Photo Am Frauenstreik 2019 protestierten in der ganzen Schweiz Hunderttausende – darunter auch viele Männer – dagegen, dass Frauen auch in Parlamenten und Regierungen in der Schweiz immer noch untervertreten sind (Bild: Zürich). (Keystone)
Switzerland's first female parliamentarian, aka 'Swiss'
If you write the contents roughly
In this way, Raymond Schweitzer took a step forward as a pioneer of gender equality.
The name of the first Swiss woman to be elected to the cantonal parliament was Schweitzer, which means Swiss. → Continue reading
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|PoliticsDerived from the series article|
Gender equality in the 21st century
World Economic Forum The2006From all over the worldGender discriminationDegree ofindexTurned intoGender gap indexWas published in the Global Gender Gap Report...In this report,アイス ランド,Finland,NorwaySuch asNordicCountries are top regulars.
In addition, Institute for Economics and Peaceaccording to,Gender inequality indexとWorld Peace IndexBetweenCorrelation coefficientThere is a strong positive correlation of 0.71, and gender equality is said to have a positive effect on world peace..
According to the Gender Gap Index released in the 2022 Global Gender Gap Report,JapanIs 146th out of 116 countries in the worldG7It was the lowest in the group..By field, "education" and "access to health care" were highly rated, while "political participation" and "economy" were highly rated..
United Nations Development Program Announced by (UNDP)Human Development ReportAccording to the Gender Inequality Index (GII)[Annotation 1]) Ranked 2018rd out of 162 countries in 23,Gender Development Index(GDI[Annotation 2]) Is ranked 2018st out of 166 countries in 51.. GII is calculated from the maternal mortality rate, the birth rate at the age of 15-19, the female parliamentary rate, and the female secondary education rate... GDI is calculated from life expectancy, literacy rate, and income.The rankings are significantly different from the World Gender Gap Report because of different considerations, with lower numbers for GII women and GDI income.
Vote counting on October 2021, 1049th House of Representatives general electionでNNN"Policies with particular emphasis"Exit investigationしたところ、「ジェンダー平等推進を最も重視する」と答えた割合は、10代は8.3％、20代は6.5％、30代は2.5％、40代は1.5％、70代以上は0.6％であった.
Flow from pre-modern
Early modern period,Edo PeriodIn JapanConfucianismAs a result of increased governance of the ruling classMale and femaleAlso strengthened, but on the other handShintoMasuho Zanguchi of the house insists that "the root of the human world is the harmony of men and women", and "it leads to the traditional Shinto rituals and folk fertility rites of Japan, which is the country of Japan. In the world of men and women, men and women are equal, "he criticized the situation in which the trend of male-fertility society at that time and the marriage system between homes alienated the" love "of men and women (Junnosuke Sasaki et al. Introduction Japanese History ”Yoshikawa Kobunkan 2000 p.174).HoweverMeijiUnder Confucian morals even after the modern periodWomen's suffrageIs not recognized,Second World WarFive major reforms by GHQ after the defeat (Japan's postwar reform) Will include "Women's Liberation" (p.270, ibid.), And women's suffrage will be granted. (For overseas,feminismSee history in the section. )
World Economic ForumAccording to The Global Gender Gap Report 2021 published byGender inequality indexCountries with lowNordicThere are many.Even if you look at the actual data, the female labor force participation rate is almost over 75% due to the development of public services for children and the elderly.Total fertility rateAlso in Europe, it occupies the top position at around 1.9.It can be said that the society has advanced gender equality because the employment gap and wage gap between men and women are small and there is no need to depend on the family for welfare..NorwaySo, there is no law that requires political parties to have female candidates, but about 45% of parliamentarians are women..アイス ランドNow, the ratio of men and women has reversed in high school and above education, and now more women than men go to college..
United Nations Development ProgramAccording to the report, women's parliamentary seats are 18.3% in Arab countries, 20.3% in East and Pacific, 21.2% in Europe and Central Asia, 31% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 17.1% in South Asia and Sahara. South Asia was 23.5%.
Increasing gender differences due to liberalization and gender equality
According to a paper published by psychologist Paul Costa and others in 2001, gender equality can widen in a gender-equal society.. For example,科学,engineeringSuch asSTEM fieldAtGender gap indexIn Finland, where the proportion of women is small, the proportion of women is small, and conversely, in Algeria, where the gender gap is large, the proportion is high.It was also a socialist nationUSSRIn the STEM field, it was a policy requirement to have the same number of men and women,After the collapse of the Soviet Union OfRussian FederationAs a result of liberalization, female researchers in the STEM field have changed their majors to non-STEM fields such as biology, medicine, and psychology.Even in Switzerland, the proportion of women isElectrical workerBiased from 2% of households to 92% of domestic servants[Annotation 3].
In this backgroundComparative advantageIt is said that there is a way of thinking.Female students perform as well as or better than male students in science, but higher than male students in reading comprehension...Therefore, from the viewpoint of "specialty subjects", female students tend to answer Japanese and male students tend to answer science.Therefore, it has been pointed out that female students are less likely to choose the STEM field in countries where gender equality pervades and they can choose "what they enjoy most and what they are good at"..
Related customs and laws
- Article 14 of the Constitution of Japan ,24 article,44 article
- Civil Code Article 2(Criteria for interpretation)
- Labor Standards Law Article 4
- Law on ensuring equal opportunities and treatment for men and women in the field of employment
- Basic Law for Gender Equality Society
Selective surname by couple
In Japan, couples are selective because there is a provision of the Civil Code that they have the same surname at the time of marriage.Family name by coupleNo system has been introduced, but it is argued that this is against gender equality. Although the provisions of the Civil Code leave it to the couple to choose whether to refer to the husband or wife, in reality the rate of change by the wife is 96.1% of the total.And this is for womenIndirect discriminationHitGender equalityContrary to, Is the claim.In addition, extortion of the same surname is for men and women.Personal dignity・Define equality of both sexesArticle 14 of the Constitution,Article 24 of the ConstitutionConflict withThere are also claims such as.
In addition, JapanIn favor of 130 countries includingUnited Nationsで1979Adopted in "Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against girls”Requires the introduction of selective married couples. for that reason,United NationsIn its 2003 and 2009 recommendations, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women criticized the same surname of married couples as "discriminatory provisions" stipulated by Japanese civil law. Rather than relying solely on the results, it should be based on the obligation to develop domestic legislation in line with the provisions of this Convention, as it is part of the national legal system of the State party "(2009). Repeatedly demanding revisions to the law, such as.
- ^ British: gender inequality index
- ^ British: gender-related development index
- ^ As of 2016, in order of the lowest female rate among the 30 common occupations in Switzerland,Electrical worker(Electricians) 2%, othertechnician(Technicians) 9%, Information processing engineer-Systems analyst(IT specialists & analysts) 11%, othersEngineer (Other types of engineers) 12%, Other computing jobs 15%, Horticulture work 17%, Warehouse workers & grain handlers 20%,Farmer(Farmers) 20%, Planning & organization specialists 23%, Entrepreneurs, directors 25%, Kitchen personnel 35%,Middle management(Middle management) 36%,Travel agency(Travel agents) 40%,banker(Banking professionals) 43%, Doctors 47%.On the other hand, in occupations with a high proportion of women, 51% are retailers & salespeople, 56% are administrative staff, and so on.Accountant(Accountants) 62%, Retail & sales staff 66%,Janitor-Janitors & cleaners 72%, Human resources specialists 74%, Service staff 75%, Qualified educators 77%, Commercial employees 78%, Primary school teachers 79%,Social worker(Social workers) 81%,care worker(Care workers) 82%,nurse(Qualified nurses) 86%, Medical & nursing assistants 90%, Domestic staff 92%.
- ^ http://www.weforum.org/issues/global-gender-gap
- ^ a b c "Gender equality Japan ranks 146th out of 116 countries Gender equality”. NHK (July 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
- ^ "POSITIVE PEACE REPORT Analyzing the factors that build, predict and sustain peace.". April 2022, 6Browse.
- ^ a b "International Index on Gender Equality”. Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office. April 2020, 6Browse.
- ^ http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII
- ^ "[House of Representatives election] NNN exit poll analysis "Policies with particular emphasis" Teens New Corona support: 10% 25.2s Economic measures: 20%, 19.0s Child-rearing / education policy: 30% , Teens 30.8%, 10s 8.3%, 20s 6.5%, 30s 2.5%, 40s and above 1.5% #I choose #Our vote”(Japanese). Twitter. April 2021, 11Browse.
- ^ "[Exit poll] Issues in the House of Representatives election Most teens are "compatible with the new corona" (NTV (NNN))”(Japanese). Yahoo! News. April 2021, 11Browse.
- ^ Yoko Otsuka, "Nordic Welfare State and Gender Equality: The Progress and Achievement of Gender Equality in Denmark," Policy Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, March 2012, pp3-225.
- ^ Women's political advance, Japan is the lowest developed country Ambassador to Japan The solution is "Nikkei Shimbun" October 2021, 10
- ^ South Connie, "Gender Equality Initiatives in Iceland and Japan's Challenges," Bulletin of the International Organization of Kanazawa University, Volume 4, March 2022, pp3-61
- ^ "9% of men and women in the world are prejudiced against women, revealed by UN gender survey". April 2022, 6Browse.
- ^ "The more gender equality is, the wider the "gender difference" between men and women ... Surprising research results (Akira Tachibana) @gendai_biz”(Japanese). Contemporary business. April 2022, 3Browse.
- ^ a b c "Research shows that the more gender equality is achieved, the less women choose the path of science and mathematics.”(Japanese). GIGAZINE. April 2022, 3Browse.
- ^ "How work has evolved for Switzerland's women and men" (English). SWI swissinfo.ch. April 2022, 6Browse.
- ^ 26 Estimates of Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
- ^ a b c d Proposal Amendment of Civil Code toward the formation of a gender equality society Science Council of Japan
- ^ a b c "Selective Marital Surname / Inheritance Discrimination Q & A for Out-of-Marriage Children" Japan Federation of Bar Associations
- ^ "Plaintiff'Indirect Discrimination against Women'Country Side'Same Surname Is Widespread'Rules That Do Not Allow Married Couples' Surnames, Oral at the Supreme Court", Nikkei Newspaper, November 2015, 11
- ^ Meeting to think about revision of civil law, "Revision of civil law that is well understood", Chaoyangkai
- ^ a b Reason for Appeal, 26 (Neo) No. 309 Appeal Case, June 2014, 6
- ^ a b "Why is the'marital same-name compulsion is constitutional'decision'insensitive'?", HUFF POST SOCIETY, December 2015, 12.,
- ^ Noriko Mizuno, "Diversifying Family and Law," Tokyo, December 2011, p. 12.
- ^ "" Insane "in Nagatacho, which has disregarded the Constitution, which has attracted attention to the Supreme Court decision," Prohibition of remarriage and provisions for married couples' surnames, "Business Journal, November 2015, 11
- ^ "Japan upholds rule that married couples must have same surname", The Guardian, December 16, 2015.
- ^ "Selective married couple surnames Let's deepen national debate", Japan Agricultural Newspaper, December 2015, 12.
- ^ "Marriage surname, severe international opinion = United Nations, recommending legal reform", August 2015, 9
- Gender Empowerment Measure
- David Reimer
- Woman rib
- Woman rib movement
- Sex discrimination
- Discrimination against women - International Women's Day
- Male discrimination - International Men's Day
- Gender equality society
- Family name by couple
- World Women Conference
- Female suffrage
- Positive discrimination correction measures
- Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against girls
- Wage gap between men and women - Equal wages for men and women
- Sex ratio
- Men's lib
- European Institute for Gender Equality
- Maputo Protocol