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⚽ | Aomori Yamada defender Yamato Maruyama “My soccer life will continue. I will strive for my dream of becoming a professional soccer player ...


Photo Aomori Yamada DF Yamato Maruyama (Photo = Kimihiko Yajima)

Aomori Yamada defender Yamato Maruyama "My soccer life will continue. I will strive for my dream of becoming a professional soccer player ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
I will do my best for my dream of becoming a professional soccer player without wasting these three years. "
 

January 1th, the final of the 10th National High School Soccer Championship, the match between Ozu (Kumamoto) and Aomori Yamada (Aomori) is the National Stadium ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Professional soccer player

Professional soccer playerIsSoccer competitionInProfessional athleteThat is.

Overview

The definition of "professional" in soccer competition isInternational Football FederationIt is defined in "Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players" defined by (FIFA) as "a person who has a contract with a club and is paid more than daily spending by soccer activities"[1].. For this reason, not only those who do not have a contract with the club, but also those who have a contract but the salary is very small, and those who are nominally paid as compensation other than soccer activities (so-called)Employee playersEtc.) are not treated as professional players, and even players who have turned professional once can return to amateurs again 30 days after the last match they played as a professional.[2].

As a general rule, professional players can transfer their club only between the end of the season and the start of the next season (up to 12 weeks) and at a specific time in the middle of the season (up to 4 weeks).[3] This period is the so-called "transfer market", and when transferring, so-calledTransfer feeIn principle, it is not possible for a player under the age of 18 to transfer to a club in another country unless there are special circumstances such as parents who have nothing to do with soccer or a radius of 100 km from the player's house. Forbidden (howeverEuropean Union(In case of transfer within (EU), it is possible from 16 years old with condition)[4].

When signing a professional contract As a general rule, the contract period is as short as "until the end of the season" and as long as 5 years (however, 18 years for players under the age of 3), if permitted by the rules of the soccer association in the area. Contracts for periods other than the maximum period are permitted, but even if a contract for a period longer than the maximum period is concluded, the excess portion will be invalidated.[5]..It will be possible to negotiate a contract with another club from 6 months before the contract with the club expires.[6].

History

The birth of professional players in soccer19st centuryから20st centuryHanging onEnglandInitially, clubs were run by communities such as towns, districts, churches, businesses, factories, and pubs.Athletes have a separate job from soccer and earned income from this, but when competition between clubs became fierce and players were required to improve, especially for players from the working class. Rewards (security deposits) have come to be paid for playing soccer itself in order to secure time for practice and to establish a system that allows soccer to be played without fear of injury that cuts off the income path.This is the birth of a professional player.

Birth and expansion of professional players

Football in englandFootball association It was first codified in 1863 with the establishment of (FA). At this time, football is mainlyPublic schoolOr they are playing in a team based on public schools,Amateur rhythmWas the norm.

Working-class teams dominated in the 1880s. Mainly composed of factory workers(English editionOf 1883FA cupWon[7].. They became the first working-class team to win the tournament that began in 1871.[8].. Professionalism was not allowed, but the Blackburn Olympics set up jobs for athletes and supplemented their income with off-balance-sheet compensation.[9].. This was common in Lancashire clubs.

The gap between amateur idealists in the south of England and the increasingly professional teams of the industrial cities in the north became apparent in 1884.Preston North EndAfter defeating and winning the FA Cup, London-based Upton Park protested that Preston's victory was due to professionalism and sought to overturn the outcome. This put the FA in danger of division. Preston withdrew from FA Cup and is the same Lancashire clubBurnley(English editionAlso followed. The protests have gained momentum, with more than 30 clubs in the north proclaiming that if the FA does not recognize professionalism, they will establish a rival British Football Association.[10].. Eighteen months later, the FA broke down and professionalism was officially recognized in England in July 18.[11][12].

English clubs now hire professional playersScottish Football AssociationContinued to ban this, and as a result many Scottish players moved to clubs in England, the FA set residence restrictions to prevent this, but in 1889 they were abolished.[13].Football leagueIn its first year (1888-89), the winning club Preston North End had 10 professional Scottish players.[14].. The Scottish FA lifted the ban on professionalism in 1893, with 560 players registered as professionals.[15].

Outside of England1920 eraUntil now, it was common for amateurism to take the lead in regulating these movements by rules, and it was also regarded as a problem that the rewards would rise infinitely by becoming professional (this problem has been a problem until now). Not resolved.) Still in the mid-1920s,Austria,Czechoslovakia,HungaryArgentineEtc. have decided to become professional.

Chronology of professionalization

CountryYearsNote
England1885[11]The world's first professional league, the Football League was founded in 1888.
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1893[15]
The United States of America1921[16]
Austria1924[17]
Hungary1924[17]
Italy1926[18]it: Carta di Viareggio
Spain1926[19]
Mexico1927[20]The year when the national team became professional. Mexico's first professional league was founded in 1943.
Argentine1931[21]
チリ1931[22]
France1932[19]
Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu1932[23]
Brazil1933[24]Rio and Sao Paulo League. It was later professionalized in other states.
Netherlands1954[25]
West Germany1963[26]
Sweden1967[27]
Denmark1978[28]
Norway1992[29]

Professionalization in Japan

in Japan1960 eraIt was the first national league to make a big change in this form, where all the players were amateurs until then.Japan Soccer LeagueIs the founding of

In the Japan Soccer League, around the 1970s, players are allowed to practice time as working or overtime, pay salaries, and give bonuses for various other names (for example, winning to raise the name of the company = substantial). This form of giving money by (winning salary) was not completely an "amateur" defined by IOC or FIFA.1969/FoundingYomiuri ClubThen, the Japan Soccer League Secretariat and the Japan Football Association confirmed this form of paying for playing soccer itself.1985/Was started fromSpecial license playerAs an initial special license player, which is a system (substantial professional contract)West Germany (at that time) OfBundesliga1. FC CologneI just returned to Japan after playingOkudera Yasuhiko(Furukawa Electric Soccer Club)WhenKaji Kimura(Nissan Motor Soccer Club), However, the actual situation is that they have received some kind of allowance and cannot be said to be amateurs.Hitachi Soccer ClubFurukawa Electric Soccer Club and others registered most of the players as amateurs

However1980 eraFrom the end1990 eraAs the trend toward professional leagues became apparent at the beginning, most players were registered as professional players.1993/Opened inJapan Professional Soccer LeagueIn (J League), it has become common for most players to play professionally.

Positioning of professionals and amateurs in soccer

Most professional clubs around the world own teams in the "youth", "junior youth" or lower categories depending on their age. These are of course amateur teams and also in Germany and Japan.FC Gifu SECOND,Fagiano Okayama NextIn soccer, where there is no time to list amateur teams with no age restrictions, a pyramid-shaped club with a professional team at the top and amateur teams by category underneath is common in these categories. In most cases, there are no restrictions on amateur players who belong to the same club to participate in the games of professional teams in the same club.

Not only clubs but also national associations control all club teams including amateur teams as well as professional teams. This allows all club teams affiliated with the associations of each country, both professional and amateur, to participate. As such a tournament that makes it possible to hold a tournament in EnglandFA cupJapaneseEmperor's Cup All Japan Soccer ChampionshipThere is.

Japanese professional soccer player

For professional players in JapanJapan Football AssociationThe contract form under the jurisdiction of (JFA) is divided into the following three stages according to the past achievements of the players.

Pro A contract

The color of so-called general professional contractswhite.

In the contractJapan Professional Soccer League(J League) Official Match (League Match, Cup Match, Super Cup)Japan Football League(JFL) Official Match (League Match, Super Cup)Emperor's Cup All Japan Soccer Championshipで一定以上の時間試合に出場していること(J1で450分(5試合フル出場相当)J2で900分(10試合フル出場相当)J3・JFLで1350分(15試合フル出場相当))またはプロC契約締結後3年が経過したことが必要なお試合の出場実績にはJapan national football teamInternational A match asFIFA U-20 World CupFinalAFC Champions LeagueAlso included.

The minimum annual salary is 460 million yen, and the upper limit is 670 million yen only in the first year of the contract. Unlimited after the second year.Up to 2 players per club (if you are qualified to be promoted from a lower level, you will need to remove some of the previous signatories) The number will be increased to 1 for AFC Champions League participating clubs.J1-J2There is also a lower limit on the number of people that can be owned, and J1 must conclude an A contract with 15 or more people and J2 must have 5 or more people.

Pro B contract

The color of the contract istagThe contract must meet the same conditions as the Pro A contract.

The maximum annual salary is 460 million yenParticipationThere is an upper limit of 1 yen or less per game, but there are no restrictions on other variable rewards. There is no upper limit on the number of contracted players per club.

Professional C contract

The color of the contract is绿When an amateur player / employee player concludes a professional contract, he / she basically starts from this contract.

The contract period is up to 3 years. The basic annual salary is up to 460 million yen, and variable rewards other than participation salary and victory salary are not allowed, and the participation salary is also kept low, such as 1 yen or less per game. There is no limit to the number of contracts per club.

If a player with a professional C contract meets the participation performance criteria for a professional A / B contract in the middle of the season, the club must notify the change to a professional A or professional B contract within 3 days. If the change to the A contract is not presented, the player can request to be listed on the transfer list. Be outside.

Other

For foreign players, it is possible to individually conclude contracts that do not correspond to the above professional A to C contracts, but the treatment is the same as the professional A contract, and it is subject to the 25-person quota.

またJ3Although it is obligatory to have three or more professional contractors, unlike J3 and J1, there is no clear standard that "must be a professional A contract".

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 2-2
  2. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 3-1
  3. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 6
  4. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 19
  5. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 18-2
  6. ^ Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Article 18-3
  7. ^ Goldblatt, David (2007). The Ball is Round: A Global History of Football. London: Penguin. P. 43. ISBN +978-0-14-101582-8 
  8. ^ Lloyd, Guy; Holt, Nick (2005). The FA Cup – The Complete Story. Aurum Press. P. 24. ISBN 1-84513-054-5 
  9. ^ Davies, Hunter (2003). Boots, Balls and Haircuts: An Illustrated History of Football from Then to Now. Cassell Illustrated. P. 36. ISBN 1-84403-261-2 
  10. ^ Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, p. 46–7.
  11. ^ a b Lloyd and Holt, The FA Cup – The Complete Story, P. 22.
  12. ^ “History of Football --The Global Growth”.FIFA Official Website. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/history/the-game/global-growth.html 2014/4/20Browse. 
  13. ^ Inglis, Simon (1988). League Football and the Men Who Made It. Willow Books. P. 18. ISBN 0-00-218242-4 
  14. ^ Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, P. 57.
  15. ^ a b Guttmann, Allen (2007). Sports: The First Five Millennia. University of Massachusetts Press. P. 108. ISBN +978-1-55849-610-1 
  16. ^ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/soccer-facts-history-and-timeline-of-soccer.html%7CThe history of professional soccer in the United States
  17. ^ a b Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, P. 225.
  18. ^ Carta di Viareggio (August 2, 1926), Annuario Italiano Giuoco del Calcio-Pubblicazione ufficiale della FIGC-Vol. II (1929), p. 60-67
  19. ^ a b Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, P. 209.
  20. ^ http://www.e-how.com/facts_5347990_history-mexican-soccer.html%7CHistory of Mexican Soccer
  21. ^ Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, P. 205.
  22. ^ http://www.buzzle.com/articles/soccer-facts-history-and-timeline-of-soccer.html
  23. ^ "Uruguay 1932 Championship". 2014/10/2Browse.
  24. ^ Bellos, Alex (2002). Futebol: the Brazilian way of life. London: Bloomsbury. P. 33. ISBN 0-7475-6179-6 
  25. ^ "Netherlands --Regional Analysis". 2014/10/2Browse.
  26. ^ BUNDESLIGA 50 – The birth of Germany's Professional Game. Christoph Wagner | FootballRepublik.com.
  27. ^ "Amatör eller professionist?”(Swedish). GIH (2005). 2014/10/2Browse.
  28. ^ "DBU's historie 1961-1980”(Danish). Dansk Boldspil-Union (2002). As of October 2012, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2013/1/17Browse.
  29. ^ Sæther, Esten O. (August 2009, 8). “Alle heiet underveis” (Norwegian). Dagbladet. http://www.dagbladet.no/2009/08/07/sport/fotball/tippeligaen/europacup/7548836/ 2009/8/8Browse. 

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