotte World TowerRepublic of Korea flag South KoreaSeoul497.6m555.7m123 floor2017/
6 bitOne World Trade Center cropped2.jpg1 World Trade CenterUnited States flag The United States of Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク417m541.3m108 floor2014/
7 bitCanton CTF Finance Center (2017-08-30, Final) .jpgCTF Finance CenterFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuGuangzhou496m530m111 floor2016/
8 bitTianjin CTF Finance Center, 21 of 24.jpgTianjin CTF Financial CenterFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuTianjin439m530m97 floor2019/
9 bitChina Zun tillsammans med Samsung China Headquarters B. (januari 2019) .jpgChinese ZunFlag of the People's Republic of China ChugokuBeijing515m528m109 floor2018/
10 bitSears Tower ss.jpgWillis Tower
(Formerly Sears Tower)
United States flag The United States of AmericaChicago442.1m527.0m110 floor1974/
11 bitSun Down (250260941) .jpegTaipei 101
Republic of China(Taiwan)Taipei449.2m509.2m101 floor2004/

A particularly tall skyscraper under construction

Wuhan Greenland Center
ChugokuWuhanA 126-story 475m (spiers high) skyscraper under construction.The completion date is undecided.
Jeddah Tower
Saudi Arabia OfJeddah167 stories under construction at 1007m (spier height)Hyper building(Skyscraper). Scheduled to be completed in 2021.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Before 1908 (Milwaukee City Hall) AndPhiladelphia City Hall (Philadelphia City Hall) Has become the best in the world.
  2. ^ Completed in 1889Mole Antonelliana (167.5m) may be the best in the world.

Source

  1. ^ Evaluation of skyscrapers, seismic isolated buildings and structures --Japan Building Research Institute[Broken link]
  2. ^ Building Standard Law was revised (PDF) - Okayama
  3. ^ Broadcast on Sunday, May 2013, 5 Why can't skyscrapers collapse? --Lab Radio -NHK
  4. ^ Shinjuku City Landscape Formation Guidelines Shinjuku
  5. ^ Wide-area landscape formation guidelines (PDF)
  6. ^ a b Kojien XNUMXth Edition (Iwanami Shoten,1998/,ISBN 4000801112)
  7. ^ Showa Mainichi: April 43, 4 Completion of Kasumigaseki Building, Japan's first skyscraper - Daily jp(Mainichi Newspapers)
  8. ^ Article --1244 --Huge New Rogers Skyscraper Proposed(English)
  9. ^ Home Insurance Building, Chicago / XNUMX.com
  10. ^ "How Skyscrapers Can Save the City”. The Atlantic (March 2011). 2017/12/21Browse.
  11. ^ "National Building Conflict Case Studies 2011 (PDF)”. National network for landscape and living environment (2011). 2017/12/21Browse.
  12. ^ "Architecture to be left: What did modernist architecture seek?" (Seibundo Shinkosha) --Author: Hiroshi Matsukuma --Book Review by Ryuichiro Matsubara | Favorite book reviewer, book review to read. ALL REVIEWS
  13. ^ "Vietnam promotes energy conservation in high-rise buildings Issues such as the establishment of greenhouse gas reduction laws”. SankeiBiz (February 2017, 1). 2017/12/21Browse.
  14. ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.33
  15. ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.37
  16. ^ a b c Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.36
  17. ^ Document 1 "Survey on the actual condition of shaking caused by long-period ground motion during the XNUMX off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" (PDF) 2011/11/14 Japanese Meteorological Agency.
  18. ^ Characteristics of long-period ground motion in the Tokyo metropolitan area and its surrounding areas using the mainshock records and aftershock records of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) Proceedings of the Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering Vol.12 (2012) No.5 Special Issue "2011 Great East Japan Earthquake" Part 2 p.5_102-5_116
  19. ^ https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=aTu6Ukd-YlA Disaster prevention and mitigation science Big city threat Long-period ground motion
  20. ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.82
  21. ^ Science of "why" of skyscrapers p.83
  22. ^ Taisei Corporation> Company Information> Press Releases> 2010
  23. ^ Dubai renamed to "Khalifa Tower", the world's largest building - 47NEWS 2010/1/5
  24. ^ Why Europe Doesn't Build Skyscrapers The B1M

References

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Fermer