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⚽ | Foreign players who may come to the J League this summer (2022 version)


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Foreign players who may come to the J-League this summer (2022 edition)

 
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Not only does it have a defense of 186 cm and a reach, but it also has a soft ball touch that is typical of Brazilians.
 

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    186cm

    Brazilian

    Brazilian(Portuguese: BrazilianWhat isBrazilIt is the people of.A Brazilian may also refer to a person born in another country as a child of a father or mother who has obtained Brazilian citizenship, or a person who has obtained Brazilian citizenship.

    Definition

    According to the Constitution of Brazil, Brazilians are

    • Born in Brazil.His parents may be foreigners, but those whose parents are foreigners are foreignersGovernment officeIf you work at (DiplomatEtc.), the child cannot be Brazilian.
    • Those born outside Brazil who have registered for birth at the Brazilian embassy or consulate as children of a Brazilian father or mother.Also, a person who was born abroad as a child of a Brazilian father or mother who has not been registered for birth in Brazil, but has immigrated to Brazil since he was 18 years of age or older.[7].
    • Foreigners residing in Brazil who have applied for and received Brazilian nationality.

    The Constitution states that all Brazilian citizens are equal regardless of race, ethnicity, gender or religion.

    I have lived in Brazil for 4 years without leaving the country, and yetPortugueseForeigners who can speak can apply for Brazilian citizenship.Official terminologyIs from a country where is Portuguese (Portugal,アンゴラ,Mozambique,カーボベルデ,Sao Tome Principe,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,東 テ モ ー ル) Can apply for Brazilian citizenship one year later if they do not leave the country on the way.

    Foreigners with Brazilian citizenship have exactly the same rights and obligations as those who are born with Brazilian citizenship,President,Vice President,Minister of Defense,Secretary of Defense,House of RepresentativesChair,soldier,DiplomatCan't be[7].

    Overview

    Brazilians are primarily settlers, post-independence immigrants, African slaves, descendants of indigenous Brazilians, many in Portugal.Italy,Spain, From a German-speaking country.Japan,Poland,ウクライナAndLevantThere are many people from[8].

    Colonial era (1500-1822)

    There were three main groups.Indigenous peoples of Brazil, settlers from Europe, and slaves from Africa.

    Indigenous people of Brazil

    The first migrant16st centuryBefore arriving in Brazil, an estimated 240 million peopleIndigenous people of BrazilWas living.They arePleistoceneSince then, he has lived in Brazil, forming hundreds of tribes and ethnic groups, and showing various characteristics and shapes.

    Around 1498Dwarty Paceco PereiraThe fleet is said to have arrived in Brazil, but there are various theories about the indigenous population at that time.Then in 1500Pedro Alvarez CabralWas washed ashore in Brazil, and in 1502Amerigo VespucciHas arrived, but the indigenous population at that time is estimated to be 240 million to 310 million.

    For more accurate information, Native Brazilians have infectious diseases carried by settlers (influenza,smallpox,Shoko Fever,tuberculosis) And fighting (military alliances with Portugal, France and the Netherlands, where the systematic genocide has increased the death toll and the proportion of indigenous women who have abortions after the arrival of settlers) in Brazil. There are cases where 3/4 of the indigenous people have died.Those who survivedAmazon riverEscape to the basin,Latin AmericaSome people migrated outside of.again,JesuitsIndigenous peoples who lived ascetic lives under the protection of the nation often escaped to the city and married interracial people in the land they migrated to.Diseases that broke out in Europe spread rapidly via trade routes, and indigenous peoples were driven to the brink of annihilation despite not having direct contact with Europeans in combat.

    Currently, 51 indigenous people are settled, of which 7 speak indigenous languages.Millions of Brazilians are of indigenous blood because of interracial contact.

    Settlers from Europe

    Official records indicate that Brazil was discovered by Portugal in 1500 and that 72 Portuguese settlers had arrived by the end of the colonial era.[9]..Most of them were men.Other sources claim that far more people would have entered the country than the 72 figure. Until the 4th century, Portugal was one of the countries with many immigrants to Brazil.[10]..Jesuit monksKingdom of PortugalIn addition, a woman under the protection of the royal family who has lost her parents and is orphaned (en: Órfãs d'El-Rei He said he asked him to send him to Brazil to marry a migrant (known as the "king's orphan").[11][10][12][13].. In 1551, the first group of orphans arrived in northeastern Brazil.The daughter of an aristocrat who died in the process of governing the colony or fighting for the king married a high-ranking settler.

    The most common migrants from other European countries NetherlandsI was from. From 1630 to 1654Northeastern Brazil dominated by the NetherlandsAnd with a relatively small number of Dutch settlers seeking freedom of religionJewHas moved.After that, the JewsRecifeFirst in the AmericasSynagogueIsKahal Zul Israel SynagogueWas built. It is said that more than 2 Dutch have entered Brazil, many of whom have been expelled after the Netherlands withdrew from Brazil.Most of the remaining families in Brazil are in the hinterland of northeastern Brazil (,,Rio Grande do Norte, Etc.) or renamed it to a Portuguese-style name.The Y chromosome of haplogroup 2, which is excessive in people in northeastern Brazil, is said to be largely due to the marriage of Dutch settlers and indigenous peoples.The remaining Jews in Brazil converted to Christianity, but some of them secretly believed in Judaism.Many Jews away from Brazil are nowニ ュ ー ヨ ー クIsNew AmsterdamHe headed to the United States to create the oldest synagogue, the Congregation Shearith Israel.

    Also, so many Portuguese, especially in the first 1500 years after 100.New ChristianWe went to Brazil.They are the Kingdom of PortugalKingdom of SpainEscaped from the crackdown or was banished and entered Brazil.They also include Roma people from the Iberian Peninsula, who are in Brazil.GypsyIs one of the reasons why there are many.Brazil has the second highest number of gypsies in the Americas after the United States.In addition, in the 2th century Brazil accepted many gypsies from the Baltic coast, Central Europe and Western Europe.

    Slave from africa

    Atlantic Ocean from the mid-16th century to 1855Slave tradeDue to the fact that there are about 360 million people from various countries and ethnic groups.AfricanMoved to Brazil, and as a result Brazil became the country with the highest number of African ancestors in the Americas.An African-Brazilian community fleeing under a slave in a harsh environmentMaroonWas created everywhere in Brazil.BahiaA few of the slaves who were thereMuslimAnd theySalvadorRebelled in, but was soon subdued by the army.

    Great migration era (1820 to 1970s)

    During this period, people from all over the world went to Brazil, many of them.EuropeanMet.Brazil accepted about 1820 European immigrants between 1950 and 56.[14][15]..Some of them were Jews who were prosperous at that time.In addition, 20 people in the 95th centuryAsianWent to Brazil, among them 27, the largest number of Middle Eastern, Christian Levant Arabs and Asian immigrants.JapaneseWas there[16][17][18][19]..At that time, almost 70% of immigrants were from Southern Europe, and the remaining about 30% were from other European regions, Asia (West and East Asia), Africa (mostly White Africans, Jews, etc.)BerberOthers), people of the Americas.

    Immigrants from Southern Europe

    With the move of Portuguese courts to Brazil in 1808, thousands of Portuguese returned to Brazil, and in 1820 an international port was opened.This will bring about a huge wave of immigrants that has never been seen before.Around this time, there was a second major Portuguese migration, with more than 2 million people migrating to Brazil.Since the Portuguese have lived in Brazil since the discovery of Brazil, it is difficult to calculate exactly how many offspring they have.There are now millions of Caucasian Brazilians, descendants of Portuguese immigrants who migrated from the 180s to 1870.In addition, many Brazilians marry different ethnic groups, so there are many who are partly of the blood of Portuguese immigrants.Many of their ancestors are from Minho, Trás os Montes, Beira and Extremadura in northern and central Portugal.

    Northeastern Brazil was the site of the Portuguese colonial migration, but during the Portuguese colonization there was a larger migration to southeastern Brazil.Sao PauloAccepts the largest number of people,LisbonIt is said to be the largest city in the Portuguese-speaking world except forRio de JaneiroFollowed.As another city where many immigrants have been confirmedMinas Gerais,Parlor,Rio Grande do Sul,BahiaThere is.Today, migrants and their descendants live throughout Brazil, making up the majority of Brazilians of Caucasian and multi-ethnic ancestry.

    About 160 million people in this large migration groupItalianAs a result, it became the largest group of post-colonial immigrants.This number is said to be the largest group ever moved from Italy to other countries.Unlike other countries where immigrants were sent from Italy, more than half of the immigrantsVeneto,LombardyMost of them are from northern Italy, followed by those from central Italy.State of Sao PauloInflowed to.There were also people from the south.Many Italians went to São Paulo, which accepted more than half of Brazilian immigrants, and the rest mainly moved to the south, Minas Gerais and Espirito Santo in the southeast, and Mato Grossodosul and Goias in the Midwest.Although relatively small, some immigrants headed to Pernambuco and Bahia in the northeast.Currently, many of their descendants live in the above regions, but due to their domestic migration, Italian-Brazilians are scattered throughout the country.

    SpainAbout 70 people have migrated from.There are millions of Brazilians whose ancestors are Spanish.Most of them are from Andalusia in southern Spain, followed by those from northern and eastern regions such as Galicia, Castile, Leon and Catalonia.Among them, many people went to the Portuguese-speaking Brazil from Galicia, which shared the border with Portugal, spoke a language, and was once a Portuguese territory.Many Spaniards initially headed mainly to São Paulo and then to Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais.The Spanish-Brazilians in other regions are mainly from Galicia and are a group that arrived before the big move.They moved to Salvador, Pernambuco (northeast), Para (northern), Espirito Santo (southeast), Rio Grande do Sul (south).[20].

    From other European countries

    As a large immigrant from Western Europe.About 24 peopleGerman, 19Austrian, 5SwissAnd so on.Luxembourgers andVolga GermansThere are records that he emigrated, but the number is small.At that time, German-speaking nations were the fourth largest group of European immigrants, and Brazil is now the second most native speaker of German after Portuguese native speakers.[21][22][23][24]..In addition, 15 French immigrants arrived at the port of Brazil, among themBelgian,DutchWas also included[25][26].

    A relatively large number of people are from Eastern Europe, with 35 immigrants.Among them are 15 Poles and 4.Ukrainian, And a fewRussianAnd thousands of peopleBelarusianThere was.These immigrants wanted a better living environment[27][28][29][30][31]..Other BulgarianCroats,,FewSlovenianThere was[32][33][34]..Not a Slavic peopleHungarian[35][36],RomanianIt was the second largest group after Poles, Russians and Ukrainians.

    Immigrants from Northwestern Europe were less than in other regions. With over 7 EnglishScottishEntered Brazil, but they were divided into various regions.Part ofIrishMigrated to an area that has already been urbanized[37][38][39][40][41].

    In addition, there are more than 4 Scandinavian people, mainly from Sweden and Norway, and 1.DanishOr a fewFinnishThere was also.IcelandersFaroe IslandsSome people immigrated from[42][43].

    Currently only a few thousand descendants remain, but some have migrated from the Baltic countries.LithuanianOccupies a large number of 5 people,LatvianEstonianFollows[34][44][45].

    It is also another European country that has sent many immigrants to Brazil.GreeceThere are about 15 immigrant descendants in the country.

    During this period, about 4 European Jews chose Brazil as their migration destination. The first Jewish immigrants to the era of great migration were recorded in the literature by the second liberal emperor of Brazil, who welcomed thousands of persecuted Jewish families from 8 to 1870. It's time[46].. There were two moves in the 20th century, but the first move wasWorld War IImmediately after, the next move was from the 1930s to the 1950s.[46]

    From Asia

    West Asia, especiallyLevantMany people have immigrated from.mainlyLebaneseSyrianAnd the number exceeds 20[47][48]..Also from the Caucasus regionArmenian,Georgians,IranianI was there.

    Many from East AsiaJapaneseMany people have emigrated, including.The first ship arrived in Brazil in 1908, with more than 25 people arriving[18][49][50][51][52]..Especially since the 1950s, many Chinese and Koreans have also traveled to Brazil, with 20 and 10 immigrated, respectively.

    From the Americas outside Brazil

    BrazilCivil WarAccepted Americans who fled from.In addition, it has accepted a small number of North Americans since 1808.[53][54][55]..Some of the people from the southern United States who fled the Civil War said in Portuguese, "Allies"People" means "people"ConfederadosHe lived mainly in the suburbs of São Paulo and strengthened his influence by constructing cities.The descendants of American-Brazilians live all over Brazil because the descendants of Confederados have been scattered throughout Brazil in the past.They are sometimes mistaken for British immigrants[53]..The ethnic roots of ConfederadosWelsh people, Scottish,Irish, German, Scandinavian, etc.[56].

    From South America for a long time since the 18th centuryArgentineMany immigrants from Brazil still have a strong community in Brazil, the size of which isBoliviaNext to the community of graduates.Empire of BrazilIndependence fromEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euImmigrants from the 19th and 20th centuries were also prominent.

    From africa

    Many immigrants were sent from North Africa.The largest number of immigrants are from Egypt, about 1.Less than that, some are from the Maghreb region of Morocco (mostly Jewish and headed north).As a result, unlike the colonial era, when many Africans were black slaves, there was a strong influx of foreign culture.

    Others are mostly Dutch South Africans (Afrikaners) And there are immigrants from the Portuguese colonies of Africa such as Angola.People of multiple ethnicities, including blacks, whites, and Asians, have migrated from these areas.

    Modern (1970 to present)

    Africa (although not comparable to the migration periodアンゴラ,セネガル), South America and Caribbean countries (Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Haiti, Suriname) have continued to immigrate from the late 1960s to the present.Asian (Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Chugoku, South Korea, Once returned to JapanJapanese Brazilians, Dutch Indonesian, Afghan, Vietnamese, Iranian, Pakistani, Filipino, etc.) and European (Portuguese, experts from Western Europe, people from Northern and Eastern European countries seeking a warm climate) There are also many immigrants. With the independence of Surinamese in 1975, many Dutch Surinamese migrated to Brazil.Many of them chose the suburbs of São Paulo and Parana, which are prosperous as a Dutch-Brazilian community, as their place of residence.

    Current foreign population

    As of 2011, Brazil is home to 150 million foreign-born people.This is more than double that of 2009, and this number could be even higher.This is because, like other countries, there are many people in Brazil who have not officially registered their family register, and they are not included in the statistics.Many foreigners, both registered and non-registered, are from Portugal, Bolivia, China, Paraguay, Angola, Spain, Argentina, Japan, and the United States, and have obtained work visas to immigrate. Many people come from the United States and the United Kingdom[57][58].

    Portugal from the 19th century to the 20th centuryLusitaniaThe number of people migrating from rural areas has never stopped.The Portuguese in Jewish settlements lived in former colonies such as Macau and Angola, and moved to Brazil after their independence.In addition, 120 million Portuguese were found to have migrated between 1951 and 1975, many of them in southeastern Brazil.Currently, there are more than 69 Portuguese living in Brazil, with the largest number of immigrants from Lucitania.[59][60].. In the first half of 2011 alone, the number of Portuguese applying for permanent resident visas increased by 5.[61][62]..Currently, people from about 220 countries live in Brazil.

    refugees

    In 2014, Brazil had 79 people in 5208 countries.refugeesIt was the place of residence of.By country of origin, Syria (1626), Colombia (1154), and Angola (1062) are the most common.In addition to this, there are 3 Bangladeshi people who have entered Brazil and are waiting for refugee status from the government in 2013 alone, 1830 from Syria and 1021 from Senegal.[63][63]..Afghan refugees andVietnam WarThere are also boat people who fled Vietnam by boat at that time.

    Distribution by race and skin color in Brazil

    Ethnic distribution within Brazil is not uniform across the country.

    Southern

    Many in the 19th and 20th centuriesEuropeanIn São Paulo and the southern part of BrazilWhite(Most of them are Italian, Portuguese, German, Austrian, Swiss, Slavic, Dutch, Spanish)[64][65]..Especially in Rio de Janeiro, there are many white people, slightly more than half of the total population.[66]..Other southeastern statesMinas Gerais,Espirito SantoBut about half are white[67][64]..There are an overwhelmingly large number of 3000 million whites in São Paulo, Minas Gerais,Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, followed by Parana[64]..In proportionSanta catarinaIs the highest, with Europeans accounting for 86% of the total population.There are many Jews in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Brasília and Belo Horizonte[14].

    East Asians, especially its largest groupJapanese BraziliansMany of them are in Sao PauloParanaLive in[51][68]..Many Koreans and Chinese also emigrated to southeastern Brazil, where São Paulo is located.Rio de Janeiro is the second most populous area of ​​Chinese after São Paulo.

    Northeast

    In northeastern Brazil, where various ethnic groups are mixed due to the occupation of other countries, black Africans, gypsies, and Native Americans from the Brazilian colony,SephardimThere are many.WherePaldIs the most common, followed by Europeans or mixed-race Caucasians and Africans.BahiaMaranyonIs the most African-American black district in Brazil[69]..The appearance of Pald is extremely different from person to person, and there are people with different types of hair, eyes and skin tones.There are a few whites and blacks who think they are pardos, and even mixed races.Roma, Sephardi, Arabs, and Asians also think that they are Paldo.There are also many pardos in northern Brazil, where the Amazon rainforests are overgrown.[70].

    Southeast / Midwest

    The ethnic distributions in the southeastern and midwestern regions of Brazil are relatively balanced, with 50% whites, 43% pardos, 5% blacks, and 1% Asians and Native Americans, respectively. Is.

    Race classification

    (English editionNow, divide Brazilians into five types, depending on skin color and race.brancos (white),negros (black),Pardo (brown or mixed race),amarelos (Asian yellow race),indios (Aboriginal people)It is divided into.According to a recent detailed census (PNAD), Brazil has 9100 million white Brazilians, 7900 million multi-ethnic people (Pardo), and 1400 million blacks (Afro-Brazilian). It is said that there are 200-400 million Asian Brazilians and 80 indigenous people. A detailed census in 7900 announced for the first time in the last 2005 years that white Brazilians did not exceed 20% of the total population.On the other hand, the population of Paldo, which consists of multiple ethnic groups, has increased, but the population of other ethnic groups has remained almost unchanged.The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics believes this trend is due to a move to eliminate ethnic discrimination that has been practiced over and over again.Since the founding of Brazil, interracial marriage has never been illegal and has become commonplace, and it is said that there are many interracial marriages in the world.Those who have relatively recent immigrants from the 50th and 19st centuries can fully identify their ancestors.Many Brazilians find it difficult to identify what their ancestors were.The reason is that it is difficult to pronounceFamily nameIt can be mentioned that Europeans with have changed to Portuguese, which is easier to pronounce.Brazil is a melting pot of Europeans, Asians, Africans, indigenous peoples and mixed races.

    Skin color or ethnicity%
    (rounded values)
    2000[71]2008[72]
    White53.74%48.43%
    Black6.21%6.84%
    Mixed38.45%43.80%
    0.45%1.1%
    Native Americans0.43%0.28%
    Unknown0.71%0.07%

    White

    Calculating whites as a group of ethnic groups, whites make up the majority of Brazil's population, which isSouthern hemisphereThen it is the maximum number.Brazil is the second most white country in the Americas, with 2-9700 million people, and the number of Caucasian Brazilians is the United States in terms of the global white population.Russia3rd most after)[73][74][75]..Many groups have immigrated during the migration period, due to policies implemented to secure labor and avoid the threat of foreign aggression in the sparsely populated southern part.Other groups are colonial and post-WWII immigrants.

    People of European descent are ubiquitous throughout Brazil, with the southeastern and southern parts of Brazil being particularly predominantly white.The absolute numbers are high in the southeast, but the proportions are high in the three southernmost states, with 3% of people of European or Caucasian descent, especially.State of Santa CatarinaIs the highest percentage, with almost 90% being European.São Paulo has the fourth highest proportion of Europeans and is home to 4 million whites.They are mainly from Europe, but there are also Levant Arabs and Jews.

    Some southern Brazilian towns with a notable main ancestry
    Town nameStateMain ancestryPercentage
    Santa CatarinaItalian95% [76]
    Santa CatarinaGerman90% [77]
    ParanáUkrainian70% [78]
    Santa CatarinaAustrian60% [79]
    Rio Grande do SulPolish90% [80]

    As many as 240 languages ​​are spoken by immigrants in Brazil, many of which are European.Standard German and German dialects are the second most spoken languages ​​in Brazil, spoken by about 2 million people, or 400% of the population.[81][32][82][83][84][85].. Other than thatCaucasianAs a language spoken by immigrantsItalianVenetian dialect and Talian dialect (Venetian dialect spoken in Brazil)[86],Polish[87][88][32],Spanish,Ukrainian[32],Russian[27][89],Dutch[32][90],Hebrew,Yiddish[32][91],Lithuanian[32][45],French[32],Norwegian[32],Swedish[32],English[37][53][54][55][92][93],Hungarian[32],Finnish[32],Arabic[32],Danish,Bulgarian,Croatian[32],カ タ ロ ニ ア 語,Galician,Greek language,Armenian,Czech[32],Slovak,Slovenian[32],Romanian,Serbian[32], Vlax Romani[32],Georgian language,Turoyo, Baltic, Lithuanian Romani[32]..Several German dialects (including the ancient eastern Pomeranian dialect, which has virtually disappeared in Europe)[94], Venetian dialect, Talian dialect exists as a joint language with Portuguese in some cities[95][96].

    Percentage of Caucasian Brazilians by district
    RegionPercentage
    Northern Brazil23.5%
    Northeastern Brazil28.8%
    Midwestern Brazil50.5%
    Southeastern Brazil58%
    Southern Brazil78%

    Mixed

    Mixed races are the second most common group in Brazil, with 2 million people.Pardos and mixed races are easily confused, but people with mixed races have different skin colors and racial backgrounds.They are generally African slaves and descendants of indigenous peoples.There are also descendants of Maghrebs, Jews, Middle East and Egyptians.Skin color varies from light to black.Caboclo, a mixed race of Brazilians and EuropeansMestisoHas about 4300 million people.Federal University of Minas GeraisAccording to a genetic study conducted by Sergio DJ Pena, Cabokuro has 70% to 90% or more of European DNA (mostly male Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and French immigrants from the 1500s to 1700s). Consists of people and indigenous people[97]..Similar DNA tests show that 62% to 85% of Europeans (mostly male Portuguese Dutch and French immigrants from the 1500s to 1700s) recognize mulatto or a mixed race of whites and blacks. ) Has DNA.

    Brazil has 80 gypsies and Roma who can be classified as pardos, most of them from Portugal, Eastern Europe and the Baltic states.Some Pards are of Asian descent, but most are of mixed Japanese and European descent.There are many pardos in northern and northeastern Brazil, mainlyFederal District of Brasilia,Matt GrossoHe lives in the states of Goias, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Parana.Since the distribution of paldo is not uniform throughout the country, some areas have more paldo than other areas.

    Percentage of mixed ethnic groups by district
    RegionPercentage
    Northern Brazil69.2%
    Northeastern Brazil62.7%
    Midwestern Brazil43%
    Southeastern Brazil35.69%
    Southern Brazil16.98%

    Black

    Blacks are the third largest ethnic group with about 3 million people, accounting for 1400% of Brazil's total population.They are the descendants of blacks from Africa, but in Brazil they are generally African.SaharaRefers to Africa south of the country.Afro-Brazilians are not only the descendants of those who survived the slave era in what is now Brazil, but also many of them have European or indigenous ancestry.Afro-Brazilians have a higher proportion of genes from Africa, so their skin color is darker than Paldo.Brazil is the second largest country in the Americas after the United States with many African diasporas.

    Currently, many black peopleCatholicOrEvangelicalismHowever, there are also atheists and groups of denominations such as Cantombre and Umbanda that are common in Bahia.Umbanda is a fusion of Roman Catholicism, African customs, spiritualism and indigenous beliefs.A small number, but a combination of French Christianity and spiritualismSpiritismSome black people believe in.

    Most blacks are found in the colonial states of Bahia and Malanghao, the northern region of Minas Gerais from the diamond and gold rush eras, and parts of Rio de Janeiro.

    Percentage of African-Brazilians by region
    RegionPercentage
    Northern Brazil6.2%
    Northeastern Brazil8.1%
    Midwestern Brazil5.7%
    Southeastern Brazil7.91%
    Southeastern Brazil3.6%

    Asian

    Asians (generally East Asians) form the fourth largest ethnic group in Brazil.The number is said to be 4 million, but it does not include mixed-race Asians.The largest East Asian populationJapaneseBrazil has the largest number of Japanese people in places other than Japan, and has the highest proportion and absolute number of Nikkei in the world.The number of Japanese-Brazilians is around 200 million, and it is said that there is a community of 5 Japanese nationals.Ethnologists estimate that 7 people speak Japanese in Brazil[49][50][51][52].

    Other Asian Brazilians are mainly Chinese, Taiwanese, and Korean.In recent years, the number of Asians has been steadily increasing due to the large number of people traveling from China to Brazil.

    There are many immigrants from South Asia in Brazil, most of them in East India.Vietnam,Indonesia,BengalImmigrants from.In recent years, many immigrants have arrived from Bengal, many of them refugees.In addition, South Asians are rarely perceived as a yellow race due to their physical characteristics and are often recognized as pardos.

    The East Asian Catholic community is as large as that of non-religious East Asians.Also, in Brazil, there are many non-Asian Caucasians who believe in the traditional form of Buddhism in Japan, and it is common for Nikkei families in São Paulo and Parana to incorporate Shinto into their lifestyles and ceremonial occasions. Is.Japan derived from ShintoNew religionIs also active in Brazil, and the big onesGrowing house,Tenrikyo,Perfect Liberty Cult,World salvationThere is.Also, in South Korea and ChinaConfucianismThere are many believers in São Paulo.

    Percentage of Asian Brazilians by region
    RegionPercentage
    Northern Brazil0.5 - 1%
    Northeastern Brazil0.3 - 0.5%
    Midwestern Brazil0.7 - 0.8%
    Southeastern Brazil1.1%
    Southern Brazil0.5 - 0.7%

    First Resident

    Indigenous peoples of Brazil form the fifth largest ethnic group in Brazil, accounting for about 5 people.Indigenous peoples are the oldest ethnic group in Brazil, mainlyAmazon rainforestI live in the Amazon River basin and five settlements.

    Millions of Brazilians have indigenous ancestry, although the number of indigenous peoples seems small compared to Brazil's total population.This is mainly due to the marriage of indigenous peoples and settlers, reducing the number of pure indigenous peoples.

    In Brazil, about 180 indigenous languages ​​are spoken by 16 people, many of whom are on the verge of disappearing.The indigenous people who live in the settlements speak the language of each ethnic group as their mother tongue, but since Portuguese is taught at school, many indigenous people can communicate in Portuguese.

    Currently, 51 people live in the settlement.

    Genetic research

    According to genetic studies, many Brazilians carry genes of European, African, and indigenous descent.

    Study of autosomal chromosomes

    Twenty-five of 2015 ethnic groups living in Brazil in 38AutosomalEuropeans make up 62% of the population, followed by Africans at 21% and indigenous peoples at 17%.The region with the highest proportion of European descent is 77% in southern Brazil, the region with the highest proportion of African descent is 27% in northeastern Brazil, and the region with the highest proportion of indigenous people is 32% in northern Brazil.[98].

    Region[98]European descentAfrican descentFirst Resident
    Northern Brazil51%16%32%
    Northeastern Brazil58%27%15%
    Midwestern Brazil64%24%12%
    Southeastern Brazil67%23%10%
    Southern Brazil77%12%11%

    Autosomal studies based on approximately 2013 samples collected from across Brazil in 1300 showed differences in numbers.The tendency for a higher proportion of European descent is more pronounced in the south than in the north (up to 74%), but this tendency itself is common to all urban areas.Northern Brazil has the highest proportion of indigenous peoples, while northeastern, midwestern and southeastern regions all have the highest proportions of African descent after European descent.Due to the high prevalence of mixed races in urban areas, many differences in Brazilian autosomal proportions are more pronounced in less populated areas than in more populated areas.[99].

    An autosomal study conducted in 2011 using nearly 1000 samples collected across Brazil from major ethnic groups (whites, pardos, blacks) shows that the proportion of Europeans is high, followed by Africans. Indigenous people follow.Considering the results of each study, the proportion of European descent is the highest[100].

    Region[101]European descentAfrican descentFirst Resident
    Northern Brazil51%17%32%
    Northwestern Brazil56%28%16%
    Midwestern Brazil58%26%16%
    Southeastern Brazil61%27%12%
    Southern Brazil74%15%11%

    A 2010 study of autosomal chromosomes in five regions of Brazil (northern, northwestern, midwestern, southeastern, and southern) found that European autosomal chromosomes accounted for 5% of the total on average. It's out.Regional differences are small, with the exception that they account for almost 80% in the South. Physical differences such as skin, eyes, and hair color have nothing to do with genetic ancestors in Brazil, according to a study by the Catholic University of Brasília group in the American Journal of Human Biology. The research result is out.Knowing the genetic information of ancestors SNPs help identify individuals and biogeographical ancestors.Brazilians can be genetically classified into three different patterns of ancestors (European, African, and indigenous) and their mixed races.[102].

    This study analyzed 5 SNP genetic information from three African, indigenous, and European ancestors to examine mixed races of urban inhabitants in five districts of Brazil. SNPs can be applied to ancestral estimation in mixed-race populations of three races.The data are used to estimate Brazilian ancestry of various races at the genetic level.Examination of one of the genes obtained from five regions of Brazil revealed little difference between southern Brazil and the rest of Brazil.The study, which examined the genes of Brazilian ancestors, was consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population.Europeans (3) are the first to contribute to Brazilian genetic information, followed by Africans (28) and indigenous peoples (3).[101]..This analysis of SNP genetic information is useful in human science studies, primarily to control false outcomes in mixed-race population genetic association studies.Researchers also say that the sample for this experiment is provided by people of various economic positions, although the population of subjects tends to be slightly more pard because the survey was available free of charge. ing[101].

    Region[101]European descentAfrican descentFirst Resident
    Northern Brazil71.10%18.20%10.70%
    Northwestern Brazil77.40%13.60%8.90%
    Midwestern Brazil65.90%18.70%11.80%
    Southeastern Brazil79.90%14.10%6.10%
    Southern Brazil87.70%7.70%5.20%

    In a 2009 autosomal study, regional samples of Brazilians were from Africans and Mexico.MestisoIt turns out that there is a tendency for the proportion of Europeans to be higher.[103].

    Region[104]European descentAfrican descentFirst Resident
    Northern Brazil60.6%21.3%18.1%
    Northwestern Brazil66.7%23.3%10.0%
    Midwestern Brazil66.3%21.7%12.0%
    Southeastern Brazil60.7%32.0%7.3%
    Southern Brazil81.5%9.3%9.2%

    According to another autosomal study conducted at the University of Brasília (UnB) in 2008, European descent dominates all regions of Brazil.Europeans are 65.90%, followed by Africa at 24.80% and indigenous peoples at 9.3%.[105].

    In a more recent 2013 study, São Paulo alone found 61.9% European, 25.5% African, and 11.6% African.[106][107].

    A study based on data from 2014 samples collected in all Brazilian regions in 1594 shows that Brazil has a large proportion of European descent in a wide area, especially in the south. It turned out that there was.Except for the southern part, the proportion of African descent is also high, and it is the highest proportion in eastern Brazil.Indigenous people are in the northwest (Amazon riverIn the basin), the ratio is the highest, with 82% of Europeans, 9% of Africans, and 9% of indigenous peoples.[108].

    Study of mitochondrial DNA and Y-DNA

    HaplogroupCannot express the characteristics of ethnic groups by genes or the mixed race of which ethnic group and which ethnic group.Autosome experiments can analyze millions of maternal and paternal alleles, so you can tell which ethnic group has the strongest blood.With Y-DNA that sees only one ancestorMitochondrial DNAUnlike the study in Autosomal, the study of autosomal chromosomes examines all the ancestors of the person being studied, so that the complicated pattern of mixed ancestors can be understood more accurately.

    Looking at 2000 samples (mainly white Brazilians) from four of the five regions of Brazil in 5, the modern Brazilian mitochondrial DNA pool (maternal) is It can be said that it clearly reflects the situation in the early colonial era, including the large number of immigrants from Europe in the 4th century and the intentional marriage of Portuguese.[109].

    Continental FractionBrazil as a wholeNorthNortheastSoutheastSouthern
    First Resident33%54%22%33%22%
    African descent28%15%44%34%12%
    European descent39%31%34%31%66%

    In a 2001 study, many of the paternal Y chromosomes of Caucasian Brazilian men were of European descent (90%).SaharaThe number of chromosomes of African descent in the south was very small, and no indigenous chromosomes could be confirmed.This result is primarily due to marriages between European men and African or indigenous women.[8].

    A 2016 study investigated a set of 5 Y-SNPs from 1217 men with no blood ties in five regions of Brazil.A total of 41 haplogroups were found in all Brazilian samples, and DNA from three major groups was found.It is indigenous, European and African.

    A sample from northern Brazil confirms a high proportion of indigenous peoples of 8.4%.In addition, the high proportion of African descent (15.1%) found in northwestern Brazil and the higher proportion of European descent (95.7% and 93.6%, respectively) in the Midwest and South of Brazil than in other regions are the history of the Brazilian colony. Is shown.

    In the southeastern part, a high proportion of Europeans (86.1%) and a proportion of Africans (12.0%) can be confirmed.It is presumed that the high proportion of European descent in the Midwest, Southeast and South of Brazil is due to the large number of immigrants from Portugal.[110].

    It is said that the high proportion of European descent in the north and northeast is due to the large number of immigrants from France and Italy.Many people from Lebanon, which boasts the highest migration rate, have migrated to the Midwestern part of Brazil.

    There are many immigrants from Germany in the Midwest, Southeast and South.

    Caucasians and pardos often have European autosomal and non-European mitochondrial DNA.It is explained by the fact that there was an indigenous woman who married a settler man while the concept of Brazilians was being formed.[111].

    Related item

    footnote

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