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🧳 | JAL cancels some flights on US routes operated by Boeing 777 aircraft 5G radio waves affect


JAL cancels some flights on US routes operated by Boeing 777 aircraft 5G radio waves affect

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In Japan and Europe, 5G services have already started, but there are no reports of cases where the radio altimeter has been affected at this time.

Japan Airlines (JAL) is responding to the start of 5G services such as mobile phones in the United States from January 1th. → Continue reading


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5rd generation mobile communication system

5rd generation mobile communication system(Dai 5 Sedai Idotsushin System,English: 5th Generation Mobile Communication System, "5G') Is1G-2G-3G-4Gfollowed byInternational Telecommunication Union Regulations stipulated by (ITU)IMT-2020SatisfyWireless communicationIt is a system.Generally in English "5th GFrom "eneration", "5G"(Five Gee,Gee) Is abbreviated.


ITU-RIs a requirement for 5GIMT-2020As, high speed and large capacity (eMBB: Enhanced Mobile Broadband), Low latency (URLLC: Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications), Many simultaneous connections (mMTC: Massive Machine Type Communications) Are defined, and as of 3, the standardization to meet the regulations of IMT-2020 is being carried out.3GPPOnly (For detailed target values, see "IMT-2020See).

High speed and large capacity (eMBB)

In 5G, the challenge is to respond to the rapidly increasing communication traffic, and it is important to secure a radio frequency band. In addition, we plan to use a higher frequency band than previous generations to increase the communication speed. In those frequency bands, the straightness of radio waves is also higher (compared to previous generations), so it becomes difficult for radio waves to reach in the shadow of mobile phone base stations. Dozens (micro cells)MetersIt will be necessary to install in units. Higher communication speed,Shannon-Hartley theoremThis can lead to high power consumption.Power InputEnsuring capacity is also a technical issue. However, the problem of securing stable power in the mobile environment is3rd generation mobile communication systemIt is also a permanent problem that continues from.

5G communication speed at the start of service is NTT Docomo's maximum downlink of 3.4 Gbps and upstream 182 Mbps[1], Au is maximum 2.8 Gbps downlink, maximum 183 Mbps uplink[2], Softbank download maximum 2.0Gbps, upload 103Mbps[3].

Highly reliable and low latency (URLLC)

With regard to the wireless section, by improving the wireless communication method, communication in the wireless section with lower delay is also realized. Regarding the communication path distance, it is expected that "Mobile Edge Computing" will be introduced at the same time to reduce the round trip delay between the terminal and the server by placing the server near the terminal such as a base station.[4].. The introduction of "Mobile Edge Computing" is expected to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted to the server in the center by placing and processing computing resources near the terminal such as a base station. To realize QoS that maintains a delay below a certain value,5G network slicingTechnology is also being considered[5].

Multiple simultaneous connections (mMTC)

It is possible to dramatically increase the number of terminals that can be connected from one base station at the same time compared to the past.For example, 1G will allow about 5 devices and sensors to be connected to the Internet at the same time, instead of connecting several PCs and smartphones at home.[6].

Structure of introduction period

5G air interfaces use frequency bands below 6 GHzLTEBeyond 6 GHz while maintaining compatibility with / LTE-AdvancedCentimeter wave(Microwave) Introduce a new wireless communication method that also uses the 28 GHz band. The method of operating 5G alone is called SA (Standalone), and the method of diverting the LTE core network (EPC) and performing communication control on the LTE control channel is called NSA (Non-Standalone).

5G penetration forecast and impact of penetration

GSMAaccording to,the 2020sWith the spread of 5GVR,AI,self-drivingThe development of related technologies such as these will promote economic growth and industrial metabolism, and it is predicted that the number of 2025G connections will reach 5 billion by 12.[7].

With the change of existing communication systems from 4G and LTE to 5G, it is expected that the addition and replacement of communication equipment and industrial equipment will occur frequently, which will have a major impact on the supply chain that manufactures communication equipment and electronic components.[8]..In addition, the benefits of 5G wireless technology are expected to change people's lives.Real-time interpretation of conversations between devices enables smooth communication between multiple languages, and realization of fully automated driving that avoids danger based on huge amounts of data.IoTAlthough smart city is expected by, it is assumed a stable connection at 5G, smaller service area 2020, since the scissile the characteristics of radio waves, no standing prospects which they are realized[9].

Bandwidth is expected to become tight due to increased usage, and the use of dynamic frequency sharing (Dynamic Spectrum Access, DSA), which is dynamically allocated according to the usage status by centrally managing the frequency usage status, is also being considered.[10][11].

Japan situation

In Japan, in September 2014, the 26GMF The Fifth Generation Mobile Communications Promotion Forum was established, consisting of 9 companies and 74 experts. Working on technology development and standardization[12].

Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIn October 2016, we consulted with the Information and Communications Council on "Technical conditions for new generation mobile communication systems".[13], New Generation Mobile Communication Systems Committee[14]Is being discussed. Some reports will be submitted in the summer of 2017, and the system will be improved accordingly.

NTT DoCoMoStarted the concept study on 2010G in 22 (5), and exhibited a simulator in 2013 (25)[15], We are conducting experiments in collaboration with communication vendors[16][17], 2015 (27) outdoor experiment 4.5 Gbps communication[18], Succeeded in communication exceeding 2016 Gbps in 28[19].. From May 2017 (Heisei 29)Tokyo coastal subcenter(Odaiba) andTokyo Skytree TownBuilt a "5G trial site" around[20].. The pre-service was launched in 2019 and the commercial service was launched on March 2020, 3.

Testing service has begun in 2019 (Heisei 31/Reiwa XNUMX),2020 Tokyo OlympicsBefore the event, we will conduct a test service to let the audience experience 5G in time with the international sports competition held in Japan.[21].

NTT DoCoMo on March 2020, 2 (Reiwa 3), KDDI / Okinawa Cellular on March 25, and Softbank on March 3, respectively, will provide 26G services with eMBB (high-speed, large-capacity). Started[22].

5 GHz band allocated for 3.5G (S band) ・ 4.5 GHz band (C band) ・ 28 GHz band (Ka band) Is difficult for radio waves to fly and areas are difficult to create.LTE,BWAIn March 5, there was a partial report from the Information and Communications Council regarding the technical conditions for operating 2020G on the frequency used by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, and announced that the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications will promptly prepare operational regulations.[23].

August 2021, 7,Ryota TakedaGeneral affairs ministerAnnounced that it is working toward commercialization at the end of the fiscal year regarding "shared frequency of 5G communication and relay radio waves of TV stations"[11].

Japan lags behind the rest of the world in the development of 5G,NTTThen the next generation "6GTo stay ahead of the spreadSony,IntelWith the concept of a new network "IOWN"[24].NTTIn June, onceDenden FamilyAlso announced a capital and business alliance with NEC, which handles communication terminals, etc., and is rushing to mobilize group power.[25].

Status of frequency allocation in Japan

Less than 3.5 GHz
Frequency (MHz)70017002300
LTE bandBand28Band3
5G new radio frequency bandn28n3n40
Allocation destinationK,D,SK,S,R,DK
Other systemOld analog television broadcastingFormer public business radio station (fixed)Broadcasting and public services
Usage Guide
KDDI/Okinawa Cellular Phone
Rakuten Mobile
Local 5G
3.5 GHz and 4.5 GHz bands
Frequency (MHz)34003500360037003800390040004100420043004400450046004700480049005000
5GAllocation destinationS,D,DK,SDKRSKN/ADRussiaN/A
5G new radio frequency bandn78N/An79N/A
Other systemFixed satellite communication (downlink)Aircraft radio altimeterN/AWireless access system
Usage Guide
KDDI/Okinawa Cellular Phone
Rakuten Mobile
Local 5G
28 GHz band
Frequency (MHz)270002710027200273002740027500276002770027800279002800028100282002830028400285002900029100292002930029400
5G5G allocationRakuten MobileNTT DoCoMoKDDI/Okinawa Cellular PhoneLocal 5GSoftbank
5G Bandn257
Other systemFixed satellite communication (uplink)

Interference adjustment problem

For n77 / n78 (3.5GHz band) and n257 (28GHz band), the frequency used is shared with fixed satellite communication.Therefore, in order to prevent interference with satellites, it is necessary to simulate the effects in advance and hold discussions to avoid interference each time a base station is installed.

Regarding n79 (4.5GHz band) NTT DoCoMo Local 5G, the hurdles for use are relatively low because there is no consultation with satellites.[26].

Local 5G

In Japan, a system called "Local 5G" has been newly established, which can be used by not only telecommunications carriers but also various parties according to various needs.[27].. For example, you can use it like a private leased line such as "use and use 5G dedicated to the factory in the factory building." In addition to license allocation, a radio worker license is required for radio wave emission, and it is necessary to place a radio worker in a company that receives a local 5G license.

To operate 5G of NSA method, it is called anchor bandLTE bandIs required. In addition to the method of renting an anchor band from an existing LTE operator and connecting the system,2.5 GHz bandAbout "self-employedBWAHas been newly established.[27]It can be used as an NSA type 5G anchor band. Also, no license is required1.9 GHz bandAlso aboutsXGPIs being considered for use as an anchor band[28].. When preparing BWA or sXGP such as anchor band self-management, it is necessary to prepare the anchor band base station and LTE core network equipment (EPC) in addition to the 5G base station.

Fujitsu launched Japan's first commercial local 5G on March 2020, 3[29].

Comparison of local 6G and Wi-Fi XNUMX[30]
Local XNUMXGCarrier XNUMXGWi-Fi 6
Bandn257, n79n77, 78, n79, n257
Modulation methodOFDMA or SC-FDMAOFDMA
Effective throughputDownstream about 2 GbpsDownstream about 5 Gbps
Wireless delay4 ms30 ms

Spread of 5G terminals

According to a survey in Japan in July 2021, the percentage of people who have 7G terminals is 5%, and the percentage of people who have actually experienced 17.1G is 5%.[31].

World situation

On December 2018, 5,Middle East OfQatarThen.(English editionAnnounced the world's first commercial 5G service, but there was no announcement about compatible terminals or services. Built a networkPeople's Republic of China OfZTEBut,US-China trade warUnited States Department of CommerceIt is because of receiving an embargo from Japan[32].

August 2018, 10,The United States of America OfVerisonAnnounced the launch of the world's first commercial 5G service, while "in-house only"[33].

August 2018, 12,South KoreaHowever, it announced that it has launched the world's first commercial 5G service for enterprises[34].

In Korea, April 2019, 4,The United States of AmericaThen, on April 2019, 4, it was planned to start commercial 11G service for general consumers, respectively.Verizon CommunicationsAnnounced that the service will start on April 1 about one week ahead of schedule[35], One major Korean mobile telecommunications company (KT,SK Telecom,LG U+) Also announced the service start at 2:11 pm on the same day two days ahead of schedule[36]Each claimed "the world's first"[37].. However, as for the supply of compatible terminals for general consumers, Verizon ChinaLenovoUnder the umbrellaMotorola mobility"Moto Z3" only[38][39], Korea was released on the 5thSamsung electronics OfGalaxy S10 5GWas only[40]. Also,Samsung electronicsKeeps the price down to about 7 yen and expands the base of customers, while launching state-of-the-art models such as 5G compatible high-performance models and foldable types in developed countries, while narrowing down the functions for emerging countries and holding down the price Expand sales of low-priced editions.With the spread of the boycott of Chinese products in India,SamsungIs a composition to gain "fisherman's interest"[41]

As of April 2019, 4 companies and 26 types of 48G compatible devices have been announced. The chipsets used areHuawei,Intel,MediaTek,Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics 5 companies[42].. In May of the same year, Lenovo and Qualcomm became the world's first 5G compatiblePCannounced[43].

During 2019, 5G services have started operating in countries around the world. In Europe April 2019 in SwitzerlandSwisscomEricssonFirst 2G service in Europe by two companies[44].. In Southeast Asia, Globe Telecom launches ASEAN's first 2019G service in the Philippines in July 7[45].. Africa will launch Africa's first 2019G service in South Africa in September 9[46].. In Guam in October 2019Docomo pacificHas started 5G service.

2019/,US-China trade warIntensified, and furtherNational Information LawAgainst the backdrop of concerns about the Chinese government that enacted, the United States is putting pressure on Chinese products to shut out,HuaweiRequested not to use 5G service equipment made by the company.イギリス政府は、当初アメリカと一線を画していたが中国によるThe British government initially set itself apart from the United States, but by ChinaHong Kong Democratization MovementTightening toNew coronavirusIn the process of dissatisfaction and suspicion about the disclosure of information, the policy was gradually changed, and on July 2020, 7, it was decided to announce the exclusion of Huawei products.[47]..If Germany, which was cautious about eliminating Huawei, changed its policy, it would be a further blow to the company.ReutersAccording to the company, the examination to see the technology and reliability of 5G component providers has been limited to companies related to core technology, but it will be expanded to wireless technology components such as antennas.It has been pointed out that it may be difficult to enter the field due to reasons such as reliability in fields with strong Huawei.[48]Huawei's share of the equipment required for 5G services is dominated by Huawei, which will have a major impact on its widespread use in the future.

South Korea

韓国では、2018年12月1日に世界初の企業向け商用5Gサービスを開始(前述)。韓国大手移動通信三社にによる5Gサービスが展開されることとなったが、2020年8月に政府が行った品質評価では、ダウンロード速度が4Gサービス(158Mbps)の4 - 5倍にとどまっており、通信各社の「4Gの最大20倍高速」という主張との間に隔たりがあることが判明した。通信各社は「28GHz帯が解放されれば、スピードが大幅に速まることになる」と説明しているが、韓国政府は2020年10月時点で28GHz帯の全面開放は想定しておらず、全国で画一的な5Gサービスを提供することは難しい状況となっている[49].

International roaming

internationalroamingIn September 2020, NTT DoCoMo started accepting roaming from the United States (AT & T).[50], In April 2021, Softbank will start roaming (roaming out) to South Korea (SK Telecom), etc.[51], The service has started in some areas, but as of January 2022, the models and areas are still limited.


3GFrom the timesMobile communicationWas being standardized3GPPSo, Release 15 and later include 5G specifications.

5G Phase 1

3GPPが「5G Phase 1」(※5Gの一段階目、の意)としている仕様群は、Release 15に含まれ、2017年12月に、Phase1のシステムアーキテクチャが、TS23.501, TS23.502, TS23.503 として提供された。2018年6月に主要仕様が標準化され[52], Specifications including details will be finalized within 2019[53].

Mainly functions of high-speed and large-capacity eMBB.[54]

5G Phase 2

Release 5 will be finalized in June 2, including the 5G Phase 16 (*2020G second stage) specifications.[53] URLLC is specified including 5GC.[55]

5G Phase 3

Specification development of Release 17 started in 2020, and the specification was frozen in March 2022.[56].

The main features being discussed are:

5G version of cellular IoT standard “NR-Light”, power saving function expansion.
NR-U support in the license-free 60 GHz band.
An extension proposal for commercial use of URLLC.[55]
Industrial NW
Private WAN support, Time-Sensitive Networking integration.
Broadcast function
2G multicast and broadcast functions for public safety, V5X and 5G TV broadcasting.
Network management
AI automation of 5G core networks and automatic network slicing.
Addition of QoS function optimized for cloud games.

Major groups that are standardizing

XNUMXrd generation mobile phoneSince then, we have been standardizing mobile communications, and even in 5G, we are playing a central role in coordinating the following major standardization groups that exist in each country and region.
A group founded in 2013 by the merger of several research groups scattered in Europe.
In Europe, METIS (Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty (2020) Information Society) Led by 5GNOW, iJOIN, MIWEBA, CREW, EVARILOS, etc.European CommissionEstablished by 5GPP(5G Public-Private Partnership Association) Joined[12].
5G Forum
A public-private organization established in Korea in 2013.
In 2014Radio Industry AssociationIs a Japanese organization established in.
IMT-2020 5GPG
In 2015Ministry of Industry and Information TechnologyA Chinese organization founded in.
5G Americas
A research organization in the United States established by the name change of 2016G Americas in 4.

Frequency band

The radio waves that can be used with 5G are3GPPIn the specifications of 3GPP TS 38.101Frequency bandIs stipulated.

The frequency below 6 GHz called Sub6 is called FR1 and the millimeter wave band is called FR2.

Technology that supports 5G

Massive MIMO

8x8 in LTE-Advanced MIMOBeyond,Active phased array antennaMulti-beam multiplexing using[57]High-speed communication is realized by allowing different data to be sent at the same time.[58]

Hoaxes and rumors


[How to use footnotes]


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