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🎾 | The money situation of tennis players, which the world's second-largest player talks about, "The income of one month is 2 million yen, and the other month is less than 3 million yen."

Photo Medvedev at the 2019 US Open

The money situation of tennis players, which the second-ranked player in the world talks about, "The income of one month is 2 million yen, and the other month is less than 3 million yen."

If you write the contents roughly
"To be pretty honest, we can make up to $ 1 million a month.

World No. 2 Daniil Medvedev (Russia) faces the financial face of most professional tennis players ... → Continue reading


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Month (calendar)

Month(Tsuki, gatsu, getsu,British: month) IsTime Ofunitone of.YearsとDayIn the middle of[1],OneYears12 minutesDayQuantityIs[2].. Currently used as standard in the worldGregorian calendar[3]Is the source of the correctionJulian calendarBased on the month of 1 or 30 days,2Only normal (Normal) Is on the 28th, 400 times in 97 yearsleap yearHas 29 days[4][5].


The hourly "month" is used to know the daily progressCelestial body OfMonth OfPhase (phase)It is because it can be easily recognized by seeing the state of.New moonFrom the next new mooncyclePointing to 1SakumotsukiIs about 29.530 589DayTherefore, 30 days (large month) or 29 days (small month) were set as one month.[6].. Use this cycle unitLunar calendarThen 1YearsIs about 354.4 days,(I.e.Govern the circulation of(I.e. Celestial sphereGo aroundcycleIs 365.2422 days[7]Compared with the above, there is a gap of about one month in three years. For this reason,Leap monthAdd as appropriateLunar solar calendarWas made[8].. But how to set the leap monthOkabo methodRemained the problem[8].. Determine the year from the operation of the sunsolar calendarIt is,Nile River Offlood Sun yearHappens in the cycle ofAncient egyptWas invented inAncient romeIncorporated into the Julian calendarEuropeSpread toChange of calendarIt spread throughout the world as the Gregorian calendar that passed through, and the standard of the "month" of time was to be transferred from the celestial moon to the sun.[9].

Astronomical moon


In observation from the earth, the cycle (period) in which the moon makes a round with respect to the position of the sunSakumotsukiOr it is called Taiyin Moon.Sun-Moon-Earths line up in a straight lineSakuFrom (new moon) to the next new moon, or the sun-earth-moons line uphopeFrom (full moon) to the next desired period[1].. In contrast, it is far awaystarThe cycle in which the moon goes around with respect to the position ofStellar moonThe moon goes around the earthRevolution periodBut also[10].. The orbit of the moon as seen from the eartheclipticThe cycle that comes to the intersection (ascending node) in the ascending direction[11][twenty one].. the moonSpring equinoxThe cycle of passing through is said to[12].

the moonPerigeeThe cycle of coming toPerigee monthTo say[12].. During these lunar cycles, 223 Shugetsu Moon = 239 Peripheral Moon = 242 Intersection Moon = Ts(6585.5376 days)ExhaustionThere is this Ts TheSaros cycleKnown since ancient times[13].

The Shugetsu Moon is about 29.530 589 days and the Star Moon is about 27.321 662 days. Their cycle is not constant and changes little by little as the years progress. The calculation formula is as follows[14].

Sakumotsuki29.530 588 853 (Sun) + 0.000 000 002 162 × Y
Stellar moon27.321 661 547 (Sun) + 0.000 000 001 857 × Y
Intersection month27.212 220 817 (Sun) + 0.000 000 003 833 × Y
Equinox month27.321 582 241 (Sun) + 0.000 000 001 506 × Y
Perigee month27.554 549 878 (Sun) − 0.000 000 010 390 × Y

Where Y isJ2000.0(January 2000, 1 1:12 (Earth timeTT))fromJulian yearIs a number. For example, the lunar month of January 2017, 1 is 1 29.530 588 (days) + 853 0.000 000 002 × 162 = 17 29.530 588 days = 890 days 29 hours 12 minutes 44 seconds, which is 02.8801 of the lunar month of January 2000, 1. 1 29.530 days = 588 days 853 hours 29 minutes Compared with 12 seconds, it is 44 seconds longer.


On the other hand, the rotation of the earthtidalIt is also known that it is gradually decelerating due to the influence of[15].. There is also a theory that the difference from the revolution period of the moon will gradually decrease, and after about 50 billion years, it will agree and the earth and the moon will always face the same side.[16].. When this happens, one lunar month becomes one day, and almost half of the earth's mustard months are invisible.

calendar month

calendarThen, the month is an integral multiple of the day. The length varies depending on the calendar and even on the same calendar.Lunar calendarとLunar solar calendarThen there isLunar phase(In principleSaku) Is the beginning of the month. Therefore, one month is on average equal to one sloppy month. Since the number of days in the Sakubou month is a fraction, each month has a 1th month (large month) and a 1th month (small month)[1].. As a rule, one year is 12 months, but once every 2.713 years in the lunar solar calendar.leap yearToLeap monthHas been added for 13 months.solar calendarDoesn't have a unit that corresponds to the despair. Therefore, it is not necessary to set the moon, but it has a "moon" that is unrelated to slacking.

Names and days from Roman calendar

English,FrenchThe name of each month such asAncient romeEstablished byRoman calendarHas taken over the name.RomeFounding KingRomulusThe first calendar established by the is the Romulus calendar, which began in 735 BC,A human Of妊娠It is said that the number of days is 304 days, which is said to be decided based on the period. In the first 10 monthsGreek mythology,Roman mythologyThe names of the gods are followed by the names "5th month" and "6th month" (the same applies below).numberWaved[17].

However, in this calendar[Note 1]There were many complaints, especially from farmers. Therefore the second kingNuma PompiliusWhile adding 2 months, based on the lunar calendar of 354 daysevenI hatesuperstitionTo make 1 days, which is the sum of this and one day, a year700 BCIntroduced around.However, even with this, there was still a gap of about 10 days a year.Leap month (Merdedonius[9]) AndLeap dayI responded by inserting貴族,PriestThey began to do leaping without permission, and the calendar fell into a disjointed and disjointed state.[17].

Gaius Julius Caesar(Julius Caesar)Roman Civil WarEscaped atGnaeus PompeiusChasingEgyptTo theCleopatra VIIWe won the victory in cooperation with. At this time, heSocigenesI learned the calendar from and brought it back to Rome.Based on this, the year was set to 47 days in the solar calendar (365 days in leap years), which was established in 366 BC.new YearThewinter solsticeFrom the first day of Januarius nearJulian calendarIs. One month is set to alternate 1 days or 30 days, and the excess is the last month in the Numas calendar Februarius (2) Was reduced to 29 days (30 days for leap years). On this occasion,SenateResolved to revise the name "Quintilis" to "Julius" in honor of Caesar[5].

after that,Roman EmpireFirst generationemperorBecameAugustusOperated the Senate under his control and was the birth month[9]Renamed "Sixth Month" (Sextilis) to his own name (Augustus).At this time, I disliked that the number of days was less than Julius, so I moved one day from Februarius to 6 days, and changed each month after that so that 1 days and 31 days alternate.From such a flow, the "big moon" continues in July and August, "30"prefixOCTThe moon with10Four months (September, October, November, December) whose meanings are off by two months, and each "month" that leads to the present that it is used for leap adjustment because the number of days in February is small have been decided.[4][5].

MonthRomulus calendar
Origin (days)
Numas calendar
Origin (days)
Julian calendar
Revision (days)
← (31)← (31)January (Jan.)JanuaryJanuaryJanuaryJanuary
← (29/Leap 30)← (28/Leap 29)February (Feb.)februaryFebruaryFebruaryFebruary
← (31)← (31)← (31)March (Mar.)MarchMarchMarchMarch
← (29)← (30)← (30)April (Apr.)AprilAprilAprilApril
← (31)← (31)← (31)MaymaymayMayMai
← (29)← (30)← (30)June (Jun.)JuneJuneJuneJune
Fifth month (5)
← (31)Julius (31)← (31)July (Jul.)JulyJulyJulyJuly
Fifth month (6)
← (29)← (30)Augustus (31)August (Aug.)AugustAugustAugustAugust
Fifth month (7)
← (29)← (31)← (30)September (Sep.)SeptemberSeptemberSeptemberSeptember
Fifth month (8)
← (31)← (30)← (31)October (Oct.)OctoberOctoberOctoberOctober
Fifth month (9)
← (29)← (31)← (30)November (Nov.)NovemberNovemberNovemberNovember
Fifth month (10)
← (29)← (30)← (31)December (Dec.)DecemberDecemberDecemberDecember

Incidentally,emperorThe custom of naming the moon as "the moon" continues to applyNeroMoves Aprilis (April) to "Neloneus"DomitianBut September (September)Germanics(The emperor famous as Caligula) and October (October) were renamed. But these were restored after the Emperor's death. Meanwhile, the second emperorTiberiusIs known to have overturned the Senate's decision to change September to its name, "What if there are 9 emperors?"[5].

Names of various months in the world calendar

Names based on the season and life cycle

In a primitive society that relies heavily on agriculture and hunting, a calendar was created that does not necessarily follow the phases of the moon. For exampleフィリピンLuzonAccording to the Bontok Igorotto calendar, eight irregular months were set according to agricultural work.[18].

Bontok Igorotto Moonmeaningperiod
InanaRice cultivationPeriod when there is no work3 months
RatupEarly harvest period4 weeks
ChookuIn earnestRiceHarvesting period4 weeks
RivasThe period to finish the harvest of parley10-15 days
Burr ringPlanting period for camotes6 weeks
SagammaPeriod for making rice nurseries2 months
PatchingSeeding period5-6 weeks
SamaSeedling planting period7 weeks

Hokkaido OfAinuThe calendar used by1892/It was recorded in the published book "Ainu Brethren". It is considered to be a simple lunar solar calendar because it has irregular leap months in the year starting from March of the lunar calendar.[19].. Name of each month based on natural phenomena and daily activities,Daylight hoursThe feature that begins one year from the month whenAmerica OfIroquoisCommon to the calendar used by[20].

Lunar monthHokkaido Ainu calendarmeaning
3Inomi Chubu
Toentanne Chupu
Celebration day[19]
The month when sunshine hours start to increase[19]
4Haplup Chupu(I.e.The moon that comes and rings[19], Or the moon when the leaves open[21]
5Mokiuta ChupuHimesui (Lily familyPlants[22]) The month to start collecting[19]OrLily OrebaThe month to start collecting[21]
6Shikiuta ChupuMonth when Himesui can be actively collected[19], Or the month of actively picking up lily[21]
7Momota chupHermanusThe month to start collecting[19]
8Shimauta ChupuMonth when Hermanus flourishes[19]
9Monitor ChupFallen leavesMonth begins[19]
10Shinyorapu ChupuA month with many fallen leaves or salmonComing month[19]
11Umboku ChupuSoleThe month when it gets cold[19]
12Chenin ChupTorchでFishingMonth[19]
1Que KaibowSo that it breakshuntingDo the month[19], Or a moon so cold that the bow breaks[21]
2Chiurupu Chupuæµ· FreezeMonth[19]
Leap monthHolkabaMoon going back[19]

ColderKarafutoLive inKarafuto AinuThe calendar ofHokkaidoAinuIs slightly different from.

Lunar monthKarafuto Ainu calendar
3Moon with long day legs[21]
4Bird coming month[21]
5Moon digging a lily of the valley (we can't actually dig it due to climate)[21]
6Cucumber fishThe moon that climbs[21]
7Moon trout climbs[21]
8The month to make dried trout[21]
9Moon with falling leaves[21]
10The moon that traps[21]
11Moon collecting traps[21]
12Snowy moon[21]
1Cold moon[21]
2Melting moon[21]

In addition, Torii RyuzouRecorded byKuril AinuThe calendar ofWild bird,Marine ProductsDerives from the name

Lunar monthKuril Ainu calendarmeaning
1Asinu Echu ChupFirst month[21]
2TotanenitaLong moon[21]
3HaklapMeaning unknown[21]
4Baiken ChirpBaiken bird coming month[21]
5Kopiunoka Chupu鴎The month that lays eggs[21]
6Harunoka ChupuHull bird laying the moon[21]
7Shikibikaru ChupuMoon when salmon climbs the river[21]
8Siinuum ChupuMoon trout climbs river[21]
9Chiral Cal ChupMoon with many chiralka birds[21]
10Morsus mucaMeaning unknown[21]
11Toe reedMeaning unknown[21]
12QuakaiFox hanging the moon[21]

Iroquois calendar
Moon when the sun grows again
The moon whose leaves fall into the water
Moon when leaves fall in the water
The moon in which plants sprout
fruitThe month that begins to bear fruit
The month when plants grow
The month when plants are in full bloom
Month to start harvesting
Month when harvest ends
The month when the cold returns
Very cold month
Moon where the sun returns

Japanese style month name

現代 のJapanThen,Gregorian calendarIn each month ofOld calendar(Lunar solar calendarThe Japanese name (Japanese-style month name) that inherits the name used in) may be used (however, for example, "Muzuki" is originally the name of January in the lunar calendar, so it is strictly misused).There are various theories about the etymology of Japanese-style month names[23].. On the other hand, the notation "January" and "February"Ancient timesUsed from the oldest exampleNara period Of720/Was compiled intoJapanese calligraphy"(Kamitakenori)漢字In "February"KatakanaIn the lessonKisaragi, Etc., there is also a part in which the Japanese style month name is written together. Note that11Is "January Tori (Shimotsuki)"12Is "February (Sihas)Is[23].

Also, each month has various synonyms. Taking August as an example, ``Hazuki"Others"Ken Rougetsu""Sogetsu""Keigetsu""Autumn Fugetsu""Moon""Mid-autumn""Bamboo spring"and so on[23].

MonthJapanese nameMain synonyms
1Yuzuki(Mudging)Kentogetsu, early spring, new year, new year, etc.
2February(Kisaragi)Ken-betsu, Chu-shun, Yin-chun, Seicho, etc.
3Yayoi(Yayoi)Kensetsu month, late spring, denshun, chikusho, etc.
4Yuzuki(Uzuki)Kenshigetsu, early summer, Shuka, Kenmei, etc.
5Satsuki(Satsuki)Kengogetsu, Chuka, Midsummer, Morin, etc.
6Minazuki(Minazuki)Months of construction, long summers, late summers, fires, etc.
7July(Fumizuki, Fukizuki)Kenshin, early fall, new fall, urine, etc.
8Hazuki(Hazuki)Ken Rougetsu, Chushu, Shinshu, Chikushu, etc.
9Long moon(Nagatsuki)Kenjutsutsugetsu, Late Autumn, Banshu, Soshin, etc.
10Kannazuki(Planning)Kengaigetsu, early winter, Lidong, Kyokuyo, Kamiarizuki, etc.
11Shimotsuki(Moment)Kenshigetsu, Chuyu, Midwinter/Midwinter, Tensen, etc.
12Teacher(Wrinkle)Kenyutsuki, late winter, Zanto, gekkyu, etc.

Lunar calendar based month name

IslamIn society, it is a lunar calendar along with the world standard calendar (Western calendar)Hijra calendar(Islamic calendar, Mahomet calendar, Hijri calendar) is used[24].

MonthHijra calendarNumber of days
1Muharram(المحرّم)XNUM X days
2Safar / Surfer (صفر)XNUM X days
3(English edition) / (ربيع الأوّل)XNUM X days
4(English edition) / Labia 2 (ربيع الثاني ,ربيع الآخر)XNUM X days
5(English edition) / Jomada 1 (جمادى الأولى)XNUM X days
6(English edition) / Jomada 2 (جمادى الآخرة, جمادى الثانية)XNUM X days
7(English edition)(رجب)XNUM X days
8Char Burn / (شعبان)XNUM X days
9Ramadan / Ramadan (رمضان)XNUM X days
10(English edition) / Shawar (شعبان)XNUM X days
11(English edition) / Durkada (ذو القعدة)XNUM X days
12Zu al-Hijja / Durhesia (ذو الحجّة)29 days / 30 days (leap year)

Together with this Hijra calendar within the Islamic region, for farmersIranian calendar(Islamic solar calendar) was also made[24].

Month name based on the lunar solar calendar

IsraelIs the lunar solar calendar alongside the world standard calendar (Western calendar)Jewish calendarIs also used.Starting from the month of Tishri (Chisuri), which corresponds to around September in the Christian era, leap months are added seven times in 9 (19 leap method in 7).[25].

MonthMonth of the yearJewish calendarNumber of days
19AroundTishrei / TishriXNUM X days
210AroundMarheshvan / Heshuuan29/30 days
311AroundKislev / Kislev29/30 days
412AroundTevet / TevetXNUM X days
51AroundShevat / SiebatoXNUM X days
62AroundAdalXNUM X days
73AroundNisanXNUM X days
84AroundIyar / ItalXNUM X days
95AroundShebang / ShiuanXNUM X days
106AroundDumuzid / TanmsXNUM X days
117AroundAbuXNUM X days
128AroundElul / ElleXNUM X days
Leap month- / Adal 2XNUM X days

Month name not according to age

Flourished in Central AmericaMaya civilizationHas high astronomical knowledge, and in the 7th-6th century BCVenusWas being calculated. But they usedMayan calendarThe "moon" was based on the 20th day, which is not related to the phases of the moon. In the religious calendar, 13 months, 260 days, is set as one year,Regular calendarSo I added 18th day, which is only 360 days in 5 days of 19 months.[26][27].

MonthMayan calendar month nameNumber of days
1Pop/Pop20 days
3Ship / Ship (Zip)
5Sec (Tzec)
11Sack (Zac)
19Weayp (Uayeb)5 days

Month as period

"Month"Time(period)ofunitAlso used as. Usually, the expression "○ months (○ months, ○ months)" (○ shadows) is used. In addition, there are cases where the expression "○ month" is simply used. In this case,calendarCorresponds to the first month above, the second month ...Ichigatsu(January),Nigatsu(February)...One piece(January)""With lid(February)”...ReadingIs used, but be sure to use "" in official and legal texts.Ichigetsu(January)""Longevity(February)”...Reading aloudTo do.

Unless otherwise specified, the term "1 month" does not include the first day of the month, and the next day is counted as the starting day, and the day before the next day of the calculated day of the following month. For example, one month from January 1th is "January 15th to February 1th". If the next month does not have an anniversary date (eg, if the starting date is October 1st), it will be until the end of the next month (until November 16th in this example). These thingsJapanThen.Civil law(Articles 138-143)[28].

However, the number of days of one month defined in this way varies depending on the month, so proofs in science, etc.TimeIt is not used when it is required to express the length of.International unit system (SI) is not a combined unit, so in JapanMeasurement LawNot included in the units that can be used in[29].

Division method

  • Rokuyo: Based on the Japanese lunar calendar, one month is allocated to six days of six days: "Senkatsu", "Tomohiki", "Sengeki", "Buddha destruction", "Daian", and "Akaguchi". However, the first day of every month is fixed[30].
  • Seven days-週: 7-day cycle with each day assigned to the sun, moon, and planets[30].
  • Season: Originally 10 days. Approximately 1-day cycle divided into three categories, one month is early, middle, and late[1].
  • Half moon-Twenty-four [31]: Approximately 15 days cycle.

Code position

UnicodeThe full-width "January"-"December" is defined in the following code points.

symbolUnicodeJIS X 0213Character referenceName


注 釈

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Astronomical Observatory Questions: National ObservatoryThen, it is explained that the period corresponding to two months in winter has been passed as time, but is treated as a blank without a "calendar".


  1. ^ a b c d Okada et al. (1994), pp.70-72, four seasons and calendar, moon and calendar
  2. ^ "[Mon]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (First edition)Kodansha, 1989, 1291 pages.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  3. ^ Sato (2009), pp.77-81, Attempt of World Unified Calendar
  4. ^ a b "Question 3-7 May 1How did you decide? ”. National Observatory. 2011/12/20Browse.
  5. ^ a b c d Ikeuchi (1999), 3. I am immobile like the North Star, pp.44-47, history of the calendar revision
  6. ^ Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.1-2, Monthly Spectacle
  7. ^ "[Year]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (first edition) Kodansha, 1989, p. 1507.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  8. ^ a b Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.3-4, Lunar Solar Calendar
  9. ^ a b c Gentoshi Majima "A Study of the Calendar Law, Especially the Okiko LawBulletin of Research, Vol. 7, Nara Women's University, 1965, pp. 15-20, ISSN 03891704, NOT 110001030480,2020/6/4Browse.
  10. ^ "Moon and Earth orbit". Hokkaido UniversityFaculty of Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2011/12/20Browse.
  11. ^ "May 7 OfTotal solar eclipse". National Observatory. 2011/12/20Browse.
  12. ^ a b Koji Matsumoto / Radio Research Department, National Astronomical University. “Easy ocean tide modeling (PDF)". Tokyo UniversityEarthquake Research Institute. 2011/12/20Browse.
  13. ^ Shosuke Imoto "Restricted three-body problem and saros cycle"Bulletin of Fukui University of Technology. Part 25" No. 1995, Fukui University of Technology, 275, pp. 281-275-281-XNUMX, ISSN 0286-8571, NOT 110000484848,2020/6/4Browse.
  14. ^ 2000/May 1 12:00 TTDerived from ELP2000-85: M. Chapront-Touzé, J. Chapront (1991): Lunar tables and programs from 4000 BC to AD 8000. Willmann-Bell, Richmond VA; ISBN-0 943396-33-6
  15. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, p.165, XNUMX Length of year Number of days in year
  16. ^ Shigemi Numazawa, "universe"Seimidou Publishing, 2007, 50 pages.ISBN +978-4-415-30019-1. 
  17. ^ a b Ikeuchi (1999), 3 I'm immobile like the North Star, pp.42-43, Roman calendar
  18. ^ Okada et al. (1994), p. 297, primitive calendar system, Bontok Igorotto calendar
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Okada et al. (1994), pp.297-298, primitive calendar system, Ainu calendar
  20. ^ Okada et al. (1994), p.298, primitive calendar system, Iroquois calendar
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Ainu Folklore"Sarashina Genzo1982
  22. ^ "Useful plants of Ainu people”. Hokkaido Satellite Research Institute. 2011/12/20Browse.
  23. ^ a b c Okada et al. (1994), pp.15-28, Origin of Japanese style moon name
  24. ^ a b Okada et al. (1994), pp.299-300, Lunar calendar, Islamic calendar
  25. ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.301-302, lunar solar calendar, Jewish calendar
  26. ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.315-317, solar calendar, Mayan calendar
  27. ^ . "Mayan calendar". Toyama International UniversityFaculty of Contemporary Social Studies. As of May 2013, 5originalMore archives.2011/11/2Browse.
  28. ^ "Civil Code Chapter 6 Period Calculation”. Explanation of Civil Code Articles. Com. 2011/11/2Browse.
  29. ^ "Measurement Law (Act No. XNUMX of May XNUMX, XNUMX)". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2019/12/23Browse.
  30. ^ a b "Basic knowledge of calendar”.. 2011/11/2Browse.
  31. ^ "Twenty-four". National Observatory. 2011/11/2Browse.

Footnote 2

This footnote indicates the "source" presented in the source/footnote.

  1. ^ Calendar chronology 2009

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