Photo Wakamotoharu (right) receiving a list of makeup mawashi from Chairman Watanabe = Fukushima City on the afternoon of the 22nd
The design of my grandfather I longed for ... Makeup was turned around in Wakamotoharu.
If you write the contents roughly
Wakamotoharu himself wanted the same design as Wakabayama.
Wakamotoharu (Graduated from Fukushima High School, Arashio Stable) who is sure to start the new sumo wrestling place (the first day of January 1, next year, Ryogoku Kokugikan) ... → Continue reading
Minami Fukushima Shimbun
A news site of the local newspaper "Fukushima Minyu Shimbun" that represents Fukushima Prefecture. Since it was first published in Meiji 28, we have been transmitting the latest community-based news as a “friend of the people of the prefecture”. The prefectural news covers a wide range of local news by connecting 25 news bases in Fukushima prefecture. We are also focusing on recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake and articles related to TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We will deliver a variety of articles such as gourmet, sightseeing, events, readable serials.
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Turning/Turn(Mawashi,Historical pseudonym: Mahashi) IsCompetition,ShintoismDone asSumoUsed inClothingKind of.loincloth(Loincloth), Because it is a kind ofSumo loinclothAlso called.Tightening/Tightening(Squeeze)Also called.
silkMade inWrestlerIt is used to cover the waist of the body, to harden the waist and abdomen, which is the center of gravity, to protect the body, and to exert more power... Rehearsal MawashiMakushitaThe following wrestlers and amateur athletes tighten the mawashiUnsai cottonorcanvasHard calledcottonMade of cloth. The purpose of this is to prevent injuries in the event of a fall, protect the body, and apply techniques for efforts.
How to tighten
Mawashi is an indispensable tool for sumo wrestling, so it requires careful preparation and careful handling.締め込む際は心身共に緊張させ、邪念、汚心を去り、清明、明朗の心境を以て締め込まなければならないとされるWhen tightening, it is said that you must be tense both physically and mentally, get rid of evil spirits and filth, and tighten with the feelings of Qingming and Happy..
When dressing, an assistant is usually required, and dressing is done according to the following procedure (in the case of an amateur cotton mawashi).
- Fold a canvas (used for fire hose cloth, etc.) with a length of about 6 m (for young men) and a width of about 45 cm in four, and fold the front (front bag) in half to hold the front end and cover the pubic area. Fold it in eight and straddle the crotch, then fold it in four again from the waist area (horizontal loincloth) and wrap it around the body 3 to 4 times counterclockwise, and finally fold the rear end in eight and make a vertical loincloth (vertical loincloth). ) And tie it. Basically a front hanging typeSix shaku loinclothIt's similar to how to tighten, but the front hang is folded and sandwiched between the loincloths, and you can only see it slightly. The assistant pulls up under the loincloth through the tip of the end of the roll. The wearer sits down and tightens. If this is neglected, it will cause the mawashi to unravel during the competition. However, it is not necessary to tighten it so that it puts a strain on the body. The opposite is true when solving.
The length is about 7 to 10 times longer than your waist[*1], 4.5m-9m, depending on the individual's body type. Mostly white, but some black and light blue are used among amateur sumo athletes.[*2].. The color of the Mawashi in sumo wrestling will be described later.
The mawashi must be tightened securely. "Yurufun" is said to be the most admonishing act against sumo wrestling as a cunning means of deliberately trying to put the other party at a disadvantage..
New MawashipasteIt's effective, it's very hard, and it becomes familiar to the body by inhaling the sweat that sweats through the training. The characteristics of the user of the Mawashi come out because the sweat and mud stains on the Mawashi are different for each competitor. For this reason, it is said that one's own mawashi can be easily identified from the mawashi of each athlete hung at the sumo dojo.
Tightening is due to the problem of the material, and if you wash it repeatedly, the fabric will be worn out and the protective function of the body will be lost.Test-bearing (Genkatsugu)From the meaning of, Mawashi is basicallyWashingDo not do. However, if the cotton product is new, it may be glued with starch to prevent it from losing its shape, so it may be washed to remove it. It is also a matter of preference for each competitor as to whether to wash once to remove glue or start using it without any treatment. In addition, it is exceptionally allowed to wash the mawashi only when his master died.
The reason for not washing is that, especially in the case of cheap cotton mawashi, if it is too dirty to be used, it will be discarded and renewed. There is also a sumo class where laundry is carried out.
Just because you don't wash it doesn't mean you can leave it damp. After use, remove the mud and dry it in a sunny place... For disinfecting the inside of the front bag and the loincloth (where the genital area was hit)alcoholIt may be wiped with.
In amateur sumo, as a general rule, do not put anything under the mawashi and tighten it on your bare skin. However, the hygiene measures for the mawashi are only to dry in the sun, and in principle, they do not wash, so for hygiene reasons, sumo supporters andSix shaku loincloth, ま た はSwimwearThere are also athletes who use to tighten the mawashi from above. In recent years, sumo has become more popular overseas and for women (New sumo), Some athletes dislike the exposure of the buttocks because it has become popular.spats,Shorts,leotardThere is also an example of tightening the Mawashi from above.
Although there are more than 5 participants nationwide up to naughty sumo, the number of athletes is drastically decreasing when they reach junior high school and above, so they supervise amateur sumo.FoundationJapan Sumo FederationRevised the competition rules as a measure to increase the competition population of junior high school students and above, and revised the competition rules in 2007, stating that "children and students should wear navy blue or black underpants under the mawashi in principle". .. However, he said, "Competition at the Kokugikan is not limited to this," and obliged elementary and junior high school students to wear underpants in sumo competitions. It is also permissible to use sumo wrestlers and simple mawashi, which will be described later..
In sumo wrestling, nothing is attached under the mawashi and it is tightened on the bare skin, but there is no restriction on wearing bandages or taping to protect the injured area.Ten carsMore thanSekitoriIs a white mawashi for training (mud mawashi,cotton) And for effortssatinMawashi (tightening / handling,silk) Are used properly.MakushitaThe following wrestlers do not distinguish between maneuvering and rehearsal, and use rehearsal at this location as well.
In sumo wrestling, the colors of the practice mawashi are strictly distinguished, and it is decided that only ten or more wrestlers are white, and the wrestlers under the Makushita are black. It is said that wrestlers feel that their ranking has risen by tightening the white rehearsal for the first time in the sumo world of a ranking society where the hierarchical relationship is strict. In addition, there is a video of a wrestler who practices by tightening mixed with a wrestler who tightened a normal practice, but this is done for the purpose of getting used to the tightening by the wrestlers decided by the new Juryo and the wrestlers who newly tightened. Is what you are doing.
Sekitori's handlingJapan Sumo AssociationAccording to the regulations, it is stipulated that dark blue and purple ones should be used.Color TVWith the spread of the white, the colorful mawashi will be in full bloom, and in reality it is tolerated if it is not white, and it is virtually free.Showa 32In November placeTamasaumi TaisaburoThe golden mawashi tightened by is said to be the beginning of the "color mawashi".Showa 33In September, according to the regulations of the association, Sekitori qualified persons decided to unify the color of the mawashi to black or navy blue, but even after thatWajima,Mt. TakamiyamaThere are many Sekitori that have gained popularity due to their unique color tones.
In the active days of Kitanofuji, it usually takes years to get used to the body, so it is normal for each person to have only one maneuver, and if it hurts, he repairs it with a sewing machine each time..
Front hanging and falling
Edo Period OfLand sumo(NominallySumo Sumo)MakuuchiAlthough the shape of the wrestler's efforts is a little different, what is now called "Makeup"(* See below) was used. this is,Sumo picture(SumoUkiyo-e), Etc., which are transmitted today (see the image on the right).
At that time, the Makuuchi wrestler's mawashi (now called makeup mawashi) is a part that hangs forward for the purpose of showing it to the audience.apron/Front hanging(Who)[*4]However, although it was an indispensable part, it is clear that it will hinder the movement in sumo wrestling, and it is in the middle of the Edo period.It is removed as a mawashi, and it is turned without a front hang, that is, it is usually "in modern language."Turning"Or"Tightening/TighteningIt changed to what is called "(Shimekomi)" (* At that time, there was no special name for what is now called "Makeup", so even if the shape changed, the name did not change).
Attached to the bottom of the anterior when the anterior is removedDecorationForTotalIt was (busy) "FallingOnly "(Sagari)" was left after the total number was significantly reduced. With the birth of such a new form of descent,Land sumoTo draw the flowGrand SumoFor wrestlers from now onAnkleWhen you do, push the descent to the left and right by handThighA unique movement of placing it between the torso and the torso has been added (■ in the right columnimageYes). However, as with the loincloth, the descent was also fixed to the mawashi, so many wrestlers were injured by accidentally catching their fingers on it, and as a countermeasure, the descent was changed to a part separated from the loincloth cloth body. Loincloth tightened and tightenedMaemitsu）[*5]It was changed to something that could easily come off if force was applied just by sandwiching it in and fixing it. Since it is necessary to pinch and fix it in the front loincloth, the descent that changed to a structure consisting of a short horizontal band with a surface that can be pinched and a string that hangs under it is a remnant of the original, and even after the change, the ropeGoodwill(Nawa no goodwill), But only the descent used by Sekitori is cloth seaweed (Gloiopeltis) Has changed to a slightly harder one (* The time of change is unknown) (■ In the right columnimageYes). The descent that is hardened with cloth seaweed is not so hard, so it often breaks during the effort. In that case, if you wet it, reshape it straight and dry it, the cloth seaweed will work again and it will return to its original state.Regarding the current decline, the number has been changed according to the physique of the wrestlers, but in principle it is around 17.evenBecause it is a number that can be broken, it leads to "breaking the ring", so take the testodd numberIs made to be.May 2019 locationAccording to reports in the middle of the year, the number of Sekitori drops at this time was 13 in most cases..MakushitaThe following wrestlers also go up to the ring with a descent when working, but here the old soft type that is not hardened with cloth seaweed is used (■ in the right columnimageYes). In the case of Makushita and below, the color of the descent is free in principle... In addition,Previous sumoThe sumo wrestlers do their best without making a drop.
Today's descent often comes off in the violent movements of the effort. As mentioned above, since the sandwiching surface is only sandwiched between the front wrestlers, if the opponent wrestlers take the front wrestlers and are attracted, the pinching force will be lost and it will easily come off, and various additions from the wrestlers themselves and the opponent wrestlers. It also comes off when the rotation is loosened as a whole due to the force of the direction. Even if you unintentionally hook your finger, it will come off easily. The fall that is falling during the effortGyojiIs often pulled out and thrown out of the ring so that it does not get in the way. After the end of the effort, the wrestler himself will carry and move the fall off, so the shape of the part sandwiched between the front loincloth can be often seen at this time.SayingWithRetakeEven if is decided, it will not be reattached, and it will be retaken without any descent.
There is a myth that "if the fall is off before the effort, you will lose the foul", but there is no such fact. Although it often comes off in the violent movement during the effort, it basically does not come off unintentionally before the effort. There are almost no cases where the decline actually came off before the initiative.
Originally, in the sumo wrestling of the Edo period, the front hanging of the makeup mawashi has a role to hide the local part when the turning is misaligned during the effort, and the remnant of it is to hide the local part in an emergency. Is said to exist in.
The call may stab the bounty bag, but this is not an act and the call is careful not to drop the bounty..
Tactics and game rules around Mawashi
Mawashi is used by wrestlers to grasp and exert power during sumo wrestling efforts. Mainly, while holding and pulling that of the opponent wrestler, push it in. Or grab the mawashi in one hand and throw it.
The mawashi is basically tightened tightly, but some people use tactics that intentionally loosen it or loosen it immediately due to its flexible constitution so that the opponent who took the mawashi does not exert enough power (example:Terukuni,Daikirin,Wakashimazu,Asahi Fuji,Wusouyama,Such). It is called "loincloth" with the meaning of "loose loincloth" and is sometimes the subject of criticism. "Yurufun"AntonymThere is also a concept of "Katafun" that tightens remarkably tightly.2rd Wakanohana,Chiyo no Fuji,Your strength,Koto ChrysanthemumIs a typical example. Often done as an effort to make it easier for small soldiers to turn around.
It is forbidden to grab the opponent's front bag and pull it, or to thrust your finger from the side. In the case of a loincloth, the boss (referee) is careful to change the kumite.
According to the rules of sumo wrestling, the front bag (Maebukuro.. If the local area (genitals) that should be in the area covering the front of the crotch is exposed, you will lose the foul.. this"Unclean defeat". However, if the part that formed the front bag is unraveled, this part that hits the edge of the cloth is onebandIt returns to the state of and hangs down, but even if the hang down of the cloth itself reaches the ring, it is not a foul in itself... On March 2017, 29 (Heisei 3), in the spring place ChiakirakuThird stageNishiyama (Onoe room) The front bag loosened and it became such a situation. At this time, the referee decided to lose the foul, but at a later date,False trialIt turned out that five referees of the same effortNishonosekiReceived strict caution from the chief referee.
Makeup(Kesho Mawashi)Grand SumoIn儀式It is a mawashi forEnter the ringI doSekitoriWhen,Yutori typeI doWrestlerTighten.. The current one isHakata OriOr spelled weave (Spelling)by, Length about 7Meters, Width about 67CentimeterOne ofbandWith a cloth, The tip is about 1 meter to hang forward, and the rest is folded in four and wrapped around the waist in three layers..apron/Front hanging(Who)[*4]A gorgeous design with gold thread, silver thread, and colored thread on the part ofembroideryAnd at the bottom, gold, vermilion, scarlet, purple, etc.Total(Bushy).
YokozunaIn the case of, in addition to the person's shareTachimochiWith the roleTsuyuharaiIt is a three-piece set (so-called three-piece set) including the wrestlers in the role. Supporting companies, schools of origin, etc.sponsor(Supporters' Association,Tanimachi) Often presented by.
Nowadays, as soon as Sekitori becomes Sekitori, a new dressing machine is given by the supporter,1960 eraAt that time, I used to use my brother's sag until it became established in Sekitori.Northern FujiIn the case of siblingsMountain of SadaI used this makeup for a while, peeled off the embroidery where the original name was written, and used it as my name..
For the color of the baren around the makeuppurpleCan be usedYokozuna,Ozeki・ Former Ozeki andWith Yokozuna ringLimited to those who hold swords and pay dew. There are no particular restrictions on the color of baren other than purple.
sub cultureSuch ascharacterThere are also surprisingly many ones that have adopted. In the old days, latermanga artistTurned toTen cars・ TashiroiwaOsamu Tezuka OfComic"Astro boy"ofhero・ Atom's makeup was tightened.Genbu MitsuruFrom the beginning of 1973 when he was promoted to JuryoFujio AkatsukaCartoon ofGenius Bakabon"of"Bakabon's daddyI tightened the makeup around and caught the topic.Sekiwaki-Yoshikazu WashuyamaIs a cartoonistHaraitaraWas tightening the makeup of "Monroe-chan" presented by.Tsunenoyama HideoWas promoted to Juryo in the summer of 1978,Chiba TetsuyaSumo manga "Nori Matsutaro』The main character, Arakoma and his partner, Komatanaka were tightened the dressing.Frontal-Combat dragonIt is,Akimoto OsamuCartoon ofPolice Box in Front of Kameari Park, Katsushika Ward』Main characterRyotsu KankichiI was tightening the dressing around.. SekiwakeTosano ToshioTogetherKochiBecause I'm fromRyuichi YokoyamaCartoon ofFuku-chanI was tightening the one that treated Fuku-chan, the main character of.Chiyo TairyuIt is,boiled eggCartoon ofKinnikuman』The main character, Kinnikuman (Kinnikuman) Uses the one with the flame of fighting spirit.. This is a particularly conspicuous makeup wrap that expresses fighting spirit even with a red and yellow background color close to vermilion.linesIt contained the words "Kinnikuman's fucking power".MomentumIt is,Nishihara KeikoCartoon ofMother every dayThe doctor who treated "Mother"Katsuya TakasuWas presented under the name of "Takasu Clinic" and closed..Chiyo EmperorIt is,Yoron IslandAt the edge of the villaKenichi KitamiCartoon ofFishing idiot diaryI was tightening the makeup of Hama-chan, the main character of. 2017/In (29), mangaAnimeCharacter is the first in historyYokozunaUsed for dressing up.A rare villageWas the story of when he was promoted to Yokozuna.With Yokozuna ringFor 3 people who doFist of the North StarWas presented with a dressing machine featuring the main characters of(* First public release at Yokozuna promotion reception on May 2017, 5). Yokozuna / Kisenosato is not the main character but a lonely strong enemy because there is a place that leads to life.RaohBut,Tachimochi OfTakayasuOf the heroKenshiroBut,Tsuyuharai OfShohozanToTokiWas assigned.. These are companies that produce "Fist of the North Star"CoamixManga production staff worked on the original drawing including image sketches.. Coamix, who is also a member of the supporters of KisenosatoNorihiko HorieThe president promised to "become a yokozuna" to Kisenosato, which is hard to sprout, and it was Kisenosato himself who wanted "Fist of the North Star, Raoh is good"... Raoh, who was a lonely strong man who never retreated, was a favorite because he was familiar with the teachings of his predecessor, "Don't make excuses" and "Be lonely.".. In addition, Kisenosato is a gift of "Hello Kitty"Kitty whiteI used to use the dressing machine.Companyマ ス コ ッ トas,KumamotoFromSadanoumiFrom May 2014, "KumamonI was tightening the makeup.Moe HuangKumamon on the front face was treated to the maximum size with the color as the ground color. same period(May 2016 locationAfter that)NaraFromTokushoryuBut,ShikonaStep on "Sento-kunI was tightening the makeup around.
Simple Mawashi / Sumo supporters, etc.
If you are taking sumo wrestling at school or if you are an amateur player, you can tighten it over spats or shorts, or shorts called sumo wrestlers with a belt around the waist that is about the same thickness as a sideways wrestler. It may be substituted with.
For elementary school students and younger, there is also a special one called a simple mawashi, which is worn over shorts. NowadaysSumo supporterThe product is also on sale.
In addition, when wearing a mawashi or a simple mawashi over shorts, it is desirable to use one that is as close to the body as possible in consideration of martial arts. Similarly, it can be said that it is harder to get injured if there are no metal fittings such as buttons and hooks.
The advantages of tightening from the top of spats and shorts, sumo wrestlers, simple turning, and supporters
- It absorbs sweat and is easy to keep clean.
- Since it is a delicate part, if it is tightened directly, it may cause unexpected damage, which can be reduced.
- Even people who are reluctant to expose their buttocks can enjoy sumo (in the case of elementary school girls, the combination of gym clothes and simple mawashi)New sumoIn the competitionleotardThe combination of Mawashi is common).
- Since there is one under the mawashi, the risk of local exposure can be reduced even if it should be unraveled. However, just because I couldn't see the local area,Unclean defeatThe foul of "" is not avoided.
- Although it was limited to sumo wrestlers and simple mawashi, it is extremely cheap, so there is little financial burden. However, the mawashi itself is also used in other sports except for luxury items.uniformIt's not particularly expensive compared to.
Related proverbs and idioms
- In addition, the above-mentioned phrase "Yurufun" may appear in newspapers and magazine articles in a critical context when the government takes a weak attitude due to diplomatic issues.
- ^ According to the notation on some mail-order sites, there is a notation that 4 times the waist size of the boy + 100 cm for boys and 4 times the waist size of the adult + 160 cm is a guideline.
- ^ 1990 eraThan,Nihon University Sumo ClubIs black,2000 eraThan,Saitama Sakae High SchoolIs the school color orange,Hotoku Gakuen High SchoolAlso uses the Moss Green Mawashi when participating in the tournament.
- ^ Clothes with the same titleBand swordThere is also a figure of.
- ^ a b c d The "front hanging / front hanging" of the makeup wrapping is the part that hangs forward for the purpose of showing.
- ^ a b c A loincloth is a loincloth.Loincloth) Is the front of the part where the body is rolled sideways when tightened. Since the loincloth used in sumo is "mawashi", it is also called "mae-mawashi". Even on the same front surface, the vertically wound part is called a "maebukuro" because it looks like a bag that covers the local area.
- ^ a b Shogakukan"DigitalDaijisen』.“Turn". Koto bank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ a b Masao Ikeda, Shogakukan "Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(Nipponica) ”.“Turn”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ a b Sanseido"Daijirin3rd edition. “Mawashi / Mawashi”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ Sanseido "Daijirin" 3rd edition. "Tightening / tightening”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ a b c Sadogatake (1941), p. 135.
- ^ Shogakukan "Digital Daijisen". "Makeup turn”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ Sanseido "Daijirin" 3rd edition. "Makeup turn”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ "Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia ”.“Makeup”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ 平凡 社"EncyclopediaMypedia』.“Makeup”. Kotobank. 2020/7/31Browse.
- ^ 4 Sekitori's makeup[Broken link]
- ^ "Trivia Fountain ~ Hey's Book ~ 4" 2003 [Page number required]
- ^ "Monthly Martial Arts February 2010 Issue" (2), p. 191.
- ^ Kitanofuji & Arashiyama (2016), p. 31.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Makeup turn". Kimono Terminology Complete (Official Website)Soumien Co., Ltd. 2019/6/13Browse.
- ^ Japan Sumo Association Sumo Glossary
- ^ Yuichi Kato "Mawashi's "fall" is unique, Hakuho 15 consecutive win wishes 15"Nikkan Sports"Nikkan Sotsupo Shimbun, August 2019, 5.2019/5/19Browse.
- ^ `` Weekly Post March 2018, 3 Issue'' 23 [Page number required]
- ^ `` Weekly Post March 2018, 3 Issue'' 30 [Page number required]
- ^ ""Hirahira" before the sumo wrestling What is it for? I looked it up"J-CAST News"Jay Cast, August 2019, 5.2019/12/26Browse.
- ^ Ryo Tanaka "All-Understanding Sumo" (published November 2019, 11, published by Seibido Shuppan) p.20
- ^ a b c ""Front bag" turned to the ring, lost the foul ... Actually, it was a misjudgment"Asahi Shimbun digital"Asahi Shimbun, August 2017, 3.2017/3/26Browse.
- ^ Kitanofuji & Arashiyama (2016), p. 133.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Chiyo Tairyu is "Kinnikuman" / Main cartoon makeup turning memo"Nikkan Sports"Nikkan Sotsupo Shimbun, August 2017, 4.2019/6/12Browse.■ The image is only for Kinnikuman's makeup.
- ^ a b c "Kisenosato "Fist of the North Star" debuts with three sets of makeup"Nikkan Sports" Nikkan Sports Newspaper, February 2017, 5.2019/6/12Browse.
- ^ a b c d e "Notices". COAMIX (official website). Co., Ltd.Coamix (May 2017, 5, 1, 6, 7, 10, 12). 2019/6/12Browse.
- ^ "Sadanoumi shows off "Kumamon" makeup". Sankei Photo (Official Website). Sankei Shimbun (September 2016, 5). 2019/6/12Browse.
- ^ "Sento-kun for makeup mawashi" presented to Tokushoryu Seki, Nara Prefecture. Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun). (November 2016, 6) 2019/6/12Browse.
- ^ "Sento-kun's make-up for Tokushoryu" Appeal by taking good sumo "". Sports Nippon (Sports Nippon Shimbun). (February 2016, 7) 2019/6/12Browse.
- Books, mooks
- Northern Katsuaki Fuji,Arashiyama Kozaburo"Large talk! Grand Sumo Uchiakebanashi, January 2016, 1, p. 16.
- NCID BB21064840,OCLC 935070354,ISBN 4-86081-540-8,ISBN +978-4-86081-540-0,National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:027014255.
- Koichiro Sadogatake"Sumo Taoist Textbook" Dainippon Taoist Book Co., Ltd., August 1941, 8, p. 20.
- "Trivia Fountain ~ Hey's Book ~ 4"Fuji Television Network, InctriviaExtension Committee Edition,Kodansha, Nov. 2003, 11, p. 7.
- OCLC 674892872,ISBN 4-06-352706-9,ISBN +978-4-06-352706-3,National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:000004265220.
- Magazines, etc.
- "Weekly Post March 2018, 3" "Weekly post』May 3 issue,Shogakukan, August 2018, 3.
- "Weekly Post March 2018, 3 Issue"Weekly Post" March 3th issue, Shogakukan, March 30, 2018.ASIN B079ZV4P3C.
- "Monthly Martial Arts February 2010 Issue" "Budo" February Issue,Nippon Budokan, 2010.
- Hideo Aoki"Cultural History of Underwear-Fashionable from Underwear" Matsuzawa Shoten, January 1957, 1, p. 1.ASIN B000JAYDB8.
- Hideo Aoki "Cultural History of Underwear-Fashionable from Underwear"Oyamakaku Publishing, Nov. 2000, 11, p. 1.
- NCID BA4989029X,OCLC 675448503,ISBN 4-88302-522-5,ISBN +978-4-88302-522-0,National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:000003017804.
- Fumitoshi Echinaka, "The Extreme of Man's Style, Oops, Fundoshi !? -New Fundoshi Monogatari," Shinkosha, January 2008, 1, p. 11.
- NCID BA85761199,OCLC 675636791,ISBN 4-7781-0499-4,ISBN +978-4-7781-0499-3,National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:000009404097.
- "Fundoshi Story", August 1990, 8, p. 1.ISBN 4-915806-18-9,ISBN +978-4-915806-18-6.
- Mari Yonehara"Pants face loincloth ticket"Chikuma Shobo, Nov. 2005, 7, p. 7.
- NCID BA73092513,OCLC 65186040,ISBN 4-480-81639-9,ISBN +978-4-480-81639-9,National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:000007875633.
- Tightening --Sumo Glossary --Japan Sumo Association Official Website
- Makeup Mawashi --Sumo Glossary --Japan Sumo Association Official Website
- "How to attach a mawashi”. Sanfuku Shoji Co., Ltd. (Sanfuku Room). 2020/7/31Browse.[Ref name: Sanfuku]
- (PDF) , Japan Sumo Association. [Ref name: JSA]