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⚾ | Why the Chunichi pitchers were able to dispel Koshien's “weaknesses” Many behind-the-scenes stories revealed by the former pitcher coach

Photo Hideyuki Awano, who served as the pitcher coach of the Chunichi Dragons [Photo: Yuji Arakawa]

The reason why the Chunichi pitchers were able to dispel Koshien's "weaknesses" Many behind-the-scenes stories revealed by the former pitcher coach

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The average number of walks per game (excluding intentional walks) has improved significantly for the Chunichi pitchers.

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Number of walks

Intentional four-ball

Intentional four-ball(Koishikyu,intentional base on balls (IBB), intentional walk) Isbaseball-soft ballInpitcher batterIntentionallyFour ballsIt is a record when is given.

"Intentional walk"Official baseball rulesEtcDefinitionHas beenthe termHowever, it is generally in JapanShy awayIt is called (Keien).


Usually, in baseball and softball, the defensive team is the batter.outThe purpose is to beat it.But the batter's individual能力It is better to give the batter a walk and finish the turn at bat in consideration of the situation of the game andvictoryIf deemed appropriate for the purpose, walks may be given intentionally, that is, intentionally.

In order for a walk to be distinguished from a normal walk and become an official record, it must have the requirements described below, but even if all of these requirements are not met, the viewer intends to make it a defensive walk. When you feel it, "Shy away"Or"A little shyIs expressed as.

The intentional walk itself is not an act that violates the rules, but a good way to seal the opponent.tacticsIs one of.However, during a deliberate walk,audienceTo the pitcherBooOr skip the heckler.Win or lose the match itself, especiallyWinIntentional walks, such as conflict-related situations, to ensure victoryStrategyAlthough it is often tolerated, the prevention of hitting titles described later and past records (Home runVery strong criticisms have been made against intentional walks and similar acts to preserve numbers, etc.)[1]Some of the batters who noticed that they were intentionally walked, intentionally included the meaning of protest.Empty swingThen,strikeSome players[2]..The act of obstructing the record caused a great response,commissionerAnd the president of the league have paid close attention.

2017 FromMajor LeagueIn (MLB), if the pitcher does not pitch and the defensive manager intentionally walks the ball to the ball umpire for the purpose of shortening the match time, the pitcher will not throw the ball to the batter to the first base. A rule has been adopted that gives the right to a safe base (Official baseball rules5.05 (b) (1) [Original Note] and Definition of Terms 7).This is a system originally adopted by the international rules of softball, but it is also in Japan.2018 からProfessional baseball-College baseball-Adult baseballAdopted in[3],2020 Fromhigh school baseballBut was adopted[4]..Plays that use this rule to intentionally walk a batter are generally "ShynessIs expressed (described later).

Intentional walk by pitching

Pitching rules

According to the official baseball rules,catcherUntil the pitcher starts pitchinghome plateIt is said that it must be located immediately after.In particular, when intentionally throwing a four-ball, it is stipulated that even one foot must not be taken out of the catcher's box until the ball leaves the pitcher's hand (Official Baseball Rules 5.02 (a)), which is violated. For pitchersBalkIs imposed.Therefore, it is necessary for the pitcher to show in advance that he will walk the ball intentionally with the catcher, and the catcher should be prepared to respond even if a ball that is some distance away is thrown.

This rule that "the catcher stays in the catcher's box until the pitcher releases the ball" has not been largely followed in recent years, especially in Japanese professional baseball.The umpire often tolerates it, and even if the pitcher throws a pitch while the catcher is actually holding one foot out of the catcher's box, there are few cases where it is judged to be a balk.

In the baseball rules, "intentional walk" is recorded as "the fourth ball for a catcher who has stood up before pitching."ballWhen the pitcher consciously throws it "(the position of the catcher does not matter).For example

  1. The pitcher was competing, but there was no strike,Ball countWas a 3-ball 0-strike, so the catcher stood up on the fourth pitch, and the pitcher deliberately threw the ball to give the batter a walk.
  2. The pitcher intentionally walked three balls, but the situation changed and he turned to the game.Strike ZoneAimed at.However, the pitch was also judged as a ball, and he gave the batter a walk.

In these two cases, the former records "intentional walks", while the latter records normal "walks".

Also, since it is a requirement that the catcher stand up before the pitch, if the pitcher intentionally pitches far away from the strike zone but the catcher does not stand up, or after the pitcher throws the pitcher, the catcher stands up. Even in such a case, the four balls are recorded without intentionally recording the four balls.

The batter may intentionally hit a walk, and there are cases of hits as described below ("" below.An example of hitting a pitch that was intentionally walkedSee).

Pitching method

In order to walk intentionally, the pitcher must intentionally throw a pitch that is determined to be a ball.

In a typical intentional walk, the pitcher throws the ball far enough away from the batter in order to make a pitch that is clearly judged to be a ball and to avoid being forced to hit the ball.In preparation for catching, the catcher stands up and waits for the pitch.The theory is to hold the hand farther from the batter to the side as a goal of pitching because it cannot be far away from the catcher's box.Often the pitcher is the catcherCaptureThrow the ball gently so as not to.If necessary, the catcher moves to a position off the home plate to catch the ball.By repeating this four times, the batter is given a walk and the intentional walk is recorded.Some pitchers have a habit of throwing wild pitches with this, in which case the intentional walk is not recorded because it is thrown at the sitting catcher.

If the catcher does not intentionally take a walk and the pitcher clearly removes itWalks that are a little shyHowever, if you go to a certain degree of competition, it may be expressed as "do not force the competition".

Intentional walks by declaration

If the defensive manager intentionally walks the ball to the ball umpire, there is a rule that the batter is given the right to safely advance to first base without pitching.Major League(MLB),Japanese professional baseball, Other amateur baseball,soft ballIt is adopted in.In Japan, intentional walks by declaration are "Shyness"(Shinkokukeien) is almost always called.

The declaration avoidance system is a rule that has been stipulated in the international rules of softball.in Japan2013 Introduced by the rule revision of.

さ ら に2017 In MLB, a declaration avoidance system was adopted for the purpose of shortening the match time.[5]Next in Japan2018 Due to the revision of baseball rulesProfessional baseball,College baseball,Adult baseballAdopted in[6]..Although the introduction of the system was postponed in high school baseball[7],2020 It will be adopted at the same time as the number of pitches is limited[4].

In the declaration avoidance system, it is possible to declare intentional walks even after throwing several balls (for example, from one ball and one strike).In addition, if you choose to avoid filing, the number of pitches thrown by the pitcher will not be added.However, if the batter was pitched before the intentional walk, the number of pitches will be added.

In Nippon Professional Baseball, in order to declare intentional walks, the director informs the ball umpire from the dugout, the referee calls the intentional walks, and when he sees it, he tells that the on-site broadcast is "avoidance of declaration".In Japanese high school baseball, it is not the purpose to shorten the time, it is necessary to issue a messenger from the dugout to the batter, and the batter calls after the announcement that the batter urges the on-site broadcast and "declares intentional walk". For the first time, the batter will be allowed to advance to first base (even if the batter tries to advance to the base after hearing the messenger's transmission to the referee, he will be stopped).

Case of intentionally walking

Giving one or two runners to the attacking side with a walk will lead to a scoring opportunity, so the defensive side willingly only if the disadvantages do not directly lead to a loss and there is a merit to compensate for it. You will walk.The following cases are typical.

  1. When the attacker's options are narrowed and defensive tactics become clear.This is the most common case of intentional walks. It is used for "runner second base", "runner third base", and "runner second and third base" (in some cases, runner first and third base).The defensive side can put the runner on the first base to put the runner who was originally on the base into a force state (Force play), It is said that if you play against the next batter and hit a ground ball, you can get out just by touching the base, so it will be easier to defend. It is often used in situations where even one goal is not allowed.When the runner is on the third base, there are cases where only one person makes a walk intentionally and two people make a walk intentionally in a row.Goodbye gameIt is often taken in a pinch scene.Especially "filling all the bases with intentional walks"Full baseCall it a "measure".
  2. When the next batter is easier for the pitcher to give.For example, you can expect to give a walk to the XNUMXth batter (generally the strongest hitter in the lineup) and take an out with the XNUMXth batter, or give the XNUMXth batter a walk to play against the XNUMXth batter (generally).Nominated batterThe system is not adoptedCentral LeagueThen, in general, the pitcher is the ninth batter, so the batting ability is generally low).Starting pitcherUsually 5inningSince it throws the above, it is effective in the early stages.Even in the final stages, if you lead by a small margin, you often won't get a pinch hitter.)[8]..Since a right-handed pitcher is advantageous for a right-handed batter and a left-handed pitcher is advantageous for a left-handed batter, the left-right balance of the batter is often taken into consideration.
  3. To the batterStrike ZoneWhen the situation is such that throwing the ball is dangerous enough to be directly linked to the score.For example, if the pitcher cannot afford to throw a strike with full pitching ahead of the ball count, he may give up the game with the batter and walk intentionally.For example, there is a runner on the third base with no death or one death (Full baseHowever, this applies when the ball count is set to 3 balls, 0 strikes, etc.
  4. When related to records, titles, etc.If the defensive player (or a famous player in the past) holds a record or is ranked high in the individual batting record, he intentionally walks the batter who tries to overtake it and does not improve the record or record. To do so.

Although it is very rare, when playing against a strong hitter who often hits a home run with a bases loaded runner, he sometimes walks intentionally with the idea that he will get less points than hitting a home run.

Case study

All affiliations and team names are those of the time.

An example of hitting a pitch that was intentionally walked

Both are games before the introduction of filing avoidance.

An example of a deliberate walk being wild pitched or captured

Cases to prevent title acquisition

  • 1975 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Hiroaki Inoue(Chunichi)Hiroshima CarpIn the game, he was shunned in the (non-death) bases loaded scene, which was the first time in the official league game.Inoue at that timeKoji Yamamoto(Hiroshima)Leading batterIn the remaining two games, the Hiroshima side was catching up to one bases loaded, and the Hiroshima side instructed to avoid the lead Yamamoto, while the Chunichi side also in anticipation of the repeated avoidance, the scene of bases loaded. Inoue was sent as a substitute, but he was eventually shunned.Inoue missed the title even in the next round, which is the final round, because he received a hit by pitch in the final at-bat, which would be the top batter if he hit a hit.[9].
  • 1982 October 10th Yokohama Ocean Whales vs. Chunichi Dragons, ChunichiYasushi TaoAs a result of giving four consecutive walks in all five at-bats, the ocean that did not participate in the gameKeiji Nagasaki Leading batterWon.The director who instructed is the oceanJunzo Sekine.
  • 1984 October 10rd and October 3th Hanshin Tigers vs. Chunichi Dragons, HanshinMasayuki KakefuAnd ChunichiUno MasaruAs a result of being given consecutive walks in all 10 at-bats, bothHome runWon.The director who instructed is HanshinNorio AndoAnd ChunichiKazuhiro Yamauchi.
  • 1988 October 10nd and 22rd, Lotte Orions vs. Hankyu Braves,Double headerIn 3 games including HankyuHiromi MatsunagaAs a result of being given 11 walks (the final turn at bat was a strikeout of protest), Lotte'sHideaki TakazawaWon the top batter.The director who instructed is Lotte'sArito Tsuyo.
  • 1991 October 10, Yakult Swallows vs. Chunichi Dragons, ChunichiHiromitsu OchiaiAs a result of being given four consecutive walks in all six at-bats, Yakult recorded one hit per at bat.Atsushi FurutaWon the top batter.The director who instructed is Yakult'sKatsuya Nomura.
  • 1996 October 10th and October 8th Chunichi Dragons vs Yomiuri Giants, YomiuriHideki MatsuiAs a result of being given four consecutive walks in all four at-bats, Chunichi did not participate in the match.Takeshi YamazakiWon the home run king.The director who instructed is ChunichiSenichi Hoshino.
  • 2014 October 10th Orix Buffaloes vs Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles, RakutenGinjiOrix did not participate in the match as a result of being given four consecutive walks in all five at-bats.Itoi YoshioWon the top batter.The director who instructed is Orix'sKoji Moriwaki.

Other cases

  • 1950 Made in1st Japan SeriesIn the 6th gameOrions every day Shochiku RobinsPitched as the second pitcher every day in the scene where he led 4 pointsTadashi WakabayashiOf Shochiku, who had already hit two home runs in that matchYoshiyuki IwamotoWas intentionally walked from bases loaded without death.In the end, every day, the innings were limited to two points, push-out and sacrifice fly, and this game became the first team to win the Japan Series by winning a goodbye by one point every day.
  • 1955 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Kihachi EnomotoWhen (Everyday) made his debut as a fifth batter in the opening game of his first year as a pro, he intentionally walked in the fourth at-bat of the game.
  • 1968 May 5th, Shigeo NagashimaChunichiIn the war, he entered the turn at bat without holding a bat in order to protest against the avoidance measures (it is not possible to hit, but there is no problem in terms of rules), but the pitcher of ChunichiTanaka YamanakaStill gave a walk.
  • Tokuhiro KomadaIs high school (Sakurai Commercial High School) Feared as a strong hitter in the era, he was intentionally walked in the inning lead hitter and bases loaded.
  • 1992 OfThe 74rd National High School Baseball Championshipso,Hideki Matsui(Seiryo High School) IsMeitoku Gijuku High SchoolReceived five consecutive walks in a match with (Hideki Matsui withdrawal for 5 consecutive bats).This ishigh school baseballIn connection with the educational point of view, it caused a great social debate (however, since it was a walk with the catcher sitting, it is not a "intentional walk" but a mere "walk" in the official record).
  • 1998 May 5,Major League OfArizona Diamondbacks Barry Bonds(San Francisco Giants), He intentionally walked from the bottom of the 8th inning with two outs, leading 6 to 2 and 9 points.The intentional walk in this sceneExtrusionで必ず1点が入ってしまう上、後続に打たれた場合は逆転サヨナラ負けを意味するため、ボンズのバッティングがいかに恐れられていたかを示す有名なエピソードとなっている。なお試合は故意四球による押し出しで1点を失ったものの、ダイヤモンドバックスがボンズの次打者を抑え、8対7の1点差で勝利した。また満塁で故意四球を与えた采配について、当時のダイヤモンドバックスの監督であったBack show walter"There is always a vacant base. The home was vacant that night," he recalls.
  • 2003 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Alex Cabrera(Seibu) stood in the left at bat, which was the opposite of the original one, against the intentional walk in the scene of the first and second base in the bottom of the 11th inning (still, the opponent's Kintetsu battery gave the intentional walk).This is a protest against intentional walks for two consecutive at-bats.In the game against Lotte on June 2th of the same year, he received a walk from the scene of a non-runner in two at-bats in a row after hitting a home run in two at-bats in a row.Also, in the Seibu match on July 6, 24 after transferring to Orix, he took the bat in the opposite direction and entered the turn at bat and received a walk intentionally.
  • 2008 August 8, Major League BaseballTampa Bay Rays Josh Hamilton(Texas Rangers), He intentionally walked from the bases loaded in the bottom of the 4th inning with a 9-point lead.
  • 2012 September 9 (final round of the season),Taiwan professional baseball OfBrothers Elephant-(Chinese versionIt is,United Seven-Eleven LionsIn the scene of 9 times 4 points lead of the battleBrad ThomasTosaveHe deliberately walked in a row to give him the opportunity to walk, and after creating a situation of two deaths, one on the second base, he was replaced by Thomas.The replacement Thomas recorded a save and the Lions(Chinese versionAfter recording the number of saves in Thailand, which is the most in the league, and exceeding Hayashi's ERA, he got the condition to win the title of the best relief pitcher.However, the Lions who realized the intention of Elephant(Chinese versionThe two teams' play was so explicit that they missed a clear ball, and the Chinese Professional Baseball League said, "I did something that violated sportsmanship and severely damaged the image of the league." Was set to "Not applicable", and Ha and Lee, the managers of both teams were punished such as suspension of participation.[10].
  • 2016 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Gary Sanchez(New York Yankees)ButTampa Bay RaysIn the battle, I intentionally hit a walk with the intention of walking,Sacrifice flyRecord.The pitcherEnny Romero.
  • 2017 XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,The 99rd National High School Baseball ChampionshipTokushima tournament first round,Joto High SchoolversusAwa High SchoolIn, Awa's catcher was sentenced to balk because he was deliberately walked out of the catcher's box from the beginning, and Joto's goodbye was won by this balk's advancement.[11].

Record of intentional walks

Japanese professional baseball

Total record

RankingPlayer nameIntentional four-ballRankingPlayer nameIntentional four-ball
1Sadaharu Oh42711Masahiro Doi106
2Isao Harimoto22812Kazuhiro Yamauchi101
3Nagashima Shigeo20513Ichiro98
4Katsuya Nomura189Tomonori Kanemoto
5Hiromitsu Kadota18215A. Cabrera95
6Hiromitsu Ochiai16016Koji Yamamoto94
7Tanishige Motonobu15817Katsuo Osugi92
8Koichi Tabuchi12518Mitsuo Tatsukawa88
9Shinichi Eto11819Futoshi Nakanishi85
10Takeshi Nakamura11220Tsutomu Wakamatsu83
  • The record is2021 At the end of the season[12]

Season record

RankingPlayer nameClubIntentional four-ballRecord yearRemarks
1Sadaharu OhYomiuri Giants451974 SE LeagueRecord
2Sadaharu OhYomiuri Giants411966
3Sadaharu OhYomiuri Giants381973
4Katsuya NomuraNankai Hawks371968 Pacific LeagueRecord
5Nagashima ShigeoYomiuri Giants351961
6Tetsuji KawakamiYomiuri Giants341955
7Nagashima ShigeoYomiuri Giants321960
8Sadaharu OhYomiuri Giants301967
9Sadaharu OhYomiuri Giants291965
A. CabreraSeibu Lions2002
  • Records at end of 2021 season[13]

Major league baseball

Barry Bonds is overwhelming in both total and season records.Of the 688 avoidances of Bonds, the avoidance at full base is only once mentioned above, but the avoidance with non-runners is 1 degrees (of which 41 degrees are away with no death non-runners)[14]), 2 times of avoidance in the scene where 5 strikes are taken (of which 0 times were avoided due to full count from 2 ball 3 strikes)[15]is there.

Total record

RankingPlayer nameIntentional four-ball
11Willie Stargel227
12Eddie Murray222
13Frank robinson218
14Manny Ramirez216
15Willie Mays214
16David Ortise209
17Tony Gwin203
18Ernie Banks202
19Mike Schmidt201
20Rusty Staub193
  • Some players in unknown years do not match records (Stan Musial, Ted Williams, Ernie Banks, Willie Mays)
  • Record as of the end of 2020[16]

Season record

RankingPlayer nameClubIntentional four-ballRecord yearRemarks
1Barry BondsSan Francisco Giants1202004 National LeagueRecord
2Barry BondsSan Francisco Giants682002
3Barry BondsSan Francisco Giants612003
4Willie McCoveySan Francisco Giants451969
5Albert PuhorsSt. Louis Cardinals442009
6Barry BondsSan Francisco Giants431993
8Willie McCoveySan Francisco Giants401970
9Barry BondsSan Francisco Giants382006
Albert PuhorsSt. Louis Cardinals2010


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ “Uehara, the two tears that led to the joy 14 years later”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nihon Keizai Shimbun). (November 2013, 11). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXZZO61914330R31C13A0000000/ 2018/1/12Browse. 
  2. ^ "Fans" die "to avoid Nakajima in a row ... Lotte escaped from the battle for the top hitter". Nikkan Sports(July 2012, 10). https://www.sponichi.co.jp/baseball/news/2012/10/07/kiji/K20121007004272280.html 2018/1/12Browse. 
  3. ^ "NPB adopts" declaration avoidance system "from this season Universities and working people also". Nikkan Sports(July 2018, 1). https://www.nikkansports.com/baseball/news/201801110000770.html 2018/1/12Browse. 
  4. ^ a b "High school baseball introduces avoidance of declaration from next spring Pitching restrictions are also decided”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital (September 2019, 11). 2020/1/13Browse.
  5. ^ "[Verification 'XNUMX] What will happen to "Avoid throwing" NPB will be adopted next season?”(Japanese). SANSPO.COM (September 2017, 4). 2018/12/16Browse.
  6. ^ "Introduced in professional baseball, etc.”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2018/12/16Browse.
  7. ^ "Takano Ren said that the declaration avoidance system was postponed this season "There were many opinions that it was not necessary"”(Japanese). SANSPO.COM (September 2018, 2). 2018/12/16Browse.
  8. ^ In general, there is a tendency for intentional walks to gather in catchers who have the lowest hitting power next to pitchers and often serve as eighth hitters, and are mixed with the famous strong hitters in the NPB intentional walk total record.Tanishige Motonobu,Takeshi Nakamura,Mitsuo TatsukawaThree catchers are ranked in the top 20.
  9. ^ "A head-to-head battle for the top hitter. (Yasuhisa Ebisawa)”(Japanese). Number Web-Number. 2021/2/21Browse.
  10. ^ “Most saved pitchers, in an ugly title battle without a match”. Focus taiwan (Chuotsusha). (November 2013, 12). http://japan.cna.com.tw/news/aart/201210020009.aspx 2014/1/8Browse. 
  11. ^ "Awa considers the painful "Goodbye catcher balk at the time of avoidance"”(Japanese). High school baseball dot com. 2019/5/1Browse.
  12. ^ Record of all time Intentional walk [total record] -NPB official site
  13. ^ Record of all time Intentional walk [Season record] -NPB official site
  14. ^ http://www.baseball-reference.com/players/split.cgi?id=bondsba01&year=Career&t=b#bases::none [Broken link]
  15. ^ http://www.baseball-reference.com/players/split.cgi?id=bondsba01&year=Career&t=b#count::none [Broken link]
  16. ^ Total record (MLB) -Baseball-Reference.com
  17. ^ Season record (MLB) -Baseball-Reference.com


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