National hero with World Cup decision!Peru is frustrated by the Australian goalkeeper's "Peculiar Dance"
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However, Redmayne usually adopts this dancing style in penalty shootouts.
The Australian national team decided to participate in the World Cup by winning the intercontinental playoffs with Peru.Become a hero ... → Continue reading
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PK battleWhat is (Peksen)?サ ッ カ ーIn, it is performed when the prescribed match time is over and the game is not settled.In English, it is officially called "Kicks from the penalty mark" (KFPM), or "penalty shoot-out" (PSO).
It depends on the tournament, but mainlyKnockout tournamentThis is done when the winning team must be decided.
- FIFA World CupIn such cases, the penalty shootout is adopted only in the final tournament (Group leagueThen the match ends as it is even if it is a draw),extra inningsIt is used as a method for determining the team to advance to the next round when the final result cannot be reached even after performing.
- In some tournaments, if there is a tie after the end of the first and second half of the game, a penalty shootout will be played immediately without overtime (example: FUJI XEROX SUPER CUP,High school soccer championship.FIFA Club World Cup3rd and 5th place playoff.However, the high school soccer championship has overtime only in the final match).
- Round-robinBut it may be used (example:National Regional Soccer League Final Tournament).In addition, although penalty shootouts are not usually held, in round-robin battlesPointsThere are also tournaments that stipulate that a penalty shootout to determine the ranking will be held only when the ranking is not determined by other evaluation criteria such as the difference in goals and goals.AFC Asian Cup 2011).
How to proceed
Firstcoin tossPerform a (coin toss) and select the goal to use (prior to the 2016 revision, the selection was left to the referee).Then do another coin toss and the captain's team that wins the toss decides whether to kick first or later.The referee keeps a record of the kicks taken.Both teams will kick 5 kicks each according to the following conditions.
- Both teams will kick alternately.
- In a regular matchPenalty kickUnlike the concept of in-play, the kicker cannot kick the ball bounced off by the goalkeeper or goal post into the goal again.You can't even kick while dribbling (you can only kick once).
- Even if both teams succeed in all the remaining kicks before the two teams complete the five kicks, if it is confirmed that the score is lower than the current score of one, the match will end at that point and the subsequent kicks will be continued. Not performed.Therefore, if one of the three kicks succeeds and the other fails, the penalty shootout ends with the shortest 5-3.
- If both teams score the same after five kicks, they will continue to kick in the same order until one team scores more points than the other with the same number of kicks (so-called).sudden deathA type of method).
- A person who has kicked once cannot kick again until the entire team (including the goalkeeper) has finished kicking.It should be noted that the order of the kickers in the case where the kicker does not settle even after one round and enters the second round does not have to be the same as the first round.
- If the goalkeeper is injured while a kick from the penalty mark is in progress and cannot continue playing as a goalkeeper, the name if the team has not completed the maximum number of substitutions stipulated in the competition rules. Can be replaced with the replacement personnel who have been delivered.
- Only players who were actually playing at the end of the match can participate in the penalty shootout (substitute players who have not played, or players who have been replaced or sent off in the middle cannot participate).When one team ends the match with more players than the other team, the team with more players reduces the number of players so that it is equal to the number of opponent teams.Notify the referee of the name and uniform number of each competitor to be excluded.The captain of the team has this responsibility (for example, if team A has all 11 people, team B has only 9 people due to leaving, team A has 9 of its members. That is, two people cannot participate in the penalty shootout).
In addition, depending on the tournament, a sudden death type penalty shootout may be held from the first person (1991 Konica Cup,1992 Yamazaki Nabisco CupSuch). AlsoBeach soccerPenalty shootouts are often played in the "Sudden Death method from the first person" (FIFA Beach Soccer World CupSuch).FutsalSettles with "three shoots each" (sudden death from the fourth if there is a tie).
In the early days, if there was a tie, it was common for a rematch to be held the next day.However, the commercialization of soccer caused inconveniences in all aspects such as television broadcasting, stadium and team schedules, so the winner was decided by lottery.And the 1970 Watney Cup,Hull CityとManchester UnitedThe first penalty shootout was played in the match, and Manchester United won.The first kickerGeorge BestMet.
Penalty shootouts were first introduced in 1976 to determine the winning team in the finals of major international competitions.UEFA European Championship 1976InCzechoslovakiaとWest GermanyIt was a match. Czechoslovakia won 5-3 (English version of December 2005, 12 at 31:18From some translations).
FIFA World CupThen.1978 competitionPenalty shootout was introduced from.. There was no opportunity for a penalty shootout at the 1978 tournament, and the first penalty shootout was1982 competitionSemifinal West Germany vs.France(West Germany victory)..In the district qualifying Ofチュニジアversusモロッコ(Tunisia's victory) was the first penalty shootout.
Origin of the name
The word PK is an abbreviation for "Penalty Kick".This is, as mentioned abovePenalty kickIt is thought that it comes from kicking in the same position and method as, but since the kick in the penalty shootout is not given by the foul, it is not exactly PK in the soccer rules.On the rulesKick from the penalty mark Call it (kicks from the penalty mark).
First strike advantage theory
- As a result of analyzing 1970 penalty shootouts of major tournaments held at home and abroad from 2000 to 2,820, 60% of the team that kicked first won.In other words, the winning percentage of the second attack is 40%, and the winning percentage of the first attack is 1.5 times that of the second attack.
- The captain who won the toss that decides the first and second attack of PK chooses the first attack at a ratio of 20 out of 19 (95%).
- In a survey of 240 professional and amateur players and directors, almost all want to take the lead.
"The mental pressure that comes from being ahead of the points clearly affects the performance of the team that kicks later," said Ignacio Palacios Huerta, the professor who led the study..
In order to eliminate the advantage of the first attack, instead of the conventional method of kicking the first attack and the second attack alternately, the method of performing the penalty shootout by the "ABBA method" in which the kick is performed in the order of first attack → second attack → second attack → first attack is also tested.In Japan, the 2018 Super Cup, Levan Cup final tournament, and Emperor's Cup were held in the ABBA penalty shootout, but since they were not adopted in major international competitions, they were returned to the conventional system in 2019..
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In Europe, it is even said to be "roulette" because luck determines the outcome more than ability, and there is a tendency to dislike penalty shootouts.There were many voices requesting abolition, and there was a time when various alternatives were discussed, but it continues as "more like soccer than lottery" and "there is no better idea than penalty shootout"...In addition, rules such as golden goals and away goals were also one of the reasons why they were introduced to say "to reduce the cases of getting entangled in penalty shootouts".
Match format with a similar purpose
- Soccer “shoot out” …… Same format as penalty shootout, but instead of kicking from a penalty shootout, start dribbling away from the goal and play a one-on-one match with the goalkeeper.North American Soccer League (NASL)Major League Soccer It was once adopted by (MLS).
- handball"7-meter slow contest" …… If the game is not settled in overtime, 5 players from each team will be held. The sixth and subsequent people are sudden death methods. The result of the 6-meter slow contest will be added to the score of the match.
- Ice hockey"Game Winning Shot (Shoot out) ”…… If the game is not settled in overtime, first 3 players will be played, and the 4th player will be sudden death.The winning team is considered to have won the extra time and one point will be added to the winning team regardless of the number of successful shots.
- rugbyof"Kicking competition”…… If the game is not settled in overtime, first 5 players will be played, and the 6th player will be sudden death.
- water polo"Penalty Throw Battle"
- ^ When explaining the knockout tournament method such as the World Cup final tournament, the mass media sometimes explains that "the final tournament has no draw, extension, penalty shootout will always be settled." This explanation is strictly incorrect, as a match will result in a draw.
- ^ a b "The key to the game is the 11-meter battle? Review the penalty shootout data at the World Cup”. Soccer King (September 2018, 6). 2020/2/18Browse.
- ^ "England wins the first penalty shootout in World Cup history. Ending negative history with the fourth challenge [Russia World Cup]”. Football Channel (January 2018, 7). 2020/2/18Browse.
- ^ PK is overwhelmingly advantageous first, research institute advocates rule revision (European communication) --livedoor sports European Communications December 2010, 12
- ^ Gexaka FUJI Xerox Super Cup Special Page
- ^ JFA Board of Trustees / Board of Directors | 2019 2nd Board of Directors (19.02.07) Report Items
- ^ PK Legend of the penalty kick that decided the fate (written by Clark Miller / translated by Naomi Date) 2002 East Press