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🏛 | India: Efforts to tackle climate change led by child activist Rishippriya Kangjam


India: Climate Change Initiatives Led by Child Activist Risiprya Kangjam

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In 2020, Indians will need two masks to protect themselves from air pollution and the coronavirus.

UNESCO Partners Forum (Vienna Luanda ...) held in Angola on September 2019, 9 → Continue reading

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Air pollution

Air pollutionWhat is (Taikiosen)?atmosphereInFine particlesOr harmfulgasThe ingredients have increased,People OfHealth,EnvironmentHave a negative effect on. HumanEconomyTarget社会Activity is the main cause. Occurs naturallyVolcanoeruption,Sandstorm,Forest fireEtc., but naturally derived substances may not be included in air pollution.[1][2].


International Energy AgencyAccording to the (IEA), 2016 million people die annually from air pollution as of 650[3].. EspeciallycityThe pollution is getting worse mainly inEconomic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD) in 2012, “In 2050 there will be deaths from air pollution.Water pollutionBeyond the dead byEnvironmental deteriorationWill be the biggest cause of deaths due to[4].

whoA May 2018, 5 (WHO) statement estimates that about 2% of the world's population live in polluted atmospheres, resulting in 90 million deaths annually[5].

Note that air pollution mainly refers to air pollution outdoors. Atmosphere in the room (空 気) Pollution is "Air quality"Air pollution" "air quality (air quality) deterioration". In developing countriesfirewoodWhile indoor pollution is far higher than outdoor pollution due to the large number of uses,[6]In urban areas, outdoor pollution due to urbanization is added to this.[4].firewoodAs of 2016, 350 million people were killed due to indoor pollution due to[7].


The manifestation of air pollution

The oldest literature on air pollution is:AD61/AncientRome Ofセ ネ カIn the cityThere is a description that lamented the stench[8][9].

The air of the heavy city, and when cooking begins,
Exhaling devastating smoke mixed with steam and tin
kitchen. As soon as I escape from that horrible stench,
I felt my health regained instantly.
Seneca, 61 years[10]

United Kingdom OfUKThen.9st centuryThe "bad air" was already known in the middle. Industrial and household developmentheating OffuelAscoalDue to the increase in the use of1273/As a health hazardcoalProhibited.1306/Banned craftsmen from burning coal in furnaces. However, it did not last long because there was no alternative fuel, and became more serious as the city grew and the population increased.16st centuryIsInfection,Big fireAt the same time, air pollution became a big problem. Queen at the timeElizabeth IIHas issued an order banning burning coal in London during the parliament.Also,17st centuryKing of the second halfWilliam IIAvoiding air pollution in downtown London,SuburbMetKensington PalaceContamination continued, such as moving to[2][8][9][11].

In London19st centuryWhen entering, air pollution became so serious that the "increased number of fatalities" was announced during periods of severe pollution.1905/The doctor HA De Bo is a smog (combined smoke and fog) against London air pollution.smog) Was used for the first time[2].. The following are examples of large-scale air pollution in the world from the first half of the 20th century.

  • 1910 era Of1910/から1920/ OfUKThen in the citySootThe amount of descent is 1km2200 tons per year (1m per day2Per 0.6gEquivalent to)[2].
  • March 1930 Belgium OfRiver maasAlong the town Engis(English)so,工場The pollution caused by exhausted smog caused a health hazard, killing 10 people, which is 60 times the normal number of deaths.家畜Also damaged birds and plants[2][11][12]. ((English edition
  • From around 1944 The United States of AmericaLos AngelesSo my eyes, my nose,AirwaySuch asMucosaAir pollution has started to occur due to "white smog" with persistent and repetitive stimuli. At first I was not sure what the causative agent was, but laterPhotochemical oxidantIt turned out to be due to. Los angelesbasinPollutants are likely to stay in the terrain,(I.e.In the summer of 1951 when the wind was weak, about 400 elderly people died. Measures are being taken, but they have continued since the beginning of the 21st century[2][11].
  • October 1948 AmericanPennsylvaniaDonora(Donora), pollution from factory exhausts occurred, 14000% of the 43 people were seriously injured and 18 died. Later, it was analyzed that the persistent windless condition and the valley-like terrain along the river caused contaminants to accumulate and damage to be increased.[2][11]. ((English edition
  • March 1950 Mexico OfVeracruzPoza Rica(Poza Rica), a large amount ofHydrogen sulfideGas leaked killing 22000 of the 22 inhabitants. Later, there was a weak wind in the basin(I.e.It has been analyzed that the occurrence of[2][11].
  • December 1952 in LondonSulfur dioxideThick smog rich in (sulfurous acid gas) stagnated for five days, killing about 5 people. With this as a trigger, the Air Purification Law was enacted in England.[2][11].. A similar large smog occurred in January 1962, killing hundreds of people.[2]. (London smog
  • September 1984-12, 2 India OfMadhya PradeshBhopalAt a chemical plant inMethyl isocyanateA total of 2 tons spilled over about 40 hours, and the wind caused it to flow into the city and stagnant, causing health hazards to residents. The death toll is estimated to be 14,000 to 20,000 and the number of victims to be 35 to 40, with 4,000 livestock cattle dead and sequelae reported. The damage was magnified by the fact that the specific gravity of the pollutants was heavy, the air mix was low at midnight, and the residents could not evacuate due to the lack of appropriate measures.[13]. (Bhopal chemical plant accident
  • 2013/From January 1th,People's Republic of ChinaThe capital ofBeijingCentered onNorth ChinaHigh-concentration pollution (smog) occurred in a wide area of ​​and continued for three weeks until the beginning of February. During the week when the pollution was the worst,North ChinaからZhongyuanさ ら にEast ChinaThroughKumo KogenThe outbreak of high-concentration pollution (smog) was confirmed in about one-third of the country (which is said to be one-quarter in a later announcement), and on January 3, about half of the 1 major cities in China. soAir quality indexReached the worst "serious pollution" level[14][15].
  • January 2018, 1 A PM30 concentration of 3,320 ㎍/㎥ (133 times the international standard set by WHO) was observed in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia. In recent years, in Mongolia,Air pollution becomes more seriousAnd pneumonia is prevalent among children[16].

Research and coping progress

It was only in the 20th century that research on air pollution progressed. As a prominent research,Urban climateDiscussing air pollution in the world (A. Clazzer(en), 1937, Germany), discussing the relationship between coal consumption in industrial areas and cities and air pollution and dust (CEP Brooks, 1950), and examining and comparing air pollution in and around parks in London ( CWK Wayne Wright, 1962), with air pollutionLand use planning(RE Man, 1959). The knowledge gathered through these advances to legislation and prediction of air pollution[8].

JapanThen,High economic growthIn the 1960s of the period, research progressed as air pollution increased. As an early prominent studyTokyo-(I.e.There is a research by Ito and Minowa who described the air pollution of, and both authors wrote "Air pollution meteorological handbook" in 1965 based on this. In 1966, the academic journal "Air Pollution Research" (currentJournal of Atmospheric Environment Society) Has been published. From around this time, systematic research led by the government such as the national and local governments became active.[8].. Enacted and enforced in 1967Basic Law for Pollution ControlAt "Typical SevenPollutionAir pollution regulation was started as one of theBasic Environmental LawWas inherited by. In 1968Air Pollution Control LawHas been established.

ChugokuResearch began in the 1980s, and in 2001Air qualityTV broadcasting of forecast has started[8].

Industrial revolutionSince then, the main fuel has beencoalAnd, there was much air pollution due to "black smog," which contained a lot of soot and smoke associated with the combustion of coal. To address this, soot emissions were regulated. Since the airflow was stable and easy to diffuse as the soot was sent to the sky, measures were taken to raise the chimney in the early stages of regulation. For example, in Japan, the number of stack chimneys that increased in height from around 1970, the early stage of air pollution control measures, has increased. However, this was not an essential solution, it merely reduced the concentration on the ground near the source and diffused the pollution. Later, a device for collecting soot was developed and popularized,Exhaust gas treatmentAdvances[2][8].

Diversification of pollution and pollution of white smog and photochemical smog

on the other hand,Developed countrySo from the middle of the 20th century, the main fuel is coal that produces a lot of sootoilWas replaced by. The amount of soot was reduced by this, but it was derived from the sulfur content in the oil.Sulfur oxides, Again emitted from the carNitrogen oxide-hydrocarbon, Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons cause chemical changesPhotochemical oxidant"White smog" containing a lot of these became the center of air pollution[2][8].

Sulfur dioxideAs a measure against, recover sulfur contentDesulfurizationDevelopment and popularization of the device were promoted. In Japan, the desulfurization equipment has been installed since around 1970,TokyoSulfur dioxide concentration of about 1960 in the latter half of the 60sppbFrom 1970 to 1985, it decreased to about one-fifth, and it became about 5 ppb in the early 1s. Also in Americaニ ュ ー ヨ ー クHowever, it has decreased to about 1960/80 of the most common period in 1990-11 years, such as decreasing from about 20 ppb in the late 30s to about 6 ppb in the early 1s.[2][8].. Also in the USAir Purification LawSulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury in the 1990 revision ofEmissions tradingA system has been introduced to help reduce total emissions[17].

In this way, soot and sulfur oxides were reduced in developed countries, but next is white smog containing a large amount of photochemical oxidant, the so-called "Photochemical smogWas a problem. It first occurred in 1970 in Japan. Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons that cause photochemical oxidants have not been reduced significantly even in developed countries.[2][8].

In developed countries, where pollution causing short-term health hazards has decreased, interest in long-term health effects has increased,Volatile organic compoundsSuch as harmfulChemical substanceBecame a problem. These have also been regulated and the health effects are still being evaluated.[2][8][18].

on the other hand,Greenhouse gasbyGlobal warming,FreonDue toozone layerDestruction of global air pollution (Global environmental problems).

Also, although the full picture of the damage was not revealed, in the 1950s and 1960sAtmospheric nuclear testOn a global scaleFalloutConcentration of (falling matterradioactivity) Has risen. After that, it declined and almost disappeared in the 1990s[19].

High pollution risk in developing countries and cross-border pollution problem

Economic level and pollutant ratio (UNHSP, 1990-1995)[20]
Economic level/pollutantsAnnual average concentration
Developing country Nitrogen dioxide
63 µg/m2
〃 sulfur dioxide
48 µg/m2
〃 particulate matter
187 µg/m2
Middle-earth countries Nitrogen dioxide
56 µg/m2
〃 sulfur dioxide
32 µg/m2
〃 particulate matter
70 µg/m2
Developed country Nitrogen dioxide
52 µg/m2
〃 sulfur dioxide
20 µg/m2
〃 particulate matter
53 µg/m2

In developing countries, air pollution mainly from soot and sulfur dioxide, which has been successfully reduced in developed countries, is still seen[2][8].Developing countriesAnd air pollutant concentrations in developed countriesUnited Nations Human Settlement PlanAccording to (UNHSP) 1990-1995 data, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide does not differ significantly between the two, but sulfur dioxide is about 2.5 times in developing countries and about 3.5 times in particulate matter as in developed countries. ..Asia-Africa-Latin AmericaPollution is a serious problem in cities and industrial areas with rapidly increasing population[21][20].

on the other hand,EuropeThen from the 1960s(I.e.Due to the serious damage to the organisms caused by the disaster, interest in cross-border pollution increased. In 1969, the OECD recommended the need for international cooperation on the acid rain issue. In 1972Western EuropeMonitoring frameworks have been established in 11 countries. Same yearUnited Nations Human Environment ConferenceThen, acid rain that crossed the border became one of the agenda items, and the situation of damage was reported to the world. Each country in 1(English edition (CLRTAP) was signed and became effective in 1983, becoming the world's first treaty on transboundary air pollution. It stipulates that countermeasures, monitoring, and information exchange will be carried out in each member country, and it will be gradually expanded thereafter.[22][23][24][25].North America OfCanadaBetween the United States and the United States, acid rain became a problem as transboundary pollution in the 1970s, and the arguments were initially conflicting, but since the two countries signed a memorandum of understanding in 1980, monitoring and information exchange proceeded, and in 1991(English editionHave signed[22][25].

In Europe and North America, in order to clarify such pollution situation, data such as emission amount and deposition amount of each country are prepared and published. For example, in Northern EuropeSwedenIn that case, 93% of sulfur oxides and 87% of nitrogen oxides are imported from overseas and deposited (as of 1994).[25].

Southeast AsiaThen,森林(熱 帯 雨林) Fire andpeatLarge smoke of fireHazeTransboundary pollution that spread to neighboring countries has become more serious since the 1980s. About 1997 in 1998-9km2Due to the widespread fireEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Indonesia,Malaysia,フィリピン,Singapore,ThailandLargest haze ever spread to 6 countries in 2006-2007Cambodia,Laos,Myanmar, In 4 countries of ThailandAir quality index(AQI) is "Unhealthy"[Note 1]There is a large-scale haze. To deal with this,Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN) member states in 2002(English editionHas entered into force (effective in 2003) and has arranged information provision and cooperation prevention measures between countries.[26].. However, due to the fact that Indonesia, which has 7% of the peat area in the region, has not ratified the treaty,Oil palm(Palm oilClearing for production is the main cause of deforestation, exposed and dried by loggingpeatHas caused a fire, etc., and transboundary haze pollution has frequently occurred since then.[27].

Cross-border pollution, such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, acid rain, smog and fumes, has similarly large sources.India,バングラデシュSuch asSouth Asia, China, South Korea, Japan etc.East AsiaBut it is happening. East Asia monitoring trends in causative agents of acid rain in 1998East Asia Acid Rain Monitoring Network(EANET) has been launched.

Causes of air pollution

Pollutants and sources of emissions

Air pollutants (also called “pollutants”) are particles (solidcomponent·liquidComponent) and gas (gasIngredients) can be divided into two.The main pollutants and their emission sources are as follows.

Represented by PM2.5Particulate matterIncluding a lot.The main source of emissions isThermal power plant,Incinerator,Burning,Wood-burning stove,暖炉,fireworks(Firecracker)Such.

Volcanic ashAnd so on.The main source of emissions isVolcano Oferuption,Sandstormetc.

Carbon monoxide,Sulfur oxides,Nitrogen oxide Is typical.The main source of emissions isAutomobileetc.

Exhaust gas etc.Photochemical reactionOccurs.It is a lot of pollution in cities.Photochemical smogAlso called.

FormaldehydeSuch asaldehydeKind,Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonPart of (PAH),DioxinsEtc.) are typical.BurningoilDue to volatilization from the product.Sick house syndromeIs the cause ofIndoor air qualityIt is often used as an indicator substance.

  • asbestos

mineralAnd industrial products.

Although it is a major indoor air pollutant, there is also a view that it is an air pollutant.[28],America CaliforniaTobacco smoke is designated as an air pollutant[29].

  • Ozone depleting substances

Although it does not directly affect human health,Freon,Halong,Alternative FreonDue to "Ozone depleting substances"ozone layerDestruction (Ozone hole),carbon dioxide,methane,Nitrous oxide,Sulfur hexafluorideSuch asGreenhouse gas"byGlobal warmingMay also be included in air pollution in a broad sense.

Of these, soot, dust, exhaust fumes, and photochemical oxidants are "classical" air pollutants, and dioxin and asbestos are air pollutants that have become a problem since then.[1][2][8][30].. The amount at which each substance begins to exert adverse effects (Threshold) Is called an air pollutant[31]..As a legal term, JapanAir Pollution Control LawDesignates specific components in each of the 5 types of "smoke", "dust", "vehicle exhaust gas", "specific substances", and "hazardous air pollutants" as air pollutants[32].


Emission intensity of major industrial countries
GDP1,000DollarPer kg, Source:OECD,Year 2005[33]
It should be noted that simple comparisons cannot be made because the definitions, calculation methods, and lifestyle/industrial structures differ from country to country.
[Note 2]
South Korea 2004/
United Kingdom0.
EU15 countries
(As of 2005)
OECD average1.

Adverse effects

Impact on health and public health

Sulfur dioxideRespiratorSymptoms andOphthalmologySymptoms, nitrogen oxides are respiratory symptoms, ozone, which accounts for the majority of photochemical oxidants, does not cause symptoms alone, but hydrocarbons cause eye irritation. Particulate matter is mainly respiratory symptoms, of whichlead Theanemia,NerveEach harmful substance has its own unique symptoms. Also, the strength varies depending on the substance,smellThere are many air pollutants withStenchMay also be recognized as[34].

List the overall impact of air pollution from a public health perspective. With short-term exposure,lungFunctional decline, acuteRespiratorSymptom (cough,Wheezing,sputum,Respiratory infections),eyeOcular symptoms associated with irritation to the skin, and the symptoms listed above as social impactsAbsence/absenceIncrease, social activity restrictions,Respiratory disease-Cardiovascular diseasePatient increase, totalmortality rateIncrease. With long-term exposure, (Low birth weight), chronicHeart disease,lung cancer, Chronic respiratory disease (asthma,Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), respiratoryPathologyChanges in morbidity and mortality of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Multiple studiesclimateIt is known that the high concentration of pollutants and the high mortality rate are proportional to each other, although there are differences depending on regions and social groups with different lifestyles and lifestyles.[2][35].

According to the IEA (2016), there are 300 million deaths worldwide each year due to outdoor air pollution. Similarly, there are 350 million deaths annually due to indoor air pollution. If air pollution is left unchecked, the number of deaths from air pollutants will increase by 2040 million in 150. On the other hand, in countries where indoor pollution is frequent, the number of deaths has been reduced to a certain extent by switching to electricity and gas, but the number decreased by 40 only 50 The annual death toll from pollution is estimated to be 40 million.

On the other hand, if countries in the world such as Asia improve the actual situation of fossil fuel consumption and strengthen the energy conservation policy to introduce clean energy, the death toll due to air pollution can be greatly reduced. Specifically, if the investment in the clean energy field is increased by 40% by 7 years, the total death toll due to air pollution and indoor pollution will be reduced by 330 million people.[36][37].. As an example, the concentration of PM10 is 70µg/m3To 30 µg/m3WHO will help countries to reduce air pollution-related fatalities by 15%.Air qualitySeeking improvement. In addition, the concentration of air pollutants is higher in cities than in rural areas and suburbs, and the relative risks are also greater. High risk of rapidly expanding cities, especially in developing countries[21][6]. AlsoEconomic Cooperation Development Organization(OECD) in Environmental Outlook 2050 (2012), deaths by cause of global environmental degradation in 2050 are due to air pollution in urban areas due to water pollution (drinking drinking water and insufficient sewerage). It is predicted that the number of[4].

Environmental impact

plantWhen is polluted with high concentration, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide cause yellow spots, browning and large spots,ozoneThen small spots, curved leaves,Necrosis, Deciduous, polycyclicAromatic hydrocarbonIt is known that large horizontal striped spots appear. Also, if you receive low-concentration pollution for a long time,photosynthesis,Breathe,TranspirationPhysiologic functions such ascropsYield loss occurs[38].

When the concentration of air pollutants is highVisibilityIs lowered[39], Noticeable deterioration of visibilitysmog(smog) orHazeRecognized as (haze).

Sulfur oxides have an effect on things-steel-Stone, Ozone is organicHigh molecular, Hydrogen sulfide isSilver,copper,Hydrogen chlorideHas a high reactivity with iron and steel, and has the effect of accelerating corrosion and deterioration. For example, in the 30s and 40s when the concentration of sulfur oxides was high, the concentration was high in Kanagawa Prefecture.Kawasaki CitySteel corrosion rate is Gifu PrefectureTakayamaHad reached 10 times[40].

Impact on business

People with children, in particular, may refuse to work in terrible smog and demand work in clean air.Also, in the tourism industry, tourists tend to avoid areas with severe air pollution as travel destinations, which is one of the causes of opportunity loss.Customers often ask about the degree of pollution.[1]

Contamination process

Schematic diagram of the process of air pollution[2]
Physical/scientific changes
(Photochemical reaction, aggregation, etc.)
Factors: ultraviolet rays, weather conditions, etc.
Factors: topography, weather conditions, etc.
拡 散
Incorporation into clouds
(Rain out)
Factors: topography, weather conditions, etc.
Incorporation into rain
(Wash out)
Generation source
(Emission of pollutants)
Factors: Emission amount, type, etc.
(Dry deposition)
(Wet deposition)
High concentration pollution
Sources of major air pollutants[41][42]
combustionDO NOTx, SO2, CO,
Volatilization from petroleum productsVOC, PAH
Car exhaustLead, manganese
Industrial wasteLead, cadmium
Passive smokingPM, PAH, arsenic,
Nicotine, acrolein
Photochemical reactionozone
Volcanic activitySO2
Biological activityCO2, VOC
Differences in air pollution levels between rural areas, cities, and roads
(2001, Europe[43])
Nitrogen oxide
6 - 23
17 - 38
24 - 57
Particulate matter
13 - 34
16 - 36
23 - 46
42 - 79
31 - 52
24 - 50
Unit: µg/m2.. Nitrogen oxides and particulate matter have higher concentrations as they are closer to the source, whereas ozone takes longer to generate, and as a result, higher concentrations are observed in rural areas away from the source.

The process of air pollution begins with the emission of pollutants from the source. Sources are divided into fixed sources and mobile sources, the former is further divided into “point sources” such as factories and “source areas” such as roads and the entire city, and the latter are automobiles etc.[2].

The next pollutant released is the atmospheric flow (Wind) Will be transported by. Part of it undergoes physical and chemical changes or is taken up by other substances during the transportation stage. For example, nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons in the atmosphereUVIn responsereactionProduces photochemical oxidants, sulfur dioxideWed-ammoniaReacts withOxidationdo itSulfuric acid(Sulfuric acid droplets) and sulfuric acid aerosol such as sulfate are generated, and nitrogen oxides react with oxidation and ammonia.nitric acidIt produces nitric acid aerosols such as (nitric acid droplets) and nitrates. Substances that are secondarily generated from pollutants in the air in this way are called "secondary pollutants" and are distinguished from ordinary "primary pollutants". Among secondary pollutants, there are not a few that react with each other to form fine particles of liquid or solid.NanometerIt is said that most of the (nm)-sized particulate matter is generated by the reaction in such a gas.[2][44].

The gas component isCloud drop,RaindropsDissolved in, and the particulate matterCloud nucleusIt works as a trap or is caught by falling raindrops and is taken into the raindrops.(I.e.Rain out that is taken in and removed from the atmosphere,(I.e.It is called washout that it is taken in and removed from the atmosphere. Ingested air pollutants pollute rain and, if acidic,(I.e.Contribute to the occurrence of[2].

In addition, some of the particulate matter aggregates with each other to increase the size. Large particles fall due to gravity during the transportation stage. Anything that falls is deposited on the surface of the ground or plants (Accumulation) But is removed from the atmosphere, but oftenSoil contamination,Water pollutionTransition to. It is said that when the particle size is less than 1 µm, the air resistance and the gravitational acceleration are almost equal, and almost no fall occurs.[2].

Transportation isterrain,weatherIt depends greatly on the conditions, usually by the wind拡 散(Atmospheric diffusionThe concentration will decrease with increasing distance from the source. Air pollutants are mostly fluidWhirlpool,TurbulenceIt is known to make a dynamic diffusion movement, and the stronger the wind in the vertical direction than in the horizontal direction, the easier it is for diffusion. However, under certain conditions, contaminants accumulate and cause high-concentration pollution.[2].

High concentration pollution has a weak wind (orNo windStable as a weather condition that causes a weak wind.Pressure gradientLoose(I.e.Within the range ofTemperature decrease rateDecreases/reversesStable layer,Temperature inversionAs a condition of the terrainvalley,basinThat is. In the middle of the 20th century, when air pollution became a problem, high-concentration pollution frequently occurred under such conditions. In the daytime, turbulence and convection around the ground are active, but at nightRadiation coolingIt is also known that a stable layer/inverted layer is generated by this and pollutants easily stay (diurnal change). In addition to thisSea breezeDue to[2][8].

For example,Kanto regionThen, photochemical smog generated mainly from afternoon to sunset rides on the sea breeze after sunset (MesoscaleIt is also observed as the sea breeze front, which is the front of the island.City center,Keihin Industrial AreaThe highest concentration of nitrogen oxides, and the highest concentration of photochemical oxidants in the inland Kanto area.ChibaAlso in the survey in Japan, the values ​​of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are high in the northwestern part near Tokyo, but the values ​​of photochemical oxidants are high in the northern, eastern and southern parts.[2][8].. Even in Europe, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter are high in cities, especially roads, but ozone is higher in rural areas.[43].

In addition, (I.e.The change in the wind direction also affects the distribution. The above-mentioned survey in Chiba Prefecture also revealed that the distribution of high concentration regions changes depending on the season. Seasonal changes also occur due to changes in emissions, such as soot and carbon monoxide increase due to the use of heating in winter.[2][8].

In cities, buildings weaken the wind and can trap particulate matter and gases, creating high concentrations in parts.[2][8].

Another factor of pollution is the duration of pollution. It depends on the duration of the release from the source, the time it takes for some pollutants to be decomposed and rendered harmless, topography and weather conditions. The duration of pollution and the spatial and temporal scales are correlated, and the scale is roughly determined by substances and sources. High-concentration pollution around highways and factories is in the high-concentration range of several hundred m-1 km. ・It takes about 10 minutes to 1 hour from the start of pollution to the start of pollution. When it comes to large cities and factory areas, it takes about 1-10km and 1-10 hours. Photochemical smog and acid rain are tens to hundreds of kilometers long and take a few days at the longest. In the ozone hole and global warming, it will be a very large scale of thousands to 1 km for 1-100 years.[2].


Pollutant recovery

As a method of recovery, a device for recovering particulate matter, soot and dust, sulfur oxide and the sulfur component that is the source thereof are recovered.DesulfurizationEquipment, equipment for collecting nitrogen oxides (denitrification equipment), etc. In case of collectionwasteAs a high concentration of pollutants is generated as a result, proper disposal and effective use of this become a problem. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia, which is one of the denitration technologies, is a by-product.Ammonium sulfateIt occurs (mainly used for fertilizers), but has the drawback of acidifying the soil.limeAs a by-product石膏However, in Japan, lime has a high self-sufficiency rate while gypsum has a low self-sufficiency rate. Other than that,Sodium hydroxide,sodium carbonateDesulfurization usingSodium sulfite,Sodium sulfateHow to get (paper mill etc.),Activated carbonAnd a method of simultaneously adsorbing sulfur oxides and decomposing nitrogen oxides. Utilization of by-products occurs in the combustion of coalFly ashCollectcementThere is also a technology to use as a raw material for, and a technology to recover the exhaust gas contained in the blast furnace and return it to the furnace. For harmful chemicals such as hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide, activated carbon,Zeolite,silica gelThere is a method of adsorbing with. Diesel vehicles collect particulatesDiesel particulate collection filter(DPF) is also used[45].

In dust collection, relatively large particles of about 1 mm-50 µm use sedimentation due to gravity, and particles of 100-several µm control the air flow.inertiaAnd drop it withCentrifugal forceFor high efficiency,WedCollect by sprayingScrubber, Mechanically collectFilter,Static electricityThe electric dust that is collected in[46].

In operation management, the fuel is controlled by controlling the mixing ratio of air used for combustion (air ratio) to an appropriate level.Perfect combustionThere is a method for reducing pollutants. Keeping the combustion temperature low also reduces nitrogen oxides. Leads to reduction of nitrogen oxides in automobilesExhaust gas recirculationand so on.gasolineHydrocarbons are included in the volatilization at the time of refueling (gasoline vapor), and there is a method of reducing this by shutting down the piping during refueling to suppress volatilization.[47].


Emission regulation (total regulation)

Environmental assessmentA method of controlling the total amount of pollutants emitted by implementing and setting emission allowances.

Replacement of old technology

ア ラ ス カ 州-FairbanksWas polluted enough to be recognized as the "most polluted city" by the American Lung Association,Wood-burning stoveSince we switched to oil and gas heating, we have succeeded in reducing pollution.Oregon-PortlandLet's make the wood stove electricheat pumpIs recommended to replace with[48].


Environmental educationObligatory (Pollution prevention managerな ど

Setting of international agreement

The major international agreements on air pollution are as follows.

  • Europe: in 1979(English edition Conclude (CLRTAP),United Nations Economic Commission for EuropeAs the secretariat, and with this treaty as a major framework, eight international treaties were concluded. The Helsinki Protocol of 8 and the Oslo Protocol of 1985 set sulfur oxide emissions reductions, and the Sofia Protocol of 1994 set emission reductions of nitrogen oxides. As of February 1988, 2013 countries including the United States and Canada outside the region are participating[22][49].
  • North America: Between the United States and Canada in 1991(English editionWas signed and revised in 2000. Decreased emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides[22][50][51].
  • Southeast Asia:Association of Southeast Asian NationsIn 2002 as a secretariat(English editionHave signed[26].
  • East Asia: There are no international agreements. As an international framework for research cooperationEast Asia Acid Rain Monitoring Network (EANET) is available.
  • Ship: Prescribing Marine Pollution Prevention in a Global FrameworkMarpole TreatyHas added regulations on air pollution since the 1997 revised version. Establishes standards for the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas of ships and the sulfur content in fuel oil[52].
  • aircraft: A UN specialized agency that most countries joinInternational Civil Aviation OrganizationSets standards for aircraft emissions[52].

As a method to reduce pollution mainly by installing it between the area where pollution occurs and the place of residence,GreeningByGreen belt,parkThere is a method of providing a "buffer green space" such as. It has the effect of depositing dust and particulate matter and absorbing carbon dioxide and other gases. According to (Zhang, 2002), the reduction rate of dust in the atmosphere passing through the green areas of open forests in Beijing decreases to about 61% in winter, compared with 20% in summer. However, since it causes pollution to plants, soil and water in the green area, reducing the total emission is essentially the most effective measure against air pollution.[2][8][53].. In order to reduce total emissions, when developing one city,subway,TrainLow environmental impact such asPublic transportAndBicycleDoes not emit exhaust gas such asnon-motorized vehicleFor smooth trafficBicycle roadSuch as road network maintenance,Land use planningIt is also important to weave in advance at the stage of. This is a result of the combination of a well-meshed expressway network, suburban residential areas, and poor public transport conditions, resulting in "virtually difficult movement within the city without a car." Due to the occurrence of the situation, it was the earliest to suffer from the occurrence of "white smog" caused by the exhaust gas of automobiles.Los AngelesLessons from the failure of urban planning[54].

Setting environmental standards

In developed countries, environmental standards for air pollutants were set in the 1950s and 1970s. At the world level, in 1987who(WHO) The European Regional Secretariat has established the "Air Quality Guidelines for Europe" and established standards for 27 substances, which were expanded in 1999 and adjusted for global application. "Guidelines For Air Quality" was announced, and the standards for 2000 substances in 37 and 2005 substances in 4 were changed and added.[55][56].

Air pollution standard value for each country

Standard values ​​of major air pollutants in each country Unit: µg/m3(Converts and displays even those specified in ppm etc.)[57]
Sulfur dioxideNitrogen dioxidePM10PM2.5ozone
1/24 hours1 hours10 minutes1/24 hours1 hours1/24 hours1/24 hours8 hours1 hours
WHO (2005)-20-50040-20020501025100-
EU(1999/30 / EC, 2008/50 / EC)[58]-125350-40-200405025-120-
America(Federal government)
(NAAQS, 2012)[59]
-[Note 3]-[Note 3]0.075ppm
United States California
(CAAQS, 2009)[60]
= 105
= 655
= 56
= 338
= 137
= 180
Japan (2009)[61]-0.04ppm
= 105
= 262
= 113
= 118
Mexico(2006)78341----390501201565* 157216
South Africa(2004)50125-5009418837660180---235
(High-risk people/Residential/Industrial)
China (1996)
(1st/2nd/3rd grade[Note 4]
*1: High risk people/general. *2: Reference value for photochemical oxidants. *3:[Note 5]Converted based on.

WHO Air Quality Guidelines

Below is a list of air pollutants listed in the WHO Guidelines for Air Quality (WHO AQG(1999), WHO AQG(2000), WHO AQG(2005)) published in 1999, 2000 and 2005. is there. It is not possible to simply compare the magnitude of harm with the magnitude of the value of different substances. In addition, this value is a guideline value that independently evaluates the health effects of each substance, and does not take into consideration the synergistic effect when multiple substances are mixed.[62][63][64][55].

WHO Air Quality Guidelines (Carcinogenic riskOther than)(Unless noted, 2000)[55][63]
Average concentration range
(µg / m3)
Time average
(µg / m3)
Exposure time
Sulfur oxides(SOx)---
Sulfur dioxide(SO2)5-400[62]500[65]10 minutes
-1 hoursJapan: 0.1ppm[61]= Approx. 262 µg/m3[66]
20[65]24 hoursJapan: 0.04ppm[61]= Approx. 105 µg/m3[66]
Nitrogen oxide(I have notx)---
Nitrogen dioxide(I have not2)10-150[62][Note 6]200[65]1 hours
-24 hoursJapan: 0.04-0.06ppm[61]= Approx. 113 µg/m3[66]
Photochemical oxidant(OX)--1 hoursJapan: 0.06ppm=about 118µg/m3[61][66]
ozone(O3)10-100[62]100[65]8 hours
Particulate matter---
Suspended particulate matter
--1 hoursJapan: 200 µg/m3[61]
-24 hoursJapan: 100 µg/m3[61]
PM10Tens to hundreds[Note 7]50[65]24 hours
20[65]1 年 間
PM2.5Tens to hundreds[Note 7]25[65]24 hoursJapan: 35 µg/m3[61]
10[65]1 年 間Japan: 15 µg/m3[61]
organic matterCarbon monoxide(CO)60-140[Note 8]100,000 (90ppm)[67]15 minutes
60,000 (50ppm)[67]30 minutes
30,000 (25ppm)[67]1 hours
10,000 (10ppm)[67]8 hoursJapan: 20ppm[61]
-24 hoursJapan: 10ppm[61]
Formaldehyde0.001-0.02[Note 9]10030 minutes
Ethylbenzene1-10022,0001 年 間[62]
styrene1 or less-20[68]7030 minutes
2601 weeks
toluene5 or less-150[69]1,00030 minutes
2601 weeks
Xylene1-1004,80024 hours[62]
8701 年 間
Acrolein155030 minutes[62]
Acrylic acid-541 年 間[62]
Tetrachlorethylene1 or less-5[70]8,00030 minutesJapan: 1-year average of 200 µg/m3[61]
25024 hours
1,2-dichloroethaneAbout 0.2-1[Note 10]70024 hours
Dichloromethane5 or less[Note 11]3,00024 hoursJapan: 1-year average of 150 µg/m3[61]
Carbon disulfide10-1,500[71]2030 minutes
10024 hours
FluorideAbout 0.5-3[Note 12]-[Note 13]1 年 間
Hydrogen sulfide- [72]730 minutes
15024 hours
InorganicleadAbout 0.15-0.5[Note 14]0.51 年 間
cadmium- [73]0.0051 年 間IARC classification 1[73]
manganese0.01-0.07[Note 15]0.151 年 間
0.002-0.01[74]11 年 間Japan: (Mercury) Annual average 40 ngHg/m3(Guideline value)[75]
vanadium0.01-0.2[Note 16]124 hours
Note: The average concentration range is a guideline for the annual average outdoors, which is stated in the text in the source.
The principle is the world average, and "degree" is added to the average data only for a limited area such as Europe and the United States.
WHO Air Quality Guidelines (based on carcinogenic risk)(Unless noted, 2000)[55][64]
Average concentration range
(µg / m3)
GuidelinesIARC carcinogenicity classificationRemarks
Unit risk (UR) value
(1 µg/m3Value)
organic matterAcetaldehyde5(1.5-9)x10-72B[62]
Acrylonitrile[Note 17]2x10-52AJapan: Annual average value 2 µg/m3(Guideline value)[75]
benzene5-20[76]6x10-61Japan: 1-year average of 3 µg/m3[61]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH)-
Benzo[a]pyrene0.001 or less-about 0.01[Note 18]9x10-21[Note 18]
Benz [a] anthracene-(1.2-13)x10-4[62]-
(English edition-(0.4-0.87)x10-2[62]-
(English edition-(8.7-87)x10-4[62]-
(English edition0.1-0.7(0.6-3.0)x10-63[62]
Trichlorethylene1-10[77]4.3x10-72AJapan: 1-year average of 200 µg/m3[61]
Vinyl chloride0.1-10[78]1x10-61Japan: (Vinyl chloride monomer) Annual average value of 10 µg/m3(Guideline value)[75]
asbestos(asbestos)-[Note 19]1
Hexavalent chromium0.005-0.2[80]4x10-21
nickelpowder1-180[81]4x10-41Japan: (Nickel compound) Annual average 25 ngNi/m3(Guideline value)[75]
mixtureDiesel exhaust1-10(1.6-7.1)x10-52A[62]
Passive smoking(Environmental cigarette smoke1-10[82]1x10-3-
WHO air quality guideline, but setting of guideline value has been postponed (as of 2005)
Average concentration range
(µg / m3)
organic matteracetone0.5-125[62]
butadiene2-20 or less[Note 20]IARC classification 2A[Note 20]
Polychlorinated biphenyl(PCB)Estimated about 0.001[Note 21]IARC classification 2A[Note 21]
(PCDD, PCDF, etc.)
Estimated 0.1pg/m3degree[Note 22]IARC classification 2A[Note 22]
Japan: 1-year average of 0.6pg-TEQ/m3[61]
Inorganicplatinum- [Note 23][Note 23]
radonAbout 10[Note 24]IARC classification 1[Note 24]
mixture(MMVF)2-1,700 fiber/m3[Note 25][Note 25]
Due to lack of evidence (research and knowledge), it was deemed inappropriate to set a guideline value at the time of formulation.

Monitoring and forecasting

A quantitative representation of pollutants is in the atmosphereconcentration(weightRatiovolumeRatio), unitTime·unitareaThe amount of deposition (deposition) and the amount of fall (fall) per hit[2].. In order to monitor the state of air pollution, it is necessary to observe continuously for a long period of time.x, NOxIn order to observe major pollutants such as OX, OX, etc., it is often the case to install a measuring device capable of continuous automatic observation[83].

For particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5 are used as indicators worldwide. PM10 is a particle that passes through a particle sizer with a particle size of 10 µm and a collection efficiency of 50%, and PM2.5 is 2.5 µm. In the beginningFilter paperThe BS method that uses a high volume air sampler, and then the method that uses a high volume air sampler (for example, in the United States until the latter half of the 1980s) was used, but the accuracy is not high, and the method that uses a low volume air sampler, the particles collected by the filterBeta rayMethod of measuring by irradiation or vibration,EPAPM2.5 sampler is used. According to WHO data (2005), out of 10 cities with a population of over 3,400 in the world, PM10 is measured only in 216 cities, most of which are in North America and Europe. It has been pointed out that there are few[83][84].

Gaseous substances can be measured in various ways, but for continuous measurement,solventLet it absorbconductivityAnd the method of measuring the light transmittance, analyze from the spectrum obtained by infrared irradiationInfrared spectroscopy, Use UV/Vis/NIR irradiationUV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy, Etc. are used, it is difficult to perform continuous measurement.Gas chromatographyAre used[61][83].

Especially when there are few observation points, or when investigating pollution on a scale smaller than the interval between instrument observation points, air pollutionBiological indicatorIs vulnerable to the appearance of tree leaves and air pollution that grows on treesLichenThere is a case to observe and use the situation.Pine treeIt is known that soot is easily accumulated around the stomata in the leaf cross section.

Cross-border transportation monitoring

In the cross-border pollution problem, in order to clarify the trends of air pollutants transported across borders, in addition to a simple analysis by the wind direction at the time of high-concentration pollution, the amount of emission and deposition of each region To estimate the inflow from a pollutantIsotopeRatiotracerAs a method of estimating the source, analysis by a long-distance transport model is used.[25].

As a tracersulfur,lead,radonIsotopes are used. The source of sulfur oxides can be estimated from the sulfur isotope ratio of the sulfur content of coal and petroleum, which has a unique value depending on the place of production. In addition, since the value of lead contained in industrial products varies depending on the place of origin, it may be possible to estimate the source. Half-life of about 10.6 hours212PbAnd about 3.8 days222RnFor example, the source can be estimated by using the ratio of isotopes of one decay product and the other half-life[25].

In the long-distance transport model, research is progressing mainly on sulfur oxides, which are the causative agents of acid rain in Europe, and a model called "RAINS-Europe" has been developed. In addition, it is called "GAINS" for the analysis of greenhouse gases. The model is being developed. In Asia, "RAINS-Asia", which is an application of RAINS-Europe, is being developed. However, there may be cases in which there is a large error depending on the model and it becomes a discussion.[25].


In addition, air pollution forecasts are also conducted for the purpose of preventing high-concentration pollution that may cause acute health damage. The possibility of activating high-concentration pollution is called "air pollution meteorological potential" or "air pollution potential", and the emission forecast based on the pollutant emission trend survey conducted by the government,MeteorologyThe size of the pollutant is calculated by combining it with the prediction of the movement of pollutants using the theory of. The movement of pollutantsNumerical forecast model(mainlyAtmospheric diffusion model) Use the forecast data calculated in[85][86].

The main values ​​used in air pollution forecasts include mixed layer altitude (Mixing Depth), transfer wind velocity, and retention index (Stagnation Index). Mixed layer altitude is from the ground surface to an altitude of several hundred meters.Mixed layerThe altitude of the top ofLevelThere is a windy layer. It is shown that the higher the mixed layer height, the easier the air pollutants are mixed vertically and diffused by the horizontal wind in the upper layer. Usually, it becomes highest when the temperature of the day becomes highest, and this is called Maximum Mixing Depth. On the other hand, the lowest mixed layer height is around sunrise, when high-level meteorological data is plotted.EmmagramCan also be calculated above[Note 26].. The transfer wind velocity is in the horizontal direction in the mixing layer.wind speedIs. The retention indicator indicates the degree of air retention from multiple meteorological factors.Precipitation amount,(I.e., 850hPa (altitude approximately 1,500m) wind speed, 500hPa (altitude approximately 5,500m)VorticityUsing elements such as[85][87].

Such forecasts began in Europe and the United States after World War II in the 1950s, in Japan in the 1960s, and in China in the 1980s.[8].


The situation of air pollutionAir qualityThere are areas that are announced by the index, and areas that issue warnings when pollution is above a certain level or when it is expected.

  • United States-Air Quality Index (Air quality index, AQI) announced. "Good", "Moderate", "Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups", "Unhealthy", "Very Unhealthy", "Hazardous" are calculated in 6 levels based on 1-hour value and 12-hour value. Also make forecasts[88].
  • Canada-Air Quality Health Index (Air Quality Health Index, AQHI) announced. "Low health risk", "Moderate health risk", "High health risk", "Very high health risk". Also make forecasts[89]
  • EU-Announces the Air Quality Index (AQI) in the region. 5 levels[90].
  • United Kingdom-Announces the Air Quality Index (AQI). 4 stages. Also make forecasts[91].
  • France-Announces observations and forecasts[92].
  • Japan-If high concentrations are observed or expected,Air pollution warningAnnounced. Many of them are photochemical smog warnings.[93].
  • China-Air Quality Index (Environmental Air Quality Index (AQI)) announced. 7 steps[94].
  • Hong Kong-Air pollution index (Air Pollution Index, API) announced[95].
  • India-Released Air Quality Index (AQI). 5 levels[96].

Japan situation

JapanInMeijiinitial(19st centuryFrom the end), industrial air pollution began to occur.EarlySteel millWas createdHachiman,KamaishiThen, air pollution caused by soot dust from the blast furnace occurred. Tochigi/GunmaAshio Copper Mine Poisoning CaseThen,Water pollutionEmitted from the copper smelter withSulfur dioxideDamages plants. EhimeBesshi Copper MineBut the sulfur dioxide from the smelter caused agricultural damage, causing a conflict.[97][98]

From 1883 to 1884 (Meiji 16-17)OsakaWidespread pollution by soot has become a problem, and since Osaka Prefecture issued a notice to regulate soot, measures were taken by the city and prefecture and media reports were made, but air pollution worsened. At this time Osaka City is also known as "Smoke cityWas also called. In 1922 (Taisho 11), Osaka City Sanitation Laboratory started a wide-area survey of the atmosphere, and some research and studies have begun around this time.[97][98].

The black smoke that covers the heavens is the most distinctive feature of Osaka City.
It's a great worry. Citizens suffer from soot
The amount of damage is... (Omitted)... How to prevent soot is really
It must be called an urgent need.
Osaka Municipal Hygiene Laboratory “Business Results Overview”,

Similar pollution occurred in neighboring Kyoto and Hyogo, as well as Tokyo, Kanagawa and Fukuoka. Air pollution has expanded due to pollution around the factory, widespread pollution from soot and smoke, as well as vehicle exhaust.[97][98].

Second World WarSome of the factories were shut down, but after the war, air pollution became serious again with the industrial recovery such as re-operation and production increase. In industrial areas, soot and smoke from steel millsiron oxideIt is said that the fume covers the sky and the sun is dyed red.VisibilityIt had a bad influence on my life. Residents' complaints have increased due to such pollution, in Tokyo in 1949 (Showa 24), in Osaka Prefecture in 1950 (Showa 25), in Kanagawa Prefecture in 1951 (Showa 26), respectively.Pollution prevention regulationsHas been established.

1960 eraWhen we entered, public opinion for regulation of the country increased, and in 1962 (Showa 37)Law concerning regulations on soot emissionWas enacted,Keihin Industrial Area,Hanshin Industrial Area,Kitakyushu Industrial AreaRegulations on soot and dust in designated areas such as[99].. But under this law,electricity-Gas businessIn addition to being excluded,Sulfur oxidesHardly considered the problem of[97][98].

From around 1960MieYokkaichiWas attracted toYokkaichi ComplexDue to air pollution byYokkaichi asthmaDamage begins to get serious[100].. Again before that,1950 eraからKeihin Industrial AreaKawasaki AsthmaWas a social problem.

In 1967 (Showa 42)Basic Law for Pollution Control, The following year 1968 (Showa 43), in place of the law on the regulation of soot emissionAir Pollution Control LawWas enacted. Regarding the Air Pollution Control Law, the lower the chimney is, the lower the upper limit will be for the emission control of sulfur oxides.[101],firstCar emission regulationsWas included. However, the concentration of sulfur dioxide was often high and "emergency measures" were taken.[97][98].

1970 eraWhen entering, public opinion increased due to the seriousness of air pollution, and the popular name in 1970 (Showa 45)Pollution DietA major legal change was made. With this revision,Nitrogen oxide (NOx),hydrocarbon,leadSuch asHazardous substanceHas been added to the regulations, and the electric power and gas business is alsoIndustrial areaRegulations, which were limited to, are being expanded to the whole country. In urban areas where damage has been noticeable, some local governments have imposed additional regulations by regulations. In 1972 (Showa 47)Yokkaichi pollution lawsuitIn 1973 (Showa 48)Pollution Health Damage Compensation LawLeads to the establishment of[97][98].

1970 eraSince the development and popularization of dust collectors and desulfurizers have progressed, the concentration of soot and sulfur oxides has dropped to about one-fifth in 20 years.[2][8][97][98].. As of 2010, the concentration of sulfur oxides has reached the environmental standard at measurement points of 99% or more.[102].. The concentration of nitrogen dioxide has been flat since it decreased in the 1970s,Car emission regulationsSince the beginning of the 2000 and the total amount regulation in urban areas, it has been gradually decreasing since the XNUMXs.[98][103].

Since thenComplexOf zones and big citiesHighwayAir pollution along the road was not completely eliminated, and four major pollution lawsuits (Minamata disease-Second Minamata disease-Itai-itai disease・Yokkaichi asthma) was over1970 eraAfter the second half,Keiyo Industrial AreaHave千葉(1975-1992),OsakaIn one of the leading industrial areasNishiyodogawa pollution lawsuit(1978-1998),Kawasaki pollution lawsuit(1982-1999),Mizushima Seaside Industrial AreaAroundKurashiki/Mizushima(1983-1996),Hanshin Industrial AreaHaveAmagasaki(1988-2000), Southern Nagoya (1989-2001),Tokyo air pollution lawsuit(1996-2007) etc., air pollution lawsuits have been filed in various places. In this case, there is also a lawsuit related to the fact that all the contaminated areas designated under the Pollution and Health Damage Compensation Law were lifted in 1988, and the new patient qualification to be covered by the compensation was not carried out. Since then, there have been movements to establish funds, etc.[98][104].

Hazardous air pollutantsPRTR method,Special Measures Law against DioxinsThe emission control has been tightened.

Exhaust gas regulation was delayedDiesel carForAutomotive NOx/PM methodHas been gradually strengthened, and in urban areasDiesel vehicle regulation regulations[98], To in-use vehicles that have passed a certain number of yearsAutomobile taxExtra measures (Scrap incentives) Is done. In addition, the transportation industry (eg:Yamato Transport OfHome deliverySome companies, such as delivery, have a low environmental impact as the use of automobiles is suppressed.BicyclePromotion of utilization of is also carried out.

Tokyo, July 1970, 7SuginamiSince the damage caused by the above was largely taken up, it was mainly derived from hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide in automobile exhaust gas.Photochemical smogBecame serious. domesticPhotochemical smog warningなどの発表延べ日数は、1973年(昭和48年)に300日を超えてピークに達した後、1984年(昭和59年)に100日以下に減少したがその後100-200日前後を推移、2000年と2007年には200日を超えている[105].. Regarding the concentration of photochemical oxidant, there were few places where the environmental standard was achieved in the five years from 2006 to 2010 at 5-0.2%, and it is said to be “still low level” in the 0 Environmental White Paper.[106]. Also2000/From the front and back,TsushimaSuch as remote islandsWest Japan,Sea of ​​Japan sideOn the continent (mainlyChugoku) High concentration cases of photochemical oxidants presumed to have been affected by pollutants transported across the border from[107].

In this context, the causative agents nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHO)[Note 27]The results show that the concentration of photochemical oxidant is gradually increasing at a rate of about 1% per year, although the concentration of is decreasing gradually. As a cause of this,AsiaIt has been pointed out that cross-border transport from Japan is spreading over a wide area and pushing up the concentration.[108][109]..Also, in 2010, the domestic average of rainHydrogen ion concentration(pH) is 4.78 and acid rain, but no plant damage has occurred. However, since there is a time lag in the occurrence of acid rain, it is said that damage from acid rain may occur in the future as the amount of pollutant emissions in Asia increases.[110].

Cross-border pollution from China and the Korean Peninsula

According to the analysis of the sources of pollutants deposited in Japan, around 1990, 4-5% of sulfur oxides were domestic, 1-3% were China, and around 1% were.Korean PeninsulaMet.There is an analysis result that the contribution of emissions from China increases to more than half of the total in winter due to the northwest monsoon.The sources of nitrogen oxides (around 1990) are 65-75% domestic, 13-18% China, and 10-15% Korean Peninsula.[25][111].. As of 2022,National Institute for Environmental StudiesAccording to research, pollutant emissions from China and the Korean Peninsula are improving, relatively domestically.BurningEmissions of pollutants from[112].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ AmericaEPAIt is the third worst of the six levels of AQI defined by the AQI, and is defined as the level at which not only patients with respiratory diseases and elderly people but also healthy people are affected.
  2. ^ NMVOC = non-methane volatile organic compound. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) excluding methane.
  3. ^ a b Abolished in 2010
  4. ^ The 1st class is a tourist area, a historical district, and a natural park, the 2nd class is a suburban residential area and a rural area, and the 3rd class is an industrial area and a high traffic area.
  5. ^ 1ppm (SO2) = 2660 µg / m2(20℃, 1013hPa), 1ppm(NO2) = 1880 µg / m2, 1ppm(O3) = 2mg / m2.. Source: "Air quality guidelines2005, 311 pages, 333 pages, 397 pages
  6. ^ 20-90 µg/m on average around the world around the city3(0.01-0.05 ppm). 2,000/m in the indoor environment around cooking using fire and heating appliances3It may exceed (about 1ppm). Source: "Air quality guidelines2005, p. 332
  7. ^ a b The observed range is large for both PM10 and PM2.5. Usually tens of µg/m in developed countries3However, hundreds of µg/m mainly in developing countries3Level, rarely 1,000 µg/m3Is observed. Source: "Air quality guidelines2005, pp. 218-224
  8. ^ World average 60-140 µg/m3Averages 8-20mg/m for 60 hours around roads in major European cities3, 115 mg/m in closed spaces such as underground, parking lots and tunnels3Or more. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 80-82
  9. ^ 30-100 µg/m indoors3About 350 μg/m depending on cigarette smoke3It can be a degree. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 87-91
  10. ^ 0.2 µg/m in the atmosphere in the suburbs of the United States and Western Europe3Below 0.4-1µg/m in cities36.1 µg/m at refining facilities, parking lots and gas stations3degree. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 80-82
  11. ^ 5 µg/m in normal atmosphere3Below, it may be about 3 times more than indoors. 4,000 µg/m when using products such as paints3May rise to a degree. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 83-86
  12. ^ 0.5-2 µg/m in European cities3, Sometimes 3µg/m3It is about degree. "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 143-145
  13. ^ Although there is not enough evidence in the overview section to specify the value, 1 μg/m is given in the description.3"These concentrations will also sufficiently protect human health" is stated. "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 143-145
  14. ^ 0.15 µg/m in the suburbs3Below, 0.15-0.5µg/m in European cities3degree. "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 149-153
  15. ^ 0.2-0.5 µg/m around factories that handle castings and manganese3, Sometimes 10 µg/m3It can be a degree. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 154-156
  16. ^ 2 µg/m in urban areas in winter3There are also reports that it has risen to some extent. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 170-172
  17. ^ Annual estimate of 0.01 µg/m in the Netherlands3, Other European 10 countries, the detection limit is 0.3µg/m3It was a much lower value. 100 µg/m in factories handling substances3, But 1µg/m at 10km around3Fall below. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 59-62
  18. ^ a b 0.001-0.01 µg/m near European cities3About 0.001µg/m in the suburbs3Less than. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 92-96
  19. ^ It is said to be "Exposure should therefore be kept as low as possible". "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 128-135
  20. ^ a b The average value for all occupations in the United States is 0.098 ppm, and for industries that handle substances is 2.12 ppm. 2-20 µg/m in atmosphere around European cities3Below 0.3 µg/m at home and office in Canada3degree. Cigarettes contain 1,2-butadiene, 10-20 µg/m in a room with cigarette smoke3become. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 67-70
  21. ^ a b 0.001µg/m near city3It is estimated to be higher than this indoors. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 97-101
  22. ^ a b 0.1pg/m near the city3It is presumed to be a degree, but the fluctuation range is large. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 102-106
  23. ^ a b There are no powerful data on atmospheric concentrations. MedicalCisplatinAlthough it is IARC classification 2A, it is not specified because it is not released in large amounts into the environment. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 166-169
  24. ^ a b Since the atmospheric concentration is lower than the level expected in the risk assessment of radon, no guideline value is set. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 209-217
  25. ^ a b 1x10 at the site of use or near the factory5-2x106fiber / m3become. Some such as rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers are IARC classification 2B. There is also evidence of unit risk values ​​for ceramic fibers. However, the guideline value is not set because there is no overall evidence to be measured. Source: "WHO air quality guidelines for Europe2000, pp. 206-208
  26. ^ The intersection of the dry adiabatic line, which is the value obtained by subtracting 3-5°C from the minimum temperature, and the state curve is a measure of the mixed layer height in the morning.
  27. ^ methaneOccupies a large proportion of the hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere, but since it has low photochemical reactivity, it does not participate in the production of photochemical oxidants. Hydrocarbons excluding methane are called non-methane hydrocarbons.


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  3. ^ 650 million deaths annually due to air pollution, halving possible-IEAGEPR Editorial Department July 2016, 7
  4. ^ a b c "Environmental Outlook 2050: Addressing environmental issues urgently avoids future costsRead OECD Tokyo, March 2012, 3, February 15, 2013
  5. ^ "Air pollution kills 700 million people per year / affects 9% of WHO world population"``Mainichi Shimbun'' morning edition published on May 2018, 5Kyodo NewsDelivery article.
  6. ^ a b "Air quality and healthRead World Health Organization, September 2011, February 9, 2013
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  10. ^ Spahn, Takayama (1995)Urban Ecosystem A city that coexists with naturePage 44 = KC Heidorn, quoted from a 1978 paper.
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Observation and prediction of air pollution
Page explaining in more detail
Academic societies


2020/(2020 years old)AD(Gregorian calendar)by,Leap year starting from Wednesday.Reiwa2 years.

This item describes 2020 from an international perspective.

Other chronology
















Events / plans whose timing is undecided or unknown, etc.







Due to the global epidemic of the new coronavirus, live music, festivals and concerts have been canceled or postponed one after another.Many artists have moved their activities online.


The worldwide epidemic of the new coronavirus has had various effects on movie shooting and movie theaters, and the release has been postponed one after another.

Live-action movie
Anime movie


Delivery anime




Nobel Prize

The event of fiction


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The closest approach with an elongation of 0.1 degrees or less was about 400 years ago (1623/), But at this time(I.e.Is too close to be observed[71][72].
  2. ^ 1960 Rome ParalympicsFrom the date of the (1st Summer Paralympic Games).


  1. ^ "France bans disposable plastic tableware World's first”. CNN.co.jp (November 2016, 9). 2017/12/31Browse.
  2. ^ "Prohibition of sunscreens containing harmful ingredients on coral reefs”. Embassy of Japan in Palau (January 2020, 1). 2021/2/27Browse.
  3. ^ "Taiwan army helicopter crash, killed 8 chiefs of staff, announced by the Ministry of Defense". AFP BB News. Creative Link Co., Ltd. 2 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  4. ^ "U.S. forces kill Iranian Revolutionary Guard commander with airstrike, retaliatory action inevitable". Sankei News. Sangyo Keizai Shimbun. 3 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  5. ^ "Missile attack on US military base in Iraq Iran Revolutionary Guard announced attack". Sankei News. Sangyo Keizai Shimbun. 8 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  6. ^ "Ukrainian plane crashes in Iran 180 people boarded". Sankei News. Sangyo Keizai Shimbun. 8 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  7. ^ "Iran Revolutionary Guard Commander Misidentifies "Cruise Missile" Responsible for Taking Down Passenger Aircraft". AFP BB NEES. French newspapers. 11 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  8. ^ "King of Oman died, acting as bridge between U.S. and Iran. Prime Minister will visit soon". Sankei News. Sangyo Keizai Shimbun. 11 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  9. ^ "His Highness to New King of Oman, cousin of former King". AFP BB News. Creative Link Co., Ltd. 11 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  10. ^ "Taiwan presidential election, re-election by Mr. Tsai Ing-wen from the ruling and DPP". AFP BB News. Creative Link Co., Ltd. 11 January 2020.Retrieved January 2020, 1.
  11. ^ "Microsoft Product Support Lifecycle”. Microsoft. 2012/2/23Browse.
  12. ^ WHO declares "emergency" Concerns about spread of infection to vulnerable countries(NHK News <NHK Online> Read the same day on January 2020, 1)
  13. ^ “UK leaves EU for the first time in member states”. Mainichi Newspapers(November 2020, 2). originalArchived as of October 2020, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20200201033645/https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200201/k00/00m/030/008000c 2020/2/1Browse. 
  14. ^ New pneumonia, mayor of Shanghai to replace Hubei's top replacement Nihon Keizai Shimbun (March 2020, 2)
  15. ^ China's Hubei Province and Wuhan City take over NHK News (March 2020, 2)
  16. ^ U.S. and Taliban reach peace agreement US troops withdraw completely within XNUMX months-progress to end Afghan war
  17. ^ Former Malaysian Prime Minister Muhdin appointed, Mahathir accused of being illegal AFPBB News (March 2020, 3)
  18. ^ The new Corona is equivalent to a "pandemic," WHO Executive Director announced Reuters (March 2020, 3)
  19. ^ WHO "The new coronavirus is a pandemic" NHK News (March 2020, 3)
  20. ^ WHO Executive Director announces new corona "pandemic" Nihon Keizai Shimbun (March 2020, 3)
  21. ^ Tokyo Olympics/Para decide to postpone “about 1 year” Retain the name “Tokyo 2020” BBC NEWS (March 2020, 3)
  22. ^ North Macedonia joins NATO in 30 member countries NHK News (March 2020, 3)
  23. ^ Ballistic missiles in Saudi capital fired by rebels in neighboring Yemen NHK News (March 2020, 3)
  24. ^ China and Wuhan blockade lifted for the first time in two and a half months Nihon Keizai Shimbun。2020/4/8 8:50 (2020/4/8 13:03更新)
  25. ^ U.S. presidential election withdrawal Mr. Sanders confronts Mr. Trump with Mr. Biden NHKNews Web International News, April 2020, 4.
  26. ^ "Pakistan killed 97 people in aircraft crash PK8303 flight near Karachi”. Aviation Wire. 2020/8/14Browse.
  27. ^ British Prime Minister Considers Changing Immigration Rules For Hong Kong People Against National Security Law BBC News (June 2020, 6)
  28. ^ Demonstration unit “autonomous region” in Seattle, USA President suggests hard-line measuresNihon Keizai Shimbun June 2020, 6
  29. ^ China's PLA kills at least 40 in Indian clash with Indian government Newsweek Japan Edition (2020 June 6) Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  30. ^ [Video] North Korea, North-South Liaison Office Bombing Kaesong Industrial ParkSankei Shimbun March 2020, 6
  31. ^ The number of new corona deaths in the world reached 50, exceeding 1000 million infected REUTERS (June 2020, 6), viewed September 29, 2020.
  32. ^ New virus kills more than 50 people worldwide 1000 million infected BBC News (June 2020, 6), viewed September 29, 2020.
  33. ^ Over XNUMX million people infected with corona in the world ... Rice has the highest number of XNUMX million Yomiuri Shimbun Online (June 2020, 6), viewed September 29, 2020.
  34. ^ Hong Kong police arrested 7 people under national security law-over 180 detained
  35. ^ Russia's constitutional vote, 78% agree President Putin can continue casting until 2036 BBC News (June 2020, 7)
  36. ^ Taiwan and Somaliland to establish official representative body mutually
  37. ^ Hong Kong self-governing law passed in the U.S. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (March 2020, 7)
  38. ^ "China, Mars exploration twice plan XNUMX and XNUMX years”(May 2018, 9). 2018/9/24Browse.
  39. ^ How NASA's latest rover searches for traces of life on Mars? National Geographic Japan Version (August 2020, 8)
  40. ^ ""July free from typhoons" confirmed for the first time since the start of statistics in 7”(Japanese). Kyodo News.As of August 2020, 10original[Broken link]More archives.2022/1/25Browse.
  41. ^ Japan Broadcasting Corporation. “Typhoon in July Zero for the first time “Be alert and be prepared” JMA". NHK News.As of August 2020, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2020/8/1Browse.
  42. ^ Large explosion in Lebanon capital, crater depth found to be 43 meters AFPBB News (August 2020, 8) Viewed August 9, 2020.
  43. ^ "IX 1344 incident at Kozhikode”. Airindia express. 2020/10/1Browse.
  44. ^ Angry at Lebanon explosion, casualties in thousands of anti-government demonstrations Asahi Shimbun Digital (August 2020, 8) Viewed August 9, 2020.
  45. ^ U.S. Secretary of Health talks with Taiwan CEO Cai Nihon Keizai Shimbun (August 2020, 8) Read August 10, 2020.
  46. ^ Police in Hong Kong arrested seven founders of the newspaper Suspected of violating the National Security Act NHK (August 2020, 8) Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  47. ^ "Mr. Shuba arrested Democratic activist Hong Kong police on suspicion of violating the national security law”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. 2020/8/11Browse.
  48. ^ "XNUMX million people infected worldwide Unstoppable momentum centered on the Americas-doubled in a month and a half ・ New corona”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (September 2020, 8). 2020/8/11Browse.
  49. ^ "Corona Vaccine Approved "World's First" and Russian President-International Standards Unclear”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (September 2020, 8). 2020/8/17Browse.
  50. ^ "Israel and UAE agree on normalization of diplomatic relations. Suspension of the West Bank merger". Sankei News. 2020/8/14Browse.
  51. ^ "XNUMX people rally in Thailand Anti-government movement, further expansion”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (February 2020, 8). As of February 17, 2020original[Broken link]More archives.2020/8/17Browse.
  52. ^ “Prime Minister Abe hardens his intention to resign” (jp). Mainichi Daily News(July 2020, 8). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20200828/k00/00m/010/084000c 2020/8/30Browse. 
  53. ^ "Corona dead, more than XNUMX in the world ... more than XNUMX in XNUMX countries including Mexico and Britain”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/23Browse.
  54. ^ "World's new corona dead, over XNUMX”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/23Browse.
  55. ^ "New corona, more than XNUMX million infected worldwide, increasing in India and Europe”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/28Browse.
  56. ^ "US Corona dead, over 20 people in the world 100 ... (Photo = Reuters)”(Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version. 2020/9/23Browse.
  57. ^ "XNUMX million deaths in corona worldwide, less than XNUMX months, more than XNUMX million infections-AFP”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/28Browse.
  58. ^ More than 100 million people killed by the new coronavirus worldwide BBC News (June 2020, 9), viewed September 29, 2020.
  59. ^ "Over XNUMX million people infected with corona in the world ... XNUMX million more in a month”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 10). 2020/10/20Browse.
  60. ^ "New Corona Over 5000 million people infected worldwide (9 am on the 3th)”(Japanese). NHK News (February 2020, 11). As of February 9, 2020originalMore archives.2020/12/1Browse.
  61. ^ "France, Italy and Britain, momentum surpassing the first wave ... Over XNUMX million people infected in the world”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 11). 2020/11/9Browse.
  62. ^ "World Corona Infected Over 5000 Million People Worst Record in October”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital (September 2020, 11). 2020/11/9Browse.
  63. ^ "New Corona Over 6000 million people infected worldwide 141 million dead (3:XNUMX am)”(Japanese). NHK News (February 2020, 11). As of February 26, 2020originalMore archives.2020/12/1Browse.
  64. ^ "Corona infection surpasses XNUMX million worldwide ... Deaths exceed XNUMX million”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 11). 2020/12/1Browse.
  65. ^ "Hayabusa2" after returning to Earth will be on the asteroid 2031 KY1998 in 26(Astro Arts August 2020, 9)
  66. ^ "Over XNUMX million infected people worldwide, XNUMX million dead ... Over XNUMX hospitals full in the US”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/12Browse.
  67. ^ U.S. presidential election, Mr. Biden confirms victory Promotes transition to "new chapter" -wins majority of electors Jiji.com (December 2020, 12), viewed September 15, 2021.
  68. ^ Chinese lunar probe "Chang'e XNUMX" succeeded in taking soil samples home AFPBB News (August 2020, 12) Viewed August 17, 2020.
  69. ^ "Chang'e XNUMX" return machine arrives at "place of birth" AFPBB News (August 2020, 12) Viewed August 19, 2020.
  70. ^ "About UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Registration (listed on the representative list) of "Traditional Architects' Techniques: Traditional Techniques for Inheriting Wooden Buildings"". Agency for Cultural Affairs (September 2020, 12). 2021/1/12Browse.
  71. ^ a b In December 2020, Jupiter and Saturn are closest to each other for the first time in 12 years ... just like a "double planet".Next 800 years later(Business Insider Japan, November 2020, 11)
  72. ^ a b [Special feature] December 2020 Super close approach between Jupiter and Saturn(Astro Arts)
  73. ^ Jupiter and Saturn approach (December 2020)(National Observatory
  74. ^ "Reiwa 2nd year (2020) calendar guidelines XNUMX solar terms and miscellaneous clauses". National Astronomical Observatory of Japan Calendar Calculation Room. 2020/12/2Browse.
  75. ^ Izumo country (October 2020, 11). “What is your December fortune?"Kyusei Kigakubetsu" good luck action taught by Feng Shui entertainers”(Japanese). Mrs | Kodansha. 2020/12/1Browse.
  76. ^ "The end of 2020 is a major turning point once every 200 years "Aquarius Age" Values ​​change like this”(Japanese). CREA WEB (September 2020, 8). 2020/12/1Browse.
  77. ^ "From 2020, the world will enter the Aquarius era!Let the sun shine and live yourself”(Japanese). Star reading terrace. 2020/12/1Browse.
  78. ^ "New Corona Over 8000 million infected people worldwide (27 am on 3th)”(Japanese). NHK News (February 2020, 12). As of February 27, 2020originalMore archives.2020/12/30Browse.
  79. ^ "Over XNUMX million infected people worldwide ... XNUMX million dead”(Japanese). Yomiuri Shimbun Online (September 2020, 12). 2020/12/30Browse.
  80. ^ 2020 Vision (Urgent Action for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons) - Mayors for Peace
  81. ^ 25 years since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Requiem prayer, events in various places --Asahi Shimbun Digital (January 2020, 1)
  82. ^ Co-hosted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defense 60th Anniversary Reception --Ministry of Foreign Affairs (January 2020, 1)
  83. ^ PlayStation 2 is celebrating its 20th anniversary today!Looking back on the best-selling game consoles in history and the masterpiece titles born from here --4Gamer.net (June 2020, 3)
  84. ^ "Osaka Expo 50th Anniversary Ceremony 25th Anniversary Theme Song "Kobukuro ni"”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (May 2020, 10). 2021/6/28Browse.
  85. ^ 40th anniversary of smallpox eradication,Japan WHO Association
  86. ^ WHO commemorates the 40th anniversary of smallpox eradication,who
  87. ^ 75 years since the atomic bomb was dropped Peace Memorial Ceremony in Hiroshima --BBC News (March 2020, 8)
  88. ^ The "parties" of the abolition of nuclear weapons are themselves at a ceremony in Nagasaki in the 75th year of the atomic bomb --Asahi Shimbun Digital (January 2020, 8)
  89. ^ The 30th anniversary of the release of Super Nintendo.The successor to the Famicom equipped with enlargement / reduction / rotation functions produced a number of masterpieces [What day is it today? ] -Famitsu.com (June 2020, 11)
  90. ^ "April 2020 "World Economic Outlook (WEO)"”(Japanese). International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2020/9/28Browse.
  91. ^ Gita Gopinato (April 2020, 4). “"Great blockade" The worst recession since the Great Depression”(Japanese). International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2020/9/28Browse.
  92. ^ "Harley Quinn's Spin-Off Film "Birds of Play" Released in February 2020-Starring Margot Robbie". THE RIVER(July 2018, 9). https://theriver.jp/bop-us-release/ 2020/10/18Browse. 
  93. ^ Postponement of "Sonic the Movie" release. Scheduled for February 2020, 2 in the United States(AV Watch May 2019, 5)
  94. ^ 'A Quiet Place Part II' Sets New September Release Date,Hollywood Reporter
  95. ^ 'A Quiet Place 2,''Top Gun: Maverick' Delayed Until 2021,variety
  96. ^ "Nolan's “TENET” is released on September 9rd in the United States and released in advance in late August.". Cinemas PLUS (September 2020, 7). 2021/1/30Browse.
  97. ^ "US Warner postpones release of "TENET" and "Wonder Woman 1984"". Movie.com (September 2020, 6). 2021/1/30Browse.
  98. ^ "Monster Hunter --3 december in de bioscoop". Universal Pictures International Netherlands. 2020/11/9Browse.
  99. ^ Hollywood version of "Monster Hunter" to be released in the US ahead of schedule on December 12th(THE RIVER, October 2020, 10)
  100. ^ "Monster Hunter" will be released on March 2021, 3 with a poster that captures the Diablos variant.(Movie Natalie, October 2020, 10)
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  119. ^ "Idol Master" latest home information released on January 2020, 1,Dengeki Online (December 2019, 12)
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  124. ^ It is clear that the official name of Microsoft's next-generation game console will be "Xbox" instead of "Xbox Series X"(GIGAZINE December 2019, 12)
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