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The league games are still going on, so I want to contribute," he said with a smile.
 

7th ◇J1 League Section 24, Lemongas Stadium I have been out of the front for a long time due to a muscle tear in my thigh hamstring... → Continue reading

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League match

League match(League) is a term that refers to the format of a competition.Participants (teams) repeat the battle with each other, and the ranking is determined by the total result of the battle result.Except in special cases, the number of games played by participants will be constant.In the Japanese definition, it is generally limited to round-robin tournaments.This section is an anomalous group tournament, "Swiss tournament(Draw) ”is also described.

Definition

In Japanese, "league match" refers to a "group tournament" represented by a round-robin tournament.The original English word "league" is simply a "sponsoring organization / federation", and a "league match" refers to all matches hosted by the league, regardless of the tournament / match management method / format. Is.Therefore, the Japanese word "league match" is used in a narrow sense with limited usage (""Tournament matchThe same applies).However, you can see an example of expressing the round-robin battle as "League Format" in the English version of Wikipedia.

Brute force is a method in which all participating teams play a certain number of battles against all opponents.Of these, especially those with a brute force of 2 or lessRound robin tournament(The so-called "home and away method" is a type of this).On the other hand, group tournaments (league matches) include those with different numbers of matches depending on the opponent and those that are not completely brute force.

Many professional sports leagues play regular season games in round robin (some leagues do not play against all teams) and thenRemaining Winning Tournament (Tournament Battle)A format playoff is used to determine the winning team for the season.In addition, in world championships by country, the tournament is divided into multiple stages, and the early and middle stages are brute force battles for each group, and the final stage is often a winning tournament.The characteristics of each method are related to the background of such proper use.

Depending on the professional sports leagueWartime regime-Pandemic-strikeIf a long-term postponement / interruption / advance closing occurs due to such reasons and the closing is reached with a certain number of undigested games left, the ranking of all teams belonging to the team will not be decided.Post season・ Awards and replacements may be canceled.

Group tournaments have the following characteristics compared to winning tournaments.

  • As the participating teams compete in a round-robin manner or close to it, they are more equal and their overall ability is reflected in the results.
  • The number of games for each participating team is the same (however, there may be variations due to non-holding of games that have been postponed due to postponement of rainy weather, etc.).
  • The number of games will increase.As the number of participating teams increases, the number of games increases in the square order of the number of teams, so it can be said that there is a limit to the scale of the event as it is (as a solution to this, the league itself is divided into several districts, After the closing, there is a way to have a postseason with the top teams in each district and compete for the championship).
  • Digestive matchExists.
  • Not only the winning team but also the ranking of each can be decided.This with the lower leagueReplacement battleTargets can be selected at the same time.

Round-robin

Ranking determination method

In determining the ranking,Win rateIt is common to use points and points.In the round robin battle, the total number of games is the same for each team, and when the victory or defeat is decided in all the games, the ranking based on the winning percentage and the ranking based on the number of wins match.In this case, it is common to use the winning percentage instead of the number of wins, but this is simply because the provisional ranking can be displayed correctly, and there is no difference in the content.However, in addition to victory and defeatdrawWhen is adopted, there will be a difference depending on how the draw is evaluated, and the method of calculating the winning percentage will also be different.Method of calculating by excluding the draw from the denominator (adoption example: JapanProfessional baseball) ・ On the contrary, the method of calculating the draw as equivalent to the defeat without excluding it from the denominator ・ The method of calculating the draw as 0.5 wins and 0.5 losses (adoption example:NFL)and so on. (→ →Win rate

In addition to the ranking determination method based on the winning percentage, give appropriate points to wins and draws.PointsMethodサ ッ カ ーIt is used in many competitions including.When the points method is adopted, the provisional ranking will be out of order if the number of games played does not match, but it is adopted in many competitions as a traditional ranking method. (→ →Points

There are two main ways to deal with the cases where the results of the two are lined up.There are two methods, one is to prioritize the preparation of multiple secondary indicators, and the other is to settle in an additional match.In American professional baseball, an additional game (one-game playoff) will be played if the teams that win the district or the second wildcard have the same rate.Nippon Professional Baseball used to do the same thing when it was the same rate leader,play offSince the introduction of, the ranking has come to be decided by the winning percentage and the number of wins in the direct confrontation.

Examples of secondary indicators are as follows.

  • BaseballWBC,Asia seriesThen the goal rate was adopted.
  • In soccer, the ranking is determined by the difference in goals scored, the total score, and the direct confrontation results.
  • The set rate is mainly used for volleyball.Calculated by dividing the number of sets taken by the number of sets taken.If the set taken is 0, it is written as "MAX" and treated as infinite as a numerical value.
  • In table tennis team competitions, the ranking may be decided by comparing the number of people, the number of sets, and the number of points.
  • Basketball world championshipIn the past, indicators such as total points divided by total goals were also used.
  • In shogi, ranking is based on the results of the previous term (or earlier).

In addition, there is also an example in which a championship deciding match was held between teams that ranked first in each of multiple indicators.Central LeagueThen.2001In 1-1, if the 2002st place team with the number of wins and the 06st place team with the winning percentage are different, and the 1st place team with the winning percentage falls below the 2nd place team with the winning percentage, the 3st place will be decided in 1 additional games. Was there.

The results of the playoffs may also be used to determine district rankings.Pacific LeagueThen.2004From to 2006, if the first stage winning team in the playoffs also broke through the second stage and advanced to the Japan Series, the first stage winning team would be the league champion (of the Pacific League).The NFL also prioritizes playoff results when determining draft order for the following year.

Table 1: Examples of round-robin battles
ABCDEFNumber of winsNumber of lossesDrawWin ratePointsWin rate
Ranking
Points
Ranking
A teamN/A6-6-08-2-26-6-08-2-29-3-037194. 66111512
B team6-6-0N/A9-3-08-4-08-4-07-3-238202. 65511621
C team2-8-23-9-0N/A7-5-08-3-18-4-028293. 4918733t
D team6-6-04-8-05-7-0N/A7-5-07-5-029310. 4838743t
E team2-8-23-8-13-8-15-7-0N/A8-4-020364. 3576455
F team3-9-03-7-24-8-05-7-04-8-0N/A19392. 3285966

* The winning percentage is calculated excluding the draw.The points are calculated by winning 3 and drawing 1.

Application example

baseball

baseballIn, the basic form is to play against each team in several to dozens of games in a round-robin game, and determine the winning team based on the winning percentage.However, if the number of participating teams is about 6, the number of matches against each team is often the same, but for exampleAmerican Major LeagueIn, the number of teams in the league is as large as 30, and the number of teams differs for each division, so the number of games varies depending on the opponent.In addition, since the Japanese baseball league has introduced a draw, the ranking is determined by the winning percentage calculated by excluding the draw, or the ranking is determined only by the number of wins. Depends on the league[1]Not constant.

After the regular match (regular season) is over, the top players in the regular season will play against each other to determine the final winning team.play offIs also widely practiced.The form of playoffs varies greatly from league to country.

サ ッ カ ー

サ ッ カ ーIn, each team will play twiceHome and awayThe method is widely adopted.In some leagues, one round-robin tournament is set as the first half, and the second half is divided into upper and lower leagues according to the ranking of the first half (former Croatia).Purva HNLSuch).There are also leagues that have four round-robins due to the small number of teams (Austria and the former J-League (4-1993), and J95 (2-1999), etc.).

Traditionally, a points system has been introduced to determine the ranking.In soccer, they used to give 2 points for victory, 1 point for draw, and 0 point for defeat, but in order to increase the incentive to win,the 1980sFrom around this time, it was customary to score 3 points for victory, 1 point for draw, and 0 points for defeat.

rugby

England, France, Japan, etc.rugbyIn the competition, in a round-robin battle, 4 points for victory, 2 points for draw, 7 point for defeat within 1 points, 4 pointsTryWe have adopted a point system (match point system) in which the above points are earned by 1 point.On the other hand, in the Australian and New Zealand rugby leagues, 2 points for victory, 1 point for draw and 0 points for defeat are given, and 2 points are given equally to each club.

American Football

NFLIs a slightly irregular method that emphasizes division.Teams in the same division are home-and-away round-robin games, and in addition to this, several single-shot games with teams in other divisions are organized.In the current league structure (total number of teams is 32), there are 6 matches in the division and 10 matches against teams in other divisions.Since you will always play against the teams in the division twice a year, you will have a special rivalry.In addition, the second race will be a direct confrontation at the end of the season, which is often an important match in the division title battle.The ranking is decided by the winning percentage (calculated by converting the draw to 2 wins and 2 losses), and if the percentages are the same, it is determined in detail.Tiebreak procedureFollow.Fight 16 games each season and become the leader in the divisionWildcardThe winning team will be decided in the playoffs of the remaining winning tournament by a total of 12 teams.

Japanese adult leagueX LeagueHas a three-division configuration with six teams and uses a complex three-stage system.After each round-robin battle (6st stage) in each division, 3 round-robin battle (3nd stage) will be held in each of the 1 groups that shuffle the top 1 teams in each division.Then, the winning team will be decided in the winning team tournament (final stage) with the leader of each group selected by the total result of the first and second stages and the wild card of one team (on the other hand, each of the first stages). The bottom three teams in the division have a ranking stage).In the case of the Japanese student league, a round robin tournament is held in each region.

wrestling

JapanesewrestlingInJapanese professional wrestling OfWorld League match,All Japan Pro Wrestling OfWorld's strongest tag league match,新 日本 プ ロ レ ス OfIWGP League match,All Japan Women's Wrestling OfTag League the BestEtc. were done.Due to the nature of professional wrestling, many draws are held on a point-by-point basis.International wrestling OfIWA World SeriesThen, a method called the bad mark system was adopted, in which the points at the start were deducted by losing and drawing, and when the points reached 0, the points were disqualified.

basketball

basketballIn the Olympics andWorld CupInternational tournaments such as these have 2 points for victory, 1 point for defeat, and 0 points for abstention / disqualification.

NBAIs composed of 6 teams in 30 divisions, and is a biased method similar to MLB (baseball) and NFL (American football).The winning team will be decided by the playoffs of the winning tournament with the leader of each division and the wild card.However, the meaning of the division is a little thin.In the playoff composition, there are as many as 6 wildcards against 10 teams at the top of the division, and there is no distinction between the top and top wildcards when deciding the seed order for the playoffs.In addition, the seed order determines the combination only in the first playoff match (fixed win-win tournament).For these reasons, the division title is less important, and the system is such that the top eight teams from both conferences advance to the playoffs.

JapaneseB LeagueIn the case of, a three-district system is adopted, and the system is adopted in which the highest winning percentage in each district advances to the playoffs.

volleyball

volleyballIs a major international conventionWorld CupThen, a round-robin battle with 12 teams.At the Olympics, six teams are divided into two groups to play a qualifying league, and the top four teams advance to the final tournament.

Men'sWorld leagueIs a group league of 4 teams each, and a home-and-away qualifying league is held, and the top teams advance to the final round.Women'sWorld grand prixThe qualifying league, in which 12 teams are divided into 4 teams, is played in the 3rd round, and the top teams advance to the final round.

順位決定に当たっては長年にわたり、バスケットボール同様の「勝利には2点、敗北には1点、棄権・失格には0点」と言う形式がとられていたが、2009年のワールドリーグ以降一部の大会で、セットカウント3-0、3-1での勝利には3点、3-2での勝利には2点、敗れてもセットカウント2-3なら1点を与える方式が採用されつつある。

JapaneseV Premier LeagueThen, although it depends on the year, a regular round of round-robin 2-4 rounds is held, and the top 4 teams advance to the semi-final and final round.

Go

JapaneseGo OfHoly battleIn, the league match is divided into four stages, S, A, B, and C.other than this,Master gameChallenger decision league,Honinbo BattleThe challenger decision league is held.

Shogi

JapaneseShogiThen,Master game OfPlace battle(A round robin is only for A class and B class),ThroneChallenger decision league (red and white two-group system),WarlordThe challenger decision league is held.In these leagues, the "ranking" between players (separate from the results of the current period) is determined in advance according to the league results of the previous term from before the opening, and if multiple players finish all games with the same results. In some cases, the higher-ranked player has priority (see the section for each shogi tournament for details).It is also a training institution for professional shogi players.Shinshin Go player encouragement societyA similar method is used in the three-dan league.Shogi worldThen, according to this rule, it is expressed as "head squirrel" that only the lower ranks miss the promotion or suffer the demotion even though they are the same star.

Swiss tournament

Swiss tournament system(Swiss style tournament) is a combination method that increases the number of competitions between competitors at similar levels, giving some degree of legitimacy to the ranking even in a smaller number of games compared to round-robin competitions, and there is a difference in ability. This is a method that can be expected to reduce the number of "games that are exciting for the spectators" that are likely to occur in some cases.As prior data, for each player (team)RatingAlternatively, it is desirable to have data similar to that.However, in the latter half of the game, players who have no chance of winning will play a game, so they often abstain (drop).Even if you abstain, you can proceed smoothly after that, which is also an advantage over the round-robin battle.Also known as Swiss tournament or Swiss draw.This method is suitable when the participants are close to each other, but there are too many participants to make a round-robin tournament.

Specifically, the procedure is as follows.

  • The first round will be played in a random combination.
  • In the second round, the combination is decided so that the winners and the losers will play against each other.
  • In the 3rd round, all wins in 2 races, 1 win and 1 loss, and all losses in 2 races will be played against each other with the same results.However, it does not play against the opponent who has already hit.
  • In the same way after the 4th round, repeat the battle with opponents who have not hit each other with the same results as much as possible.

The winner will be the participant with the best results when the specified number of games has been exhausted.The calculation method of the grade is basically the number of winning stars (the draw is 0.5 wins), and if there is a tie, various tie-breaking methods are used.

For example,

  1. Solkov points, total of winning stars of opponents
  2. Sonborn Berger points (SB), total of winning stars of the opponent you won
  3. Total number of winning stars excluding the largest and smallest (median, MD)
  4. Win / Loss (DH) in a direct confrontation with a tie opponent
  5. Total of winning stars of the opponent you lost
  6. In games with draws (chess, etc.), there are few draws, etc.
Table 1: Examples of Swiss-style 4th round tournaments
1 Round2 Round3 Round4 RoundNumber of winsNumber of defeatsSolkovSBRanking
Anna○ (J2)○ (F2)● (H3)○ (C2)31962
Bill● (I2)● (E1)● (J2)● (D2)047010
Charlie● (H3)○ (I2)○ (D2)● (A3)221044
Davis○ (G3)● (H3)● (C2)○ (B0)22835
Emmy● (F2)○ (B0)● (G3)● (I2)13709
Frank○ (E1)● (A3)○ (I2)● (J2)22835
Gill● (D2)○ (J2)○ (E1)○ (H3)31863
Hance○ (C2)○ (D2)○ (A3)● (G3)311071
Ichiro○ (B0)● (C2)● (F2)○ (E1)22518
Jan● (A3)● (G3)○ (B0)○ (F2)22827

(The numbers in parentheses in the table are the acronym of the opponent and the number of final wins for that person)

Advantages and disadvantages

The ranking is calculated more strictly than the winning tournament, and all players can enjoy a certain number of battles.On the other hand, there is a drawback that the next opponent does not know until all the games of the previous round are completed, and it takes time and effort to judge and decide the combination.

Modified Swiss tournament

It was devised to reduce the above-mentioned disadvantage that the next opponent is not known until all the games of one round are over.Modified Swiss tournamentIs shown below.

  • Play the first round in a random combination (similar to a regular Swiss-style tournament).
  • The opponents in the second round will be a combination of winners and losers on the assumption that "the top rating winner won in the first round".
  • After the 3rd round, except for the final round, based on the results up to 2 rounds before (the actual result of the 3st round if it is a combination of the 1rd round) (the same method as after the 3rd round of a normal Swiss-style tournament, the same as at that timeWin rateDecide the combination (with each other).

Application example

Often used in thinking games,チ ェ ス,checkerMany of the competitions in Japan use this format.Japan alsoShogi,GoIt is actively adopted in amateur competitions.Magic: The GatheringIncludingTrading card gameBut there are many usage examples.

Below are some examples of its use in sports competitions.

  • Grand Sumo
    • MakushitaThe Swiss style is adopted in each of the following stages (the opponent isNumberingIs automatically determined by.However, the same部屋There is a rule that wrestlers and relatives within the fourth degree of kinship will not compete in this discount).
  • X League
    • Although it is not a complete Swiss style, in the ranking battles with 4th place or lower, in the "East Division" and "Central Division" based in eastern Japan, 3 teams out of 2 teams and the top vs. top and bottom respectively A method of competing against each other is adopted.
  • World League match-NWA Tag League Match(Japanese professional wrestling
    • It is a form of competition between Japanese players and foreign players, but this is also not a complete Swiss style.
  • Open championship(All Japan Pro Wrestling
    • 1975It was held in Japan, and since the number of participants exceeded 20, it adopted a ranking system based on fan voting.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ in JapanProfessional baseballAmateur baseballHas a history of independent organizational management (there is no all-Japan championship equivalent to the "Soccer Emperor's Cup" where professionals and registered amateurs confront each other), and it is rare in the world, and baseball as a whole The influence of amateur baseball on the inside is not small.Therefore, the hiring rules differ depending on the individual league circumstances and are diverse.Draw matches basically occur in both round-robin tournaments and surviving tournaments, but there are ways to replay as invalid matches (this method is used in surviving tournaments except for a few special cases) and 0.5 wins. As 0.5 defeatWin rateIt is reflected in.Win ratePointsFor more information, see the description of baseball in each article.

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