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🥋 | <Wrestling> [2021 World Championship Review (11)] Women's 57kg class / winner, awards ceremony, after the fight


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<Wrestling> [2021 World Championship Review (11)] Women's 57 kg class / winner, awards ceremony, after the fight

 
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(I missed the 2019 tournament because of my concussion) I was excited to be able to participate in the world championships.
 

(October 2021-10, 2, Oslo, Norway) [Women's 10 kg class, victory] Helen Maroulis (Ma ... → Continue reading

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Concussion

Concussion(Concussion,British: cerebral concussion,brain concussion) Is the most frequentTraumatic brain injuryIs the type ofheadA condition accompanied by transient and reversible loss of consciousness and memory that develops immediately after being shocked by a patient, resulting in temporary dysfunction or partial damage or slight bleeding.[1].

Commentary

Concussion is said to occur when shaken by the impact of rotational acceleration[2]Diffuse brain injury where the site of injury cannot be identified[3]so,Mild traumatic brain injury (Mild traumatic brain injury, MTBI), a concept used for mild pathological conditions. Impaired consciousness for 6 hours or more[4]Is classified as (diffuse axonal injury (DAI))[1]..脳震盪を一度起こすと2度目のリスクが2 - 5.8倍上昇し繰り返すほど症状は重くなるOnce you have a concussion, the risk for the second time increases XNUMX-XNUMX times and the more you repeat, the more severe the symptoms.[2]..Also, if you are shocked again (returning to the competition) with the symptoms remaining,Second impact syndromeMay develop and become fatal or have serious aftereffects[2][5]..なお、セカンドインパクト症候群の実態解明は不十分と報告されているIt has been reported that the actual condition of second impact syndrome has not been fully elucidated.[2].

"Shaking" means shaking violently, and "shaking"漢字Do not use "ConcussionIs often written.スポーツ時のものはFor sportsSports disorderIt is also classified as.脳震盪を繰り返すと、将来になって、様々なダメージが出てくる事が明らかとなり、深刻に取り扱うべきとされているRepeated concussion has revealed that various damages will occur in the future, and it is said that it should be treated seriously.[6].

Cause

Due to excessive release of neurotransmitters caused by relatively soft objects and long-term impact (including rotation) on the head and chinbrainBrain dysfunction due to metabolic disorders.堅い物との短時間の衝撃では、「頭蓋骨骨折」「脳挫傷」「硬膜下出血」を発症するA short impact with a hard object causes "skull fracture," "cerebral contusion," and "subdural bleeding."[1].

symptom

Warning sign[7]
Seizures
Exacerbation of headache
Difficulty in waking up
Two emphasis
Difficult to recognize people and places
Repeated vomiting
Focus nerve problems
Not a normal self

In mild cases, without loss of consciousness[8], In many cases, no abnormality is found in general diagnostic imaging[9]..脳神経伝達物質の代謝異常により情報処理速度、注意力・集中力の低下、記憶の機能障害などの症状が生じる事があり代謝が正常に戻るまで、年齢、性別により差があり2週間から6週間必要とする報告があるAbnormal metabolism of cranial nerve mediators may cause symptoms such as information processing speed, decreased attention / concentration, and memory dysfunction. It takes XNUMX to XNUMX weeks depending on age and gender until metabolism returns to normal. I have a report I need[8]..女性は症状が強く出やすいとされるWomen are said to have strong symptoms[8].

  • Loss of consciousness
It can range from a mild moment to several hours.Even for a short time, the person often does not understand what happened.衝撃印加後、数時間してから意識喪失することもあるYou may lose consciousness several hours after applying the impact.[2].
Commonly seen after loss of consciousness.The memory before and after is confused, and the memory immediately after is not clear.
Due to turbidity of consciousness and paralysis of balance.
Mild ones may not develop, but severe ones may hurt with exercise for several months.

Sequelae

Metabolism of brain neurotransmitters normalizes in about 6 weeks, but even after normalization, neuropsychological symptoms (cognitive dysfunction) such as "decreased attention / concentration" and "memory disorder"Dizziness, Fatigue, headache, sleep disorders, etc. Various post-concussion syndrome symptoms (IDC-10) may appear[10][2].

By repeating concussion, after a few yearsChronic traumatic encephalopathy May lead to (chronic traumatic encephalopathy, CTE)[2].

Diagnosis

Diagnosis based on the external findings described below relies on the patient's subjective complaints, so the accuracy of the diagnosis is often lacking and the condition is observed for several hours. It may progress to the aftereffects of physical disability.この様な事情を背景として、血液検査により脳の損傷程度を把握する手法が 2016年に報告されているが臨床応用には至っていないAgainst this background, a method for grasping the degree of brain damage by blood tests was reported in XNUMX, but it has not reached clinical application.[11].

Differential diagnosis

The main diseases that need to be differentiated from more serious diseases are as follows.

In sports

Treatment of concussion in football and rugby

Athletes (athletes) who fall under any one of "concussion", "suspected concussion", and "abnormal balance test"Immediate exitIt is not possible to continue the competition and practice.In addition, it is essential to see a doctor or see a medical institution.In addition, for at least 14 days after injury, no exercise is allowed and rest.aspirin-PainkillerDo not use[12][13]Etc. have been announced as guidelines.

In addition, when returning to competition, it is required to return according to the Gradual Return to Competition Protocol (GRTP).[14].

What is the suspected concussion?
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Vague
  • Vomiting
  • Play improperly
  • Stagger
  • Slow reaction
  • Emotional changes (excitement, anger, nervousness, anxiety)
What are the suspected concussion symptoms?
  • Headache (to the extent that you cannot continue playing)
  • Stagger
  • Feeling in the fog
  • I cannot answer the following questions correctly (disorientation / memory disorder)
    • "Tell me your team name" "What month and day is it today?" "Where is this stadium?" "Which is the first half or the second half now?" 』\
What is a balance test?

"Stand in a straight line with the non-dominant foot behind and the heel of the opposite foot on its toes.Put your weight evenly on your legs, put your hands on your hips, close your eyes and stand still for 20 seconds.If you lose your balance, open your eyes, return to your original posture, and keep your eyes closed. ”

At this time, if you lose your balance 20 times or more in 6 seconds (if the following happens), you will leave.

  • Hands move away from the waist
  • Open your eyes
  • Stagger
  • I can't return to my original posture for more than 5 seconds

prevention

"Helmet" "Headgear" "Mouthguard" to reduce the impact on the head[15]It has been reported that wearing orthoses such as these has a certain effect.[8]..また、頸部筋肉の強化もリスク軽減に効果があるとされているIn addition, strengthening the neck muscles is also said to be effective in reducing risk.[8]..更に、指導者に対する講習会や知識の普及や啓発活動は有用であるFurthermore, seminars for leaders, dissemination of knowledge, and educational activities are useful.[16].

footnote

  1. ^ a b c Shigeru Aomura, "Elucidation of head traumatic mechanism in concussion and DAI (keynote speech) Current status and issues"Proceedings of Academic Lectures of the Society of Precision Engineering" 2015 Spring Meeting of the Society of Precision Engineering Session ID: O73, two:10.11522 / pscjspe.2015S.0_925
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Shinji Nagahiro, Yoshifumi Mizobuchi,Visualize sports head injuries "Journal of Neurosurgery" Vol.23 (2014) No.12 p.957-964, two:10.7887 / jcns.23.957
  3. ^ "Recent Advances in Brain Injury Generation Mechanisms," Journal of Visual Informatics, Vol. 20, No. 1 Supplement, 2000, pp. 11-16, two:10.3154 / jvs.20.1 Supplement_11.
  4. ^ Michio Yamaguchi,Head Injury in Sports Consciousness Impairment Due to Mild Head Injury Physical Fitness Science Vol.56 (2007) No.1 P.20-23, two:10.7600 / jspfsm.56.20
  5. ^ Cantu RC: Second-impact syndrome. Clin Sports Med 17: 37-44, 1998., two:10.1016 / S0278-5919 (05) 70059-4
  6. ^ IRB Concussion Guidelines (PDF) Japan Rugby Football Association
  7. ^ "Guidelines for Diagnosing and Managing Pediatric Concussion (pdf) ”(June 2014). 2014/8/2Browse.
  8. ^ a b c d e Kazumasa Nakata, {{Diagnostic treatment of concussion by sports}}
  9. ^ Handling of concussion in rugby (September 2011, 9) Someya Internal Medicine Clinic
  10. ^ Akira Senzaki,Symptoms / Disorders and Recovery After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) The Japanese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. Vol.53 (2016) No.4 p.298-304, two:10.2490 / jjrmc.53.298
  11. ^ Tadashi Kawai,World Clinical Laboratory Communication Series-8, New Blood Test for Differential Diagnosis of Shake-Development of POC Equipment Useful for Emergency Medicine Modern Media October 2016 Issue (Volume 10 Issue 62)
  12. ^ "Concussion / Suspected Concussion" Simple Judgment Table Japan Rugby Football Association (PDF)
  13. ^ If you suspect a concussion Japan Rugby Football Association
  14. ^ Concussion guidelines, etc.
  15. ^ Shuhei Sumiyoshi, Toshiyuki Nanbu, Takeshi Honda, etc.Mouthguard sports trauma prevention effect Finite element method analysis assuming chin bruise Journal of the Japanese Society of Oral Surgery Vol.42 (1996) No.12 P.1192-1199, two:10.5794 / jjoms.42.1192
  16. ^ Mana Otomo and others, "Knowledge of concussion of junior high school teachers and sports instructors in Japan, awareness survey and examination of usefulness of training (PDF) Journal of Japanese Society of Clinical Sports Medicine 23 (3), 577-583, 2015, NOT 40020587518

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