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🏛 | [Breaking news] House of Councilors election Reiwa Suidobashi


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[Breaking news] House of Councilors election Reiwa, Dr. Suidobashi

 
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In the election contest, he has appealed to "visualize politics."
 

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election

election(Election) is an organization or groupvoteIt means to decide the representative, officers, etc. by the procedure such as[1].National politicsElection aboutNational election(Kokusei Senkyo),Local autonomyElection aboutLocal elections(Chiho Senkyo) is called.

ElectionPublic officeIt is an act of selecting a person to take office[2]..Historically, raising hands and standing up,ApplauseAlthough methods such as these have been adopted, modern electionsvoteOften done by (JapanSee also Article 35 of the Public Offices Election Act)[3].

Meiji RestorationIn the notation and translation of the time before and afterSelection-SelectionBoth[4].

Election type

The five principles of the election are the five principles of ordinary election, equality election, direct election, secret election (secret vote), and free election (free vote).[5].. As the concept of contradictory, there are general election and restricted election, equality and inequality election, direct and indirect election, secret election (secret vote) and open election, free election (free vote) and forced election (forced vote). is there.

Regular/restricted elections

General election
In a narrow sense, an electoral system that does not require financial power (the amount of tax paid or the existence of property) as an elector's requirement.[6][7].. Broadly speaking, all people who have reached a certain age do not have financial strength, race, creed, gender, etc. as requirements for electors.PeopleElection system that gives people the right to vote[6][7].
General electionJapanThen.Article 15 of the Constitution of JapanSection 3 andArticle 44 of the Constitution of JapanGuaranteed by proviso[6][8].
The realization of the general election is gradual. First, regarding the removal of property restrictions1848 OfFrench Second RepublicEstablished in the Constitution and after the First World War, it became popular throughout the world[5][7].. In Japan, property restrictions were lifted in 1928.Female suffrageAlso aboutWorld War IAfter that, it became a big part of the world,FrancelikeSecond World WarIn some countries later[5].. Even in Japan, female suffrage was realized after World War II.
Restricted elections
Those that limit the right to vote by income, assets, family name, etc.

Equal election/unequal election

Equal election
An election system that treats the voting rights of electors equally[6].. One person has one vote (numerical equality) and the value of one vote is equal (value equality). in JapanArticle 14 of the Constitution of JapanSection 1 andArticle 44 of the Constitution of JapanGuaranteed by proviso.
Unequal election
Elections that differ numerically or numerically.Differential electionAlso called[8].. There are multiple elections that allow some of the voters to vote multiple votes, and there are grade elections in which grades are set according to the amount of tax payment and elections are made for each grade.[8][9].

Direct/indirect election

Direct election
Election system where electors directly select representatives[9][10].. Today, at least the election of the House of Representatives is based on direct election[11].
Indirect election
Election system in which an elector selects an elector (intermediate elector) and the interim elector votes[10][11].. France orAustriaSenate elections andUS presidential electionHas been adopted by[10].. However, a system in which candidates for election committees select who will be elected as the president like in the US presidential election, and then elect it is actually the same as direct elections.[12].
It should be noted that the system in which a person in a public office elected by voters in the election further elects a representative in the election is called a multiple election system.
The Constitution of Japan has no explicit provision for direct elections.[10][13].. The theory isArticle 43 of the Constitution of JapanThe theory that "elections" include indirect elections (unlike the general election of members of the House of Representatives, the adoption of an indirect election system of its own is also permitted in the ordinary elections of the House of Representatives) and paragraph 1 of the same article. The controversial view that direct elections are guaranteed based on the wording of "members of the Diet" (which must be done by direct election even in the ordinary election of the House of Councilors) is at issue.[10][13].

Secret/Open Elections

Secret election
An electoral system that guarantees the secrecy of the voting contents of the elector (which candidate or political party was voted for)[13][14].. in JapanArticle 15 of the Constitution of JapanGuaranteed in the preceding paragraph,Public office election lawProvisions such as Article 46 (secret ballot system), Article 52 of the same law (confidentiality of voting), Article 68 of the same law (invalidity of voting for other matters) are also based on this principle[13][15].
Public election
You can see the details of your vote by signing it. In open elections, it becomes difficult for vulnerable groups to freely express their intentions[12].

Forced election/free election

Compulsory election
Election system with sanctions against abstention[12].. Voters must voteObligatory votingBy.
Free election
Election system where only those who want to vote can choose to vote freely[12].Optional votingBy.

Election method

Classified according to ward division and opinion aggregation policyElection methodTable.

Single-seat constituency systemMany representativesProportional representationMinority representative
Simple election system
Simple election system (Final voteControl)
Certification vote
Condorcet voting method
Large constituency systemMany representativesProportional representationMinority representative
Complete continuous writing system (block voting)
Non-transferable voting
Single transfer transfer vote
Proportional representationMany representativesProportional representationMinority representative
Proportional representation
National elections in Chile
Group constituency systemMany representativesProportional representationMinority representative
Group constituency system
OtherMany representativesProportional representationMinority representative
Single-election district proportional representation combined system
Single-seat constituency proportional representation

Voter classification

Public election

As seen in elections for officials such as parliamentarians, a method of electing by voting by general voters. Election rights requirements need not match those of voters. For this reason, even in a one-party dictatorship, there are some places that maintain the public election without breaking the system by adding "recommendation of dictator" to the requirements for exercising the right to vote. Alternatively, there are cases where a person who does not have the right of a voter is elected, such as a governor election in which a person who lives in another prefecture can also run.Private electionAlso say.

Election

JapaneseGovernment-designated city OfWard mayorAs can be seen in, a method of selecting by the appointment of an administrative agency such as the state. Although not necessarily voted, it is posted for comparison with public and mutual elections.

Mutual election

JapanesePrime Minister Nomination Vote,Vatican CityInconclave(popeElection), a method of selecting by voting among related parties. Unlike public elections, the requirements for voting rights and voting rights are the same. Public elections in most democratic systems can be said to be large-scale mutual elections because general voters also have the right to vote (However, there are many cases where the requirements for voting rights and election rights are different, and strictly speaking they are mutual elections. Absent).

Lottery

LotteryA method of selecting winners with equal probability for each candidate by using such as. The expected value of the power ratio of the elected people is exactly equal to the population ratio of the exercising voters, no matter how many people are in the quorum, and if all the voters exercise the voting rights, it will be a proportional representation system. In most cases, individual elections are biased because the probabilities are involved.The Ancient Greek,Muromachi ShogunateThe 6th general (Yoshinori Ashikaga) There is an example in selection. No voter will be held because there are no voters, but will be posted for comparison with elections where there are voters. In addition, multiple candidates may be lined up in the same vote, and either of them may be eligible for the election. According to the Public Offices Election Law of Japan, the winners are decided by lottery instead of voting. As a representative of public offices selected by lottery at presentJuryIs given to JapanProsecution judge,Lay judgeThere is.

Election wins

Winning
Being elected. Who was electedWinner (Winner)Usually, the person who gets the most number of valid votes becomes the winner. (In the case of election of multiple people, the number of people who are equivalent to a fixed number among the higher ranks are Also, in the case of proportional representation, the winner is determined by the number of votes from the political party.Indirect election-Winner total taking methodIf, the person who has not obtained the most number of valid votes may be the winner). If the minimum number of votes system is in place, you must be the one who has won the minimum number of votes to become a winner.Legal vote). In Japan's public office elections, the effect of winning is due to the election by the president to notify the winner (Article 102 of the Public Offices Election Law).Winning certificateIs granted (Article 105 of the Public Offices Election Act).
Sure win
In election reportsExit investigationIt is a state in which it is certain that winning will be confirmed by analysis such as.
Defeat
Not be selected by election. In some elections, the person with the most valid votes may be the defeated person.
Runner-up
The highest number of votes among the losers.Advance winningIf there is a system ofElection violationThere are cases where the winning was canceled due to the discovery) Depending on the case, it may become a winner.

Election management

Elections and popularity polls

If you announce the popularity of candidates in advance, it will affect the election results and will not be a fair vote. Therefore, in JapanPublic office election lawArticle 138-3 stipulates "prohibition of publicity vote announcement", and it is prohibited to disclose the results of the popularity vote of candidates in advance. However, in recent years, it has become almost as if an unintentional popularity vote was published on the Internet by the internet media, and it is easy to predict which candidate is popular, and there is a risk that it will affect the election result. Has been pointed out[16].

Elections in each country

Elections in traditional China

TraditionChugokuAlthough the predicate of election is also used in, the usage is different from modern elections, so be careful. Elections in China are the system of appointment of officials by the state,FamilyIt is a term used before. Its etymology is "Gogori electionIt is said that. That is,Former HanIn his generation, the head of a local township/sato called a system to recommend a candidate for public office after consulting with a local official. In this case, the main body of choice is the central government,emperorIs. Also, refer to the opinions of local Australians who are influential people of the town and village.ArgumentBe careful not to be confused with modern terminology. General human (Common people) AndslaveEtc. are not included in the numbers from the beginning.

The Han Dynasty election wasNine-product government lawDeveloped intoAfter that, it will be linked to the system of curriculum. In addition, the usage of the word of election is widely used until posterity,MasashiHas set up an item called "election will", which describes the nine-in-one official law and disciplinary system.

History

Works on elections

Footnote/Source

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Third edition, reference in the World Encyclopedia, Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia, Chiezou, Digital Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Mypedia, World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition, Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Selected Edition Japanese Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of World History. “What is an election?”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2021, 3Browse.
  2. ^ Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 13.
  3. ^ Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 14.
  4. ^ Tai Sawa, Development of Election System Theory in the Early Meiji Period"Election Studies, 1990 Volume 5, p.29-50, Japan Election Society, two:10.14854 / jaes1986.5.29
  5. ^ a b c Teruya Abe ed., "Constitution 2 Basic Human Rights (2)" Yuhikaku <Yuhikaku Sosho>, 1975, p. 180. 
  6. ^ a b c d Mori Toru et al. 2011, p. 198.
  7. ^ a b c Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 16-17.
  8. ^ a b c Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 17.
  9. ^ a b Mori Toru et al. 2011, p. 199.
  10. ^ a b c d e Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 28.
  11. ^ a b Mori Toru et al. 2011, p. 199-200.
  12. ^ a b c d Teruya Abe ed., "Constitution 2 Basic Human Rights (2)" Yuhikaku <Yuhikaku Sosho>, 1975, p. 181. 
  13. ^ a b c d Mori Toru et al. 2011, p. 200.
  14. ^ Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 29.
  15. ^ Toshihiko Nonaka et al. 2006, p. 29-30.
  16. ^ Ryosuke Nishida Changes in Japanese Society Caused by the Lifting of the Internet Election. Toyo Keizai Inc. 

References

  • (English edition"Parliamentary election theory』.BuervecchiOral transcription, writing, 1879 (). Page 74. -In the foreword, it says, "This book is the original name of "Porchik Ars Bechsenshyaft" Tounhi", but the table of contents and the number of pages are written by Brunchuri.Politiks as Wissenschaft』, discussed the pros and cons of giving women the right to vote in JapanMinistry of EducationBooks.
  • Toru Mori, Yoshiyuki Koizumi, Hironobu Asano, Tetsuji Matsumoto "Government" (5th edition) Yuhikaku <LEGAL QUEST, .Constitution 1>, 2011.ISBN 9784641179134. 
  • Toshihiko Nonaka, Mutsuo Nakamura, Kazuyuki Takahashi, Katsutoshi Takami "Constitution II" (4th edition) Yuhikaku Publishing Co., Ltd., 2006.ISBN 978 – 4641130005. 
  • Yoshikazu Kure, "Modern Election Theory-Voting Behavior and Problems-", April 2001.ISBN 978-4-9900-7082-3. 
  • Yoshiaki Kobayashi "Election / Voting Behavior" Volume 1,University of Tokyo Press<Theory and model of social science>, June 2000.ISBN 978-4-1303-4131-8. 
  • Masashi Nakamura "Political integration of fragmented societies: the integrated function of the House of Representatives elections in Malaysia"Asia Economy," Vol. 47, No. 1, Japan External Trade Organization, Institute of Developing Economies, January 2006, pp. 1-2, ISSN 00022942, NOT 120000808743.
  • Johann Caspar Bluntschli, Politiks as Wissenschaft(Meaning: science of politics). JG Cotta, Stuttgart, 1876. 664.
  • Agranoff, R., ed. 1976. The new style in election campaigns. Boston: Holbrook Press.
  • Alexander, HE 1984. Financing politics. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
  • Butler, D. 1989. British general elections since 1945. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Bulter, D., Penniman, HR, and Ranney, A., eds. 1981. Democracy at the polls. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
  • Crewe, I. and Harrop, M., eds. 1989. Political communication: The general election campaign of 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Diamond, E. and Bates, S. 1984. The spot: The rise of political advertising on television. Cambridge, Mass .: MIT Press.
  • Harrop, M. and Miller, WL 1987. Elections and poll. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Hess, S. 1988. The presidental campaign. 3rd edn. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
  • Luntz, F. 1988. Candidates, consultants and campaigns. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Patterson, TE and McClure, RD 1976. The unseeng eye. New York: Putnam Books.
  • Poundstone, W. 2008. Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair. Fsg Adult,
  • Sabato, LJ 1981. The rise of political consultants: New Ways of winning elections. New York: Basic Books.
  • Salmore, SA and Salmore, BG 1985. Candidates, parties, and campaigns. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
  • White, TH 1982. America in search of itself. New York: Warner Books.

Related item

外部 リンク

Visualization

VisualizationIs a human being directly "VisitCan'tphenomenon・ Things that can "see" events (image-Graph--Etc.).Visualization / visualization Informatization / visualization informatization is also possible.English "displayIt corresponds to "," visualization "and is sometimes called visualization / visualization as it is.ItineraryThere are many names that were born in connection with fields and areas, such as visualization of.

Overview

Visualization involves research on methods and methodologies.Contour linedisplay·vector[Avoid ambiguity]Application development of basic display methods such as display and graph display, and proposal of visualization methods that depend on or are suitable for the object to be visualized.Principal component analysis-Multidimensional scaling-Self-organizing mapEtc. are high dimensions that humans cannot directly "see"空间Distributed aboveDataCan be "seen"2 dimensionsSpace (=flat)aboveMapThis is an example of a visualization method.

As a similar concept

  • Audible ――Be able to "listen"
  • ――Be able to "touch"

and so on.

Etc. have been proposed, but it is not common.

Main visualization methods

References

Related item

外部 リンク


 

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