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South Korea forward to report racism to UEFA

 
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Racism is absolutely unacceptable and should never be left unchecked."
 

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Racism

Racism(Racism,British: racial discrimination) Is

Overview

Definition
  • The Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in Article 1-1, states that "any distinction, exclusion, restriction or priority based on race, skin color, descent or ethnic or racial origin, political, economic and social. , Cultural and all other areas of public life on an equal footing and human rightsBasic freedomHas a purpose or effect that prevents or harms the recognition, enjoyment or exercise of. "However, Article 1-2 states, "In this treaty, the Contracting Parties are citizens.[Annotation 1]It does not apply to the distinctions, exclusions, restrictions or priorities established between and non-citizens. "CitizenshipIt is said that the distinction based on the presence or absence of the above does not correspond to racial discrimination.howeverSuffrageAnd so onPublic authorityExercise orCountryIt is limited to cases where there is a rational basis such as "because it affects the formation of the intention of."
  • SociologistRobert MilesracismWas defined as follows.
    • Arbitrarily selected features such as skin color are selected as important criteria (segregation), and this feature allowsA humanCategorize the group(in)(Racialization), giving negative/positive evaluation, and excluding/inclusion of a certain human groupideology.
    • Accompanied by a stereotyped representation of the Other.
    • Features that are the basis of classification are generally traits (eg skin color, head (en: human head)Form of,(Native) hair color,Eye color, Etc.) However, a natural phenomenon that is not immediately apparent (eg, pedigree) may be selected as an important feature.
  • Discriminatory expressions, including racial discrimination, and discriminatory behavior are also called "hate speech."Detail isHate speechSee.

History and examples

The history and current trends of racial discrimination are outlined below.

Discrimination due to 2019 coronavirus infection

East AsiaFor foreigners(Chinese version,English editionCases and mainlySocial MediaWith online media centered onウ イ ル スFactless speculation about conspiracy theories and the spread of conspiracy theoriesRelated misinformationCases such as have been reported.About this phenomenonwho(WHO) says "Infodemic (infodemic) ”is proposed to call attention.[2].

Europe

Greek-RomeThe timesAncient timesEuropeIs defined asEuroscepticThis is a question often asked by.If included,North africa OfProvinceAlthough certain interracial exchanges were seen through the inhabitants of the province of Africa, the majority of the inhabitants of the province of AfricaCaucasianSystemBerberAnd in the south centralBlack speciesThe interaction with was very limited.Ancient Roman eraGaliaAnd Germanic were the center of civilizationMediterranean world,Middle EastIt is a wilderness away from the Romans, and in later years for the RomansNorthern raceThe appearance defined as was written like a symbol of barbarians. However, the concept of so-called racism did not exist in ancient Greece and Rome.Greek mythologyThen blackAndromedaWas described as a beauty,Military emperorThere were also African residents who were appointed as emperor candidates at the time.

Feudal disorderMedieval eraFamiliar with貴族Conflict between each other is the number one concern, thenReligiousConflict was a more important issue, followed by a glimpse of ethnic conflict.It is a story of posterity that the whiteness of the skin has come to be considered as a sign of superiority.

Age of DiscoveryAfterWestern EuropeThe peopleNew world Ofイ ン デ ィ ア ン,SaharaDiscrimination against the Negroids in the south is remarkable in history.Also, even if they are the same EuropeanIrishMany ethnic groups have a history of being discriminated against.Also from the Middle AgesThe early modern periodOverPlagueDuring the pandemicJewHas a history of being persecuted by being made into a scapegoat (Anti-Semitism #PlagueSee).Due to rumors, one raceBiologyAs primitive, or as inferior in intelligence or barbaricWild animalsThere was a time when I was thinking like this.Westerners after the Age of Discovery are modern軍隊ByInvasion,ColonyIt became.Western dominance was claimed to justify colonial rule, saying that "whites are obliged to give civilization to non-whites."This advantage is that "white people have evolved the most.(I.e.The result is that even the value of "is"Radyard Kipling"White Duty",Cecil Roseof"A country loved byUnited Kingdom"Thought,Hugh Lofting"Dr. LittleOf the seriesAfrica snow''Nautical record"Such). This idea gradually expanded, and even in the academic field, a theory was announced that the characteristic difference between races was "evidence that one race is inferior",EugenicsWas justified in the name of. In thisTheory of evolutionIs greatly twisted,Cultural anthropologyIt is thought that this has greatly hindered development.

2015IsEuropean UnionAbout 17% of peopleAsianAbout 31% reported that they were uncomfortable with their work with and when their children began to love Asians.[3]. Also,Spread of COVID-XNUMX infectionIt has been reported that East Asians are subject to discriminatory behavior due to the influence of[4].

Germany

Raised anti-SemitismNaziIs "SemiticHe insisted on the biological classification of "Jewish race" and tried to distinguish Jewish people, which are mainly ethnic and religious classifications, biologically.

Greece

GreeceSo about racist attacks有罪There are few judgments, and it is said that racial discrimination is rampant.Greek economySince the crisis, theyImmigration TheGreekHas been an outlet for dissatisfaction and is particularly exposed to attacks[5]

Africa

South of the Sahara DesertAfricaHad concentrated inBlackIn ancient timesArab,PersianThere was a time when he was treated as a slave to the subject of racial discrimination.IslamicGreat ofphilosopherIsIbn KhardunEven blacks are subject to discrimination.however,ProphetMuhammadBefore the time of the Arab tribes,Arabian PeninsulaWhen I was busy fighting between tribes without having a unified nation, I went to the African Continent on the opposite bank.エチオピアThere was a great black empire.Arabs were sometimes invaded by Ethiopia, and conversely they sought protection from Ethiopia.Therefore, there was a time when Arabs had the concept that blacks were an awe-inspiring race with a higher cultural standard than their own, rather than an inferior race.Certainly some Arabs owned black slaves, but blacks were only part of the slaves, and most of the slaves were of the same Arab tribe.POWs of warAndPirateHe was a European inhabitant who was abducted by a slave trader and was a so-called white man.AbbasidBlack slaves who were used in large-scale agriculture in South Iraq at that time were dissatisfied with the harsh working environment and rebelled (Zanju Rebellion).In addition, as a term that saw Africa from EuropeBlack africaThere is.

After the Age of Discovery, Europeans who discovered the "New World" used black slaves as a labor force there.Europeans are mainlyWest~ I have used black people living in Central Africa as slaves.This was due to the convenience of slaves due to the extremely intensive mass production in the "New World" and the death of many indigenous peoples in the "New World" due to infectious diseases brought in by Europeans. Reasons for the need, such as the fact that blacks were believed to be resistant to infectious diseases and were considered qualified, and that their appearance made them easy to distinguish from non-slave. Can be given.EuropeStrong lineColonizes most of Africa19st centurySince the end of the year, until then, local African nations and influential tribal chiefs had captured hostile tribes and sold them as slaves to Europeans for profit.Blacks purchased by Europeans were loaded into the holds of slave ships and transported to markets such as the New World.The conditions of the slave ship hold were so harsh that a significant proportion of blacks died before reaching the market.Slave marketThen, it was displayed as a product on a stand and sold. They black slavesPersonalityDenied,家畜It was treated in the same way as.Very few were able to engage in light homework or were released from slavery.This European slavery is1888ToBrazil SlaveryContinued until it was abolished.In this way, a global product supported by slave laborsugar caneCottonMet.

The United States of America

Discrimination against Africans

America OfCivil WarHad a character as one of the characters of the Emancipation Proclamation War.When the southern states, which were supported by many black slaves and opposed the liberation of slaves, were defeated, American slaves as an institution were abolished and liberated, but substantive discrimination remained persistent (substantial discrimination).Jim Crow Method).Second World WarAfterHistoryThen,Vietnam War OfAnti-war movementIn relation toMartin Luther King Jr.PriestbyCivil rights movementBut manyAmerican citizenLeft an impact on.

Discrimination against Indians

The United States is an Indian (a "disturber" when expanding its territory.Native American) Was implemented.3rd generationPresidentThomas JeffersonIs an indianReservation placePromoting the enclosure to (Reservation), the 7th PresidentAndrew Jackson"Indians are the inferior peoples that should be destroyed"US CongressI made a speech at.soldier OfPhilip Sheridan"A good Indian is a dead Indian,"William Sherman"If you can kill as many Indians this year, you'll have less to kill next year," said the United States.Ethnic cleansingIt is a good representation of the attitude.

"Indian Forced Emigration ActThe illegalUnited States Supreme CourtAcknowledged and attached to the sentence that "Indians are humans."1879It's finally here. After that, the IndiansColored(Colored)"the 1960sUntil"Jim Crow MethodWas targeted.

Discrimination against Asians

Yellow race(AsiaHas been evaluated by the white society for its hardworking and enthusiastic culture, and it has certainly penetrated into the white society.20st centurySince the latter half, there has been no situation of unilateral exploitation.North America,United KingdomOf East Asian immigrants inEducational HistoryThe standard of living is high among races other than white, and even on average exceeds whites. As a manifestation of that, in American university selectionAffirmative ActionThere is no preferential treatment, but rather a disadvantage.

On the other hand, in America in the first half of the 20th centuryCanadaAtChinese immigrants,Japanese immigrantsLooking at the circumstances ofcoolieEven after being dropped into a slave situation such as, and struggling to establish an economic position,Yellow erosionThere is a history of encountering the movement of exclusion against the background.Especially for Nikkei during World War IICitizenshipIs stopped,It came to be detained in the internment camp..Others who were also engaged with the United StatesGerman descent,Italian descent such asAxis countriesNatives and their offspring were almost unrestricted, soJapaneseIs considered to be racism against.

Latin America

SpanishAfter invasionSouth AmericaIt is,Maya,AztecDestroy their nation by force in the conquered areas such asAbuse・Large amountMassacreColonized by and put indigenous Indios in discrimination.

In Spanish territory,Las CasasEt al.キ リ ス ト 教EvangelistStruggles to protect Indians, which results in the introduction of black slaves as an alternative to the workforce.Caucasian since modern times,Mixed, There are many nations whose social strata are divided by indio.

Japan

Russo-Japanese WarAfterJapanWas the only great power of non-European colored nations and sent out many immigrants, but the WestImperialismIn response to the opposition from the government and the issue of exclusion from Japanese immigrants, they often took the position of "anti-racism" in order to protect their own right to survive.[6]. AlliesJapan representative who participated as a member ofWorld War IAfterParis peace conferenceso,Racial discrimination elimination clauseHowever, due to the exercising of the chairman's veto right by the British and American representatives and the disagreement, the meeting has failed.Shoichi WatanabeStates that Japan is the first country in the world to make a clear claim to eliminate racial discrimination at international conferences.[Annotation 2][8].

Second World WarLet's make racial discrimination a national mottoNazi GermanyMilitary alliance(Japan-Germany Ikoku Union), both Europeans and whitesキ リ ス ト 教徒But the Japanese are NazisJewHe was uncooperative in persecution. Rather,ManchuriaBuild a Jewish Autonomous Region inRiver pig planExists,Japan-Germany Ikoku UnionEven after being establishedFive-phase conferenceArranged not to persecute Jews, and did not cooperate with the persecution of Jews like other Axis powers and occupied territories.Therefore, Jews who escape from Europerefugeesfor,USSRからManchuria(Northeastern ChinaThe route to escape to the United States and other countries via) was important.however,Remaining measures measuresAs shown in, the diplomatic consideration will no longer be actively involved in the protection of Jews. Then JapanDiplomatAsKaunasI was working at the Japanese ConsulateChiune SugiharaTo thousands of JewsvisaIn order to rescue his life, but this is at his own discretion.[9]..Former pastor's as an example of racial discriminationShoji YamakiIs his own book, The Bible and Handicap[10]"There isSeminaryHas served as the principal of the school and is now a mass evangelist.EvangelicalA very well-known evangelist among them, based on his evangelism experience in Kenya, often talks about the color of black skin in a eloquent and over-the-top manner, causing laughter in the congregation. doing. ("Same station" pp.45)

Discrimination in Japan is not limited to specific races and ethnic groups, but Japanese (YamatoHumans other than ()Foreigner) Is to discriminate[11].. EspeciallyPolicemen TheColored raceJob questions targeting foreigners in Japan (Racial profiling)American Embassy American in JapanIs calling for a warning[12].

In recent years in Japanthe 2000sEntered and became radicalKoreans and Koreans living in Japan"Discriminatory behavior against the public and community activities" is regarded as a problem[13],Act on Promotion of Efforts to Eliminate Unfair Discriminatory Behavior against People from Other Countries(20166/3Enforcement) "[14]AndOsaka,Kawasaki CityHate speech ordinanceMeasures such as were enacted[15].

Again to Japan2014IsUnited NationsCommittee on the Elimination of Racial DiscriminationHas issued a recommendation requesting a response to racial discrimination.[16][17], Against that recommendationJapanese GovernmentCommented by the Japanese government on the final opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9)[18][19]The answer is divided into two parts.

In the private sectorMeeting to eliminate black discriminationAre protesting about the expression of blacks.

South Korea

South KoreaDid not accept the recommendations of the Racism Elimination Commission and amended the Immigration Control ActMigrant workerRestricting the rights of migrant workers and using prejudice against migrant workers to conduct abuse, assault, and exploitation of labor.[20].2012According to the "Fisheries Migrant Workers Human Rights Survey" published by the National Human Rights Commission of Korea, it was announced that as many as 93.5% of seafarers and migrants experienced curse and assault, of which 42.6% experienced assault.[20].

2012 years,The PhilippinesKoreanLee JasmineWhen he became a member of the DietKorean InternetRacist aboveBashingHappened[21].

20142/14ToIndonesiaJapanese sailor is assaulted by a Korean colleague and dies[20].. Although the United Nations Commission on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination recommended in 2012 the South Korean government to enact anti-discrimination and other laws, but the South Korean government has not implemented it. He has created a modern version of slavery and is still implementing racism policy." (Lee Jae-sang, Chairman of the South Korean Foreign Migration Labor Movement Council)[20].

2013June, for professional baseball playersKim TaiIs a black pitcherShane Yuman"The black face made him laugh at the mound, his white teeth overlapped with the ball, making it hard to hit," the National Human Rights Commission warned.[22][23].

In 2014, a migrant worker labor exploitation case was discovered at the Huikawa Africa Museum.[20].. In this case, African artists received only half the legal minimum wage and workersslaveWhen protesting such labor, the museum replied, "Is it a lot of money in Africa?"[24].

2014 year 9 month,Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human RightsSpecial reporter on racial discrimination, etc. conducted a fact-finding survey in South Korea[25]..Celebrities wearing black masks on Korean TV shows and advertising "This Africa"ChimpanzeeThere have been reports of cases such as the appearance ofAFP communicationReported that "Koreans are unknowingly racist."[21][25][26].

International attempt to abolish

At the Paris Peace Conference, a World War I peace conference, a Japanese delegation, a member of the Allies, made a "proposal to eliminate racial discrimination."British representativeAustraliaA vote was taken while the representative strongly opposed it, and the result was 11 to 5 in favor of the majority, but the chairman of the United States PresidentWoodrow WilsonWas denied because he requested unanimous exception.

196311/20,United NationsBut"United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationWas adopted.1965The United NationsInternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationAdopted,1969The treaty came into effect.1996The treaty was announced in Japan 1976Includes Article 20 (2), which stipulates that "the advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that incites discrimination, hostility or violence is prohibited by law."International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(International Human Rights Agreement) has been established. It also states that in Article 2, “If a country has no legislation to discriminate against discriminatory behavior, it should be put in place.” Does not recognize such rights."

2001,South Africa OfDurbanHeld inUnited Nations Conference on Anti-RacismIn (WCAR),Southern hemisphereDiscrimination by national representatives ofColonialism,大西洋CrossingslaveBuying and selling, andZionismAccusation of racism against him was a succession. The meetingPalestinianResolved a unanimous condemnation of Zionism and demands for protection of its rights.usa,IsraelThe delegation fought against this and boycotted the resolution.

20094/20からSwitzerland OfGenevaAt WCAR held in the US, in addition to Israel,Canada·Australia·New Zealand-Germany-Italy-Sweden-Poland- NetherlandsEach country representative boycotted.

Facial harassment

Attacking or anxious about the other person based on race, origin, or nationality is called sexual harassment.

It can happen in any relationship, including derogatory remarks about origin, conversations and businesses that assume that there is only a specific ethnic group, and evaluations that link mistakes and ideas to specific roots.Expressions that profess the superiority of a particular ethnic group or statements regarding the exclusion of foreigners fall under the category of sexual harassment.Example) Non-national remarks, etc.

Racial harassment also applies to overly linking and equating nations and individuals, linking incidents and historical conflicts that have occurred in other mainland countries as if they were caused by a specific individual, and making unspoken criticisms.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ <“Citizen” is a key concept to understand the relationship between the nation and people in developed countries. Japan is still a littleUnderdeveloped countryAnd this concept of "citizen" is not well understood.PeopleIs often expressed as ".[Source required]
  2. ^ It was Japan that first appealed for the elimination of racial discrimination at an international conference[7].

Source

  1. ^ Daijizumi "Racism"
  2. ^ "Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19" (PDF). World Health Organization... 27 February 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 3.
  3. ^ Union, Publications Office of the European.--Publications Office of the EU" (English). op.europa.eu. April 2021, 7Browse.
  4. ^ swissinfo.ch, Lisa Chang.Coronavirus:'Fears, rumours and stigma' cause bullying in Switzerland" (English). SWI swissinfo.ch. April 2021, 7Browse.
  5. ^ “Angle:'immigration crisis' in austerity Greece, an outlet for social dissatisfaction”. Reuters. http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPTYE8B800420121209 April 2014, 8Browse. 
  6. ^ "Japanese and African-Americans-Aspects in the History of US-Japan Relations-" Hiromi Furukawa,Furukawa Satoshi Akashi bookstore ISBN 9784750319223 P79-86
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Shoichi Watanabe "Showa history that tells the truth" PHP Research Institute, published on July 2015, 7 (pages 16-292)
  9. ^ Katsumasa Watanabe "The Truth, Sugihara Visa" Taisho Publishing, 2000 ISBN-4 8117 0309-X- [Page number required]
  10. ^ Ichigakusha, 1991
  11. ^ Naoki Tsusaka (May 2019, 5). "Discrimination in Europe, repelled by Japan ... The origin of the" right-wing "Japanese Americans". Asahi Shimbun. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASM552RN7M55UHBI006.html April 2020, 5Browse. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Embassy Suspects "Japanese Police" Unusual Warning "Unfair Treatment" Feeled by Many Foreign Residents in Japan". www.msn.com. April 2021, 12Browse.
  13. ^ Mainichi Shimbun "Hate speech report from open newspaper committee" Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo morning edition 2016.7.1[2]
  14. ^ Act on Promotion of Efforts to Eliminate Unfair Discriminatory Behavior against People from Other Countries - e-Gov Law Search
  15. ^ "Kawasaki City Hate Speech Ordinance 1st year To eradicate discrimination, remaining issues Spread in a non-violating manner / Kanagawa”. Mainichi Shimbun. April 2021, 12Browse.
  16. ^ International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination[3]
  17. ^ Respect for Okinawa's People's Mind Recommendation to Japan by United Nations Commission on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 2014.8.30[4]
  18. ^ Comments by the Japanese Government on the Final Opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9) (August 2016)[5]
  19. ^ To the final opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9)Japanese GovernmentComment (December 2016)[6]
  20. ^ a b c d e Labornet “Korea: Japan's Racial Discrimination Eliminates Racial Discrimination” Severe 2014.30.20[7]
  21. ^ a b AFP Communication October 2014, 10 "UN begins investigation on racism in Korean society'
  22. ^ Chuo Nippo June 2013, 6
  23. ^ Chosun IlboSeptember 2014, 9 "Racism in South Korea by economic power" criticized by US papers
  24. ^ Hankyore 2014.2.1 "Secretary-General Hong Mun-Jung, the Senurit Party, who forced African dancers to'slave labor''
  25. ^ a b Xinhua20149/30"Racism is widespread in South Korea, the United Nations to survey the actual situation "I want you to thoroughly investigate" "Go to Japan next door"-Korean net'
  26. ^ Xinhua20149/30"Racism prevails in Korean society, UN embarks on investigation'

References

Related books

  • Christopher ThornWritten "Race Problems in the Pacific War" Translated by Yoichi Ichikawa, Koshisha, 1991
  • John DowerWritten "Wars of Mercy, Racism in the Pacific War" Translated by Genichi Saito, Heibonsha Library, 2001

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