Photo Masatoshi Kumagai greeting at this year's convention (Photo: Satoshi Mt. Yoneyama)
GMO representative "refuted" on SNS to the explanation of Chairman Hiromi Kobayashi "There was no explanation that" free is not good ""
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At the schedule announcement meeting held on this day, it was reported again that the broadcasting rights in 2022 belonged to JLPGA, and next season, in addition to terrestrial, BS, CS broadcasting, the policy of paying Internet broadcasting etc. was shown. rice field.
In the remarks of Chairman Hiromi Kobayashi at the press conference to announce the schedule of the Japan Women's Professional Golf Association (JLPGA) held on Friday, 24th ... → Continue reading
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Satellite broadcasting(Eiseihoso) isBroadcast satellite(British: broadcasting satellite) AndCommunication satellite(British: communications satellite)Using,Audience-ListenerThe purpose is to be received directly by the public, such asWireless communicationIt is a general term for transmission of.
Satellite broadcasting is about 35,786 km above the equatorGeostationary satelliteTo repeater (transponder) Is installed and the radio waves transmitted (uplink) from the earth are received, and then different.frequencyThe radio waves are converted to and retransmitted (downlink) to the earth, and the viewer / listener can use the radio waves.parabolic antennaIt is a broadcast that is received and used by.Geostationary orbitFrom地球Broadcast reception range is limited because you can see almost the hemisphere ofGround wave broadcastingIt is possible to receive in a much wider range than.
米 国Then earlyCable TV(CATV) has become widespread, but direct satellite broadcastingDirect TVEtc. are catching up.In Asia and EuropeAsiasatCross-border television broadcasting is widespread.On the other hand, in Japan, BS (Broadcast satellite), CS (Communication satellite) And cable TV.
Also, for the purpose of satellite broadcasting, in areas where the population is initially sparseHard-to-view area(That is, re-transmission of existing broadcast content) was mentioned, but after that, broadcasting for the purpose of increasing channels, such as providing highly specialized programs that cannot be done by terrestrial broadcasting, has become widespread. ..
broadcastWas once on the groundantennaFacility(Transmitting station) Was sent only.HoweverrocketDue to technological progressArtificial satellite(Geostationary satellite) Has become possible.Transmission of ground equipment to satellites by using artificial satellites (Uplink) Can be simplified, and it can be transmitted over a wide range from satellites in outer space to the surface of the earth.For this reason, the problem of the broadcasting area, which was a problem with the antenna on the ground, has been solved, and at the same time, a larger amount of information can be easily broadcast.
However, since satellite broadcasting requires a huge initial cost, there is a problem that the road to introduction is long.In addition, even if broadcasting can be started, due to the nature of artificial satellites placed in outer space, it is not easy to maintain, it is difficult to deal with accidents, the life of the satellite, and it is affected by rainfall in the earth's atmosphere. As a result, if radio waves cannot be received, there is a problem that the function as a medium that should be stable is lost immediately.
In recent years, technological innovation has made it possible to manufacture satellites at a relatively low cost.Geostationary orbitThe cost of launching a rocket to be placed in is also becoming considerably cheaper due to technological innovation and the principle of competition between countries, so always secure an alternative artificial satellite, lower the broadcast quality when it rains, and media Measures are being taken, such as maintaining.
In the past, it was introduced in advanced countries in the aerospace industry, which has many existing artificial satellites for broadcasting, but it has also been introduced in other countries for the above reasons.
Satellite broadcastingSatellite communicationOne way unlikeMediaTherefore, it is mostly used for television broadcasting and radio broadcasting.It is often used in places where it is difficult to install a transmission station on the ground because there is no need to consider borders and equipment on the ground is minimized, but even if there are no such restrictions, artificial satellites can be rented. If the initial cost is significantly lower, satellite broadcasting may be used for commercial use.
The cost of introducing satellite broadcasting differs greatly depending on whether you launch an artificial satellite yourself or borrow an existing one.Generally, multifunctional communication satellites are often rented from the United States, etc.[Needs verification]In some countries, artificial satellites are launched on their own because of the constant military risks involved.However, since many of these countries do not have rocket launch technology, they often leave the launch to other countries that have the technology.
The existing artificial satellites used for satellite broadcasting areCommunications satellites are used for academic or military communications purposes.[Needs verification]Most of them are old-fashioned ones about 5 years after the launch, and although the communication speed is not extremely high, they have sufficient transmission / reception performance for broadcasting.
Satellite broadcastingC bandIt uses the frequencies of the 4GHz band and the 12GHz band of the Ku band. The wavelength of the C band is about 75 mm, and the wavelength of the Ku band is about 25 mm. It is related to the wavelength of the Ku band that the image condition is affected by the weather.That is,(I.e.In that case, the raindrops will be about 10 mm, and the radio waves with a wavelength of 10 mm will travel through the forest of 25 mm pillars, so the shorter the wavelength of the radio waves, the easier it will be to hit the raindrops and the radio waves will be attenuated, causing phenomena such as distorted TV images ( Not only does this phenomenon occur depending on heavy snow and other weather conditions, but it may not be visible at all).
NHKAccording to the Audience Public Relations Office, the effects of rain are basically receivedparabolic antennaBy increasing the diameter of the radio wave, the amount of radio waves collected can be increased and reception problems can be solved.However, it is necessary to understand that there are problems as mentioned above due to the characteristics of the wavelength of radio waves and the radiation method before using them.
February 2009, 21 (Heisei 2), revision of enforcement rules  As a result, Article 17-8, Paragraph 3, Item 1 stipulates that "broadcasting by artificial satellites".In addition, at this time, in the same paragraph of the same article,
Special satellite broadcastingIn the second issue, "In satellite broadcasting that falls under any of the following, the polarization of radio waves is left-handed polarization (a circle in which the electric field vector rotates counterclockwise with time in the direction of radio wave propagation." Polarized light.) Not
- B. Frequency for broadcasting satellite business (specified in the International Telecommunication Union Charter)Wireless communication rulesRefers to the frequencies used for broadcasting services from 30 GHz to 11.7 GHz assigned to Japan based on the provisions of Appendix No. 12.2.Same in b. ) Satellite broadcasting
- (B) Satellite broadcasting performed using frequencies other than those for commercial use. "
General satellite broadcastingIn the third issue, "Satellite broadcasting other than special satellite broadcasting (by an artificial satellite on which a radio station for satellite broadcasting of a is established or a radio station established on an artificial satellite in the same orbit or position as the artificial satellite) Satellite broadcasting performed using (limited to what is performed) "
It was stipulated.This is because most of the receiving devices for BS digital broadcasting and 110-degree east longitude CS digital broadcasting can be shared, so the names have been unified in order to popularize them.
The revised Broadcasting Law came into effect on June 2011, 23.  And broadcasts on frequencies dedicated to or preferentially assigned to broadcastsCore broadcastingAnd otherGeneral broadcastingIt was decided to be roughly divided into.At the same time, the enforcement rules are revised  The provisions for satellite broadcasting have been deleted, and special satellite broadcasting has been released.Satellite backbone broadcastingIn general satellite broadcastingSatellite general broadcastingWas taken.
Since then, there is no legal definition of "satellite broadcasting".
Satellite broadcasting in each country
People's Republic of ChinaSo the news isChinese Communist PartyDirect reception of satellite broadcasts, which are under the control of and beyond the control of the authorities, is prohibited except in hotels and executive residences with three stars or more where foreigners can stay (instead, cable television in urban areas). Is widespread).On the other hand, since the beginning of the 3s, satellite broadcasting has been promoted as part of the welfare program for rural areas where there is no cable TV.However, you can only receiveChina Central Television(CCTV) and othersNational broadcastingOnly, it is not possible to watch satellite broadcasts around the world freely (Whitelistmethod).
- ^ Amendment by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 21 of 7
- ^ Enforcement of amendment by Law No. 22 of 65
- ^ Amendment by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Ordinance No. 23 of 62
- ^ How Broadcast Policy Changes Will Change Rural China --NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute
- ^ 일본 문화 침투 가 속화 --KBS NEWS (Korea Broadcasting Corporation）(Korean)(KBS 9 o'clock news, September 1990, 9)
- ^ Submitted by Shozo Kusakawa, a member of the House of Representatives Answer to the question about so-called spillover, in which radio waves from broadcasting satellites leak to neighboring countries --Prime Minister, November 1990, 11
- Satellite broadcasting in Japan
- SES Astra --Europe's first private satellite broadcasting company
- Al Jazeera
- LyngSat(English) - 世界A website that introduces satellite broadcasting inside.
- Mechanism of satellite broadcasting | What is CS / BS?(Satellite Broadcasting Association）