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A new mechanism called "crowdfunding" that combines the two words "crowd (cloud)" and "funding (funding)".
In Japan's largest crowdfunding "CAMPFIRE", various ideas are always ... → Continue reading
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Crowdfunding(English: crowdfunding) Is群衆(crowd)WhenFunding(FUND) Is a coined word.It means that a small amount of money from a large number of people will provide financial resources and cooperation to other people and organizations.Also called social funding, In JapaneseClafanMay be abbreviated as.
In modern timesインターネットOften done viaTherefore, it is one of the technologies.Cloud computing (cloud computing)cloudIt is thought to be confused with "(cloud)" and misrepresented or related to "cloud funding".However, the two are not related (using the Internet or cloud computing is not a requirement), and crowdfunding has existed even before the development of Internet technology.
CrowdfundingDisaster prevention,Citizen journalism,フ ァ ンbyArtistsSupport ofSocial/political movement,VentureInvestment in companies ,movies ,Free softwareDevelopment, invention development, scientific research It is used to invest in a wide range of fields, including loans to individuals, business companies, and projects.
It is also attracting attention as a method of raising funds for companies by soliciting shares from many investors. This form of crowdfunding is[Annotation 1] Recently, as there is a direct reference toThe United States of AmericaAttracted attention from policy makers.. The JOBS Act is waiting to be implemented,en: Mosaic Inc.Mixed models, such as, make use of existing securities legislation that qualifies licensed civilians to invest directly in clean energy projects as part of the crowd.
In addition, crowd funding isCrowdsourcingConcept[Annotation 2] Has its origin.Crowdfunding Is an application of this concept of raising money from many people through small donations to fund a particular project or venture.. Models necessarily involve diverse stakeholders.. These include people and organizations that propose ideas and projects to be funded, as well as the "crowd" who support the proposals. Crowdfunding consists of an organization (“platform”) that brings together the project leader and the “crowd”.
Generally, a large amount of money is required to develop a product or hold an event, but in crowdfunding, an unspecified number of people are invited to provide a relatively small amount of money via the Internet, and the project is executed when a certain amount is collected. By doing so, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of financing. The development of social media has made it easier for individuals to launch and announce projects, and in response, crowdfunding funding is becoming active. In the United StatesKickstarterIs famous.
Sports funding specialized in the sports field has evolved into a form that refers to a wide range of support from corporate matching, media matching, and second career measures, in addition to financing from unspecified majority.
Crowdfunding has several origins and a long history.
EuropeIn, books have been published in a manner similar to crowdfunding since centuries ago.[Annotation 3]..With the authorInfomationWhen we develop a project to publish some kind of book,AdsI let people know and made them apply in the form of purchase reservations and subscriptions.When it turns out that the number of applications has reached a sufficient number and there are enough purchasers to recover the cost of publishing, full-scale writing, proofreading, and printing of the book will proceed and actually It will be published.Strictly speaking, the book subscription method at that time was slightly different from modern crowdfunding.In the book pre-purchase method centuries ago, the actual flow of money was due to the fact that the actual book was delivered to the prospective purchaser.Even so, there is an aspect that the pre-order purchase of books has gathered the purchasers necessary for the authors and publishers to proceed with the business of "publishing books"..
1884 years,Statue of libertyProduction Committee America has run out of money for the pedestal of the statue. Newspaper publisherJoseph PulitzerIs his own newspaper "New York World』, Encouraged the American public to donate money to the pedestal.Pulitzer raised $ 6 in six months.Approximately 10 people made many donations of less than $ 12 for this..
1997 British rock groupMarillionFans underwent a US tour and raised $6 in donations through a fan-hosted internet campaign.. The idea was designed and run by the fans, regardless of the band, but Marillion has since used it as a way to fund the recording and marketing of his albums from 2001 to the present. It has been very successful.en: Anoraknophobia ,Marbles,en: Happiness Is the Road.
For companies headquartered in the United Statesen: ArtistShare (2000/2001) was considered the first crowdfunding site for music and lateren: Pledgie (2006),en: Sellaband (2006),en: IndieGoGo (2008),Kickstarter (2009),en: Appsplit (2010),en: Microventures Sites such as (2010) followed.
LockBand-Electric Eel ShockHas taken full advantage of crowdfunding and became one of the first bands to keep up with important recording deals in advance. As an unsigned band in 2004, he raised £ 100 from 100 fans (Samurai 1) and offered them a whole life guest list instead... Two years later, they became the fastest band to collect 5 budgets at Sella Bannd.. They internationally licensed this album internationally in their native Japan.
Movie industryIn the freelance writer / directoren: Mark Tapio KinesIs the first work that was unfinished in 1997 at that time "Foreign CorrespondentsLaunched the website. Around early 1997, he received over $ 25 over the internet from at least 12 fans and funded him to complete the film... lateren: Franny ArmstrongIs her feature filmen: Age of StupidMade a donation system for.. She raised £ 2004 million in the five years from 2009 to 5 (opening date).. In December 2004, French entrepreneurs and producersBenjamin PommeraudとGuillaume colbocIs their short science fiction movie "Demain la Veille (wait for tomorrow)Internet donation campaign for the masses to raise money Started. Within three weeks they raised $3 and were able to make a movie.
In 2012, TIME published an article describing and evaluating the best crowdfunding platforms in the world..
In 2012, the crowdfunding market was estimated to be 2 billion dollars, double the size of the previous year, with the investment in video games in particular showing significant growth. The investment amount in the video game field at Kickstarter has reached more than 28 times compared to 2011. With game softwareStar CitizenIs about $620 million, on game consolesOUYARaised about $860 million and became a hot topic.
- There is no financial returnDonation type'
- With a financial returnInvestment type'
- Support by purchasing some rights and goods provided by the projectPurchase type'
in Japan,Fund settlement law,Financial Instruments and Exchange ActDue to restrictions on remittance and investment among individuals due to factors such as the above, the number of companies of purchase-type crowdfunding is the largest and the number of companies is high. On the other hand, the investment type (Social lending(Also said to be) is a small number of companies (in Japan, the second category of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act)Financial instruments businessRegistration required), taking in investors' demand for financial returns, and has a track record of over 300 billion yen in Japan.
Status in Japan
(#historyAs explained in the section, the book publishing business in Europe and the United States was often done by a method similar to crowdfunding.)Meiji 30sThe second half of the publisherMaruzenBut"Encyclopedia BritannicaStarted a project to publish the 35th edition (composed of XNUMX volumes), and accepted by the "reservation application fee" method (use the money by having people pay the "reservation application fee" in advance) Print and distribute the book, thenMonthly installmentI announced the sales method of collecting money at, accepted the application, and put it into practice.
The method of collecting funds from an unspecified number of people, such as campaigns, fundraising, and sumo wrestling prize money, has been used before the word "crowdfunding" was known in Japan.
in Japan,First Abe CabinetIn line with the policy formulated in 1), measures to utilize crowdfunding as one of the means to “strengthen the supply of risk money” will be raised, and regulations will be relaxed.Financial Instruments and Exchange ActThe amendment such as was approved by the Diet on May 2014, 26..
Status of self-regulatory organizations
Voluntary restrictions on crowdfunding operations are as follows.
- The stock type isJapan Securities Dealers Association(Rules for stock investment type crowdfunding business)
- The fund type is the Second Class Financial Instruments Business Association (Rules for electronic application type electronic offering handling business, etc.)
- No purchase type, donation type, loan type (as of the end of July 2016)
Major crowdfunding sites in Japan
- The number one crowdfunding platform in Japan. A long-established service in Japan that was founded in 1 at about the same time as READYFOR.We handle a wide range of projects in all genres, including manufacturing, food, and culture. "Light a small fire"The OVERDRIVE final work "MUSICA!" development project" (as of March 1), which recorded the domestic purchase type procurement amount No. 2019 under the slogan "," Beppu City's "Yu-Senchi", by Tanita Co., Ltd. We deal with a wide range of projects from companies such as "Twin Stick Project" to challenges by students and individuals.Kazuma IiriWill be the representative. The fee is 17%.
- A community-specific crowdfunding platform.CAMPFIRE, Inc. took over the business from Searchfield, Inc. in 2018 and operates it.
- GleeA fan community platform that is run by and specializes in the entertainment field. Based on SNS, in addition to crowdfunding, various functions required for fan businesses such as subscription-based monthly billing and newsletters are provided free of charge as a platform. The fee is 10%.
- Japan's first crowdfunding service launched on March 2011, 3. Based on the vision of "creating a world where everyone can realize what they want to do," it is operated as a service that connects "people who need funds to do what they want to do" and "people who sympathize and support" through the Internet. There is.The success rate of financing for published projects is 29% (as of October 75), which is very high compared to the industry average of 2018%. In June 10, received the "Excellence Award (SPRING Award)" at the Japan Service Awards sponsored by the Service Industry Productivity Council.In May 30, he received the "Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Award (Female Entrepreneur Award)" at the 2016th Japan Venture Awards.The representative is Haruka Mera.The fee is 6%.
- cyber-agentgroup. There are many projects of genres such as manufacturing and restaurants. Listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Mothers Market on December 2019, 12. 11% commission.
- Japan's first crowdfunding service specializing in academic financing, operated by Academist Co., Ltd., which was founded in 2013. It is operated as a service that disseminates the appeal of research and researchers with the mission of "researchers go, we connect" and the vision of "realizing an open academic industry and contributing to the creation of a future society." ing.The success rate of financing public projects is about 20%, which is much higher than the industry standard.The fee is 3% (of which XNUMX% is the settlement fee).
- Sports-specific crowdfunding platform
- Fine cloud
- Crowdfunding platform for beginners operated by Kokusai Resources Co., Ltd.
- Asahi ShimbunA crowdfunding platform operated by.
- Motion Gallery
- A platform with strengths in the creative field.The fee is 10%, which is the lowest in the industry. "Happy hourAnd 'カ メ ラ ラ 止 め る！We are working on crowdfunding of movies that have become a hot topic, such as "Mini Theater Aid Fund" which recently collected 3 million yen and 3000 million yen.Troupe four seasonsKnown for the project. Received the 2015 Good Design Award.
- Oita Godo ShimbunBut,Oita Bank,Music SecuritiesA crowdfunding platform operated in cooperation with.
- La porno
- Good Morning
- Readyfor Charity
- LIFULL Social Funding
- A-Port donation type
- E-cloud (stock type)
- FUNDINNO] (stock type)
- CAMPFIRE Angels (stock type)
- CrowdBank (loan type)
- maned(Lending type)
- SBI social lending (loan type)
- CAMPFIRE OWNERS (loan type)
- Sakura social lending (loan type)
- Security (Fund type)
- CREAL(Fund type)
Related laws and tax systems
Of the investment types, the loan type and fund type areAnonymous unionSince the investment act by the company falls under the category of “collective investment scheme interests”, which is a type of securities that is subject to the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act, it is necessary to register the Type II Financial Instruments and Exchange Business under the Gold Commercial Law, as mentioned above. Being supervised by the Gold Commercial Code. Anonymous partnership investment is accountingliabilitiesHowever, under certain conditions, financial institutions evaluate it as equity debt...Loan type is even moreMoney Lending Business Law OfMoney lending businessRegistration is required.The stock type isFinancial Instruments and Exchange ActFirst-class financial instruments business registration or first-class small-amount electronic recruitment handling company registration is required.
The donation type and the purchase type are not regulated by the Gold and Commercial Law, but the donation type has a taxation problem that corporations can only be deducted up to a certain amount and deductions cannot be received for individuals. The purchase type is mainly because the general consumer is the provider of funds,Defect liabilityOccurs,Legal,Freebie display methodIt is subject to the Consumer Relations Law and depends on the price of the products offered. It causes the same tax problem as the donation type.
- ^ A bill that allows small investors to solicit widespread investment with less restrictions.
- ^ A rough concept that individuals reach their goals by collecting and using small contributions from many people.
- ^ To explain the situation to Japanese readers at that time, it was still said that "publishing a book" centuries ago.LetterpressEach character by hand with a machineTypeAssembled, put the paper into the printing machine one by one,Buttoya apple press(pressIn an era when the handles of printing machines such as) were manually rotated to print one by one, "publishing a book" was a "business" of a certain scale, and one book was published. It takes a lot of effort and a lot of money to do it, and when a writer or a publisher prints a book without checking the intentions of the readers of the world in advance, it takes a lot of effort and cost to write, calibrate, and print. After printing, it turns out that there are quite a few people trying to buy the book, and publishers and authors can't recover the costs of writing and publishing, just making a few such misunderstandings. , There was a risk of bankruptcy or bankruptcy with stock.As a result, a mechanism has been created to avoid or mitigate that risk.
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- ^ "Inside the JOBS Act: Equity Crowdfunding". 2012/11/6Browse.
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- ^ "Crowfunding in a Canadian Context”(Accessed February 7, 2013). 2013/5/28Browse.
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- Collective intelligence
- Japan Cloud Securities
- Sports funding
- Social lending
- Virtual currency
- Throwing money