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🏛 | Breaking news Eri Tokunaga (Constitutional Democratic Party, incumbent) XNUMXrd election sure, voice of joy House of Councilors Hokkaido constituency


Breaking news Eri Tokunaga (Constitutional Democratic Party, incumbent) XNUMXrd election sure, voice of joy House of Councilors Hokkaido constituency

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In the election campaign, he has argued that people are paying attention to food security issues not only in agricultural land but also in urban areas.

In the House of Councilors election Hokkaido constituency (XNUMX re-elections), Eri Tokunaga, the incumbent of the Constitutional Democratic Party, is sure to confirm the third time ... → Continue reading

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Food security

Food security(Safety safety,British: Food security)foodRegarding the availability and method ofCountryIt is a matter of level.

If there is a discussion about food security, in JapanMinistry of AgricultureAccording to the definition byEconomic securityTreated as part of the United States, and internationally in accordance with the definition of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States and the United States Department of Agriculture.human welfare achievementOften treated as part of.

Regarding the notation,Food securityIn some cases.At this time, there are cases where food and food are synonymous with each other, and where "food" is used as food in general and "food" is used as staple food cereals.Like the example of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries at the beginning of the article,Government agencyThen, "food security" is often used.


In some cases, there are differences in the definition of this term, as in the following example.

In case the food supply is affected by unforeseen factors, consider measures to secure the food supply and how to activate it flexibly, and prepare on a daily basis in case of emergency. To keep it. — Ministry of Agriculture[† 1]
Food security for the family means that all members of the family always have enough food to lead an active and healthy life.Food security includes at least adequate nutritional value, immediate access to safe food, and the solid ability to obtain food that is acceptable by socially acceptable methods (it is urgent). It does not depend on traditional food supply or means such as grabbing or stealing garbage). — USDA[† 2]
It can be said that food security is realized when "everyone can obtain the necessary, sufficient, safe and nutritious food necessary for living an active and healthy life at all times." — United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization[† 3]


Family members are hungryhungerIt is believed that other members of the family will secure food if there is a fear of.According to the World Resources Institute, per capita food produced worldwide has increased over the last few decades.[1]2006 years,MSNBCThe number of overweight people in the world is 10 billion,malnutritionIt is reported that there are more than 8 million people suffering from. [2]2004 yearswith the BBCAccording to the article, it has the largest population in the worldChugokuThen.obesityIt is said that many people are worried about.[3]

8 million people worldwide are extremepovertyIt is constantly dying because of, and 20 billion people are intermittently unable to obtain food due to various degrees of poverty. (Source: FAO, 2003) Late 2007,Bio fuelIncreased use of[4],oilThe price has exceeded $ 1 per barrel,[5]World populationincrease of,[6]Climate change,[7]Loss of agricultural land due to housing and industrial development[8][9]IndiaAnd increasing consumer demand in China[10] The穀物Pushed up the price.[11][12]In recent years, food riots have occurred all over the world..[13][14][15]

Oil peakIt is becoming more and more difficult to secure stable food due to peak phenomena such as water peaks, grain peaks, and seafood peaks. As of November 2007, more than half of the world's population, 11 billion people, live in urban areas.A crop supply collapse may cause an unprecedented urban food crisis in a relatively short period of time.[16]Late XNUMXsGlobal financial crisisIs also affecting agricultural credit, despite rising grain prices.[17]Food security is a complex issue and stands on many challenges.

From 2009, materials on food security, which summarize food production and its availability from scientific, sociological, and economic perspectives, have been published.[18]In developing countries, more than 70% of people live in rural areas.In that context, the development of agricultural technology for microfarmers gives landless people the opportunity to remain in the communities in which they live.In many parts of the world, land cannot be owned, and thus people seeking land for farming for livelihoods rarely get incentives to improve it.

AmericaHas about 1 million farmers, which is less than 200% of the population.With food consumptionpovertyHave a deep relationship.Farmers who can afford to escape from extreme poverty rarely suffer from hunger, but poor farmers not only suffer from hunger, but also suffer from food shortages andfamineBelongs to the most dangerous hierarchy when

There are various stages of a food emergency, from a state of food availability to a large-scale famine. "Famine and hunger result from food emergencies. Both food emergencies can be categorized as chronic or temporary. Chronic food emergencies are more likely to cause famine and hunger. It is expected that food will be available to escape hunger. (Chronic) hunger is not famine. It is similar to malnutrition and is associated with poverty and exists primarily in poor countries. "[19]

Food security in the United States

Community food security

What is Community food security (CFS)? Through a sustainable food system that maximizes community independence and social justice, all residents of the community have sufficient food to lead a safe and cultural life. It is in a state where it can be obtained.

The Community Food Security Union defines the six basic principles of community food security as follows:

  • Low-income food demand Like the hunger eradication campaign, CFS focuses on addressing food needs in low-income communities, reducing hunger, and personal health.
  • Wide range of goals The goals of CFS are increasing poverty and hunger, loss of arable land and loss of family farming,supermarket OfRed liningTo solve a wide range of problems affecting food systems and communities, such as the collapse of local communities, exhaustion of urban suburbs, and air and water pollution due to unsustainable food production and distribution trends, and environmental impact.
  • Emphasis on community The CFS approach aims to be self-sufficient in the food resources needed by the community.These resources can include supermarkets, farmers markets, vegetable gardens, transportation, community-based food processing ventures and urban agriculture, to name a few.
  • Self-dependence /Empowerment The Community Food Security Program emphasizes the formation of the ability of individuals to self-sufficient food.Community food security seeks to build assets rather than focus on the lack of community and individual capacity.Community food security seeks to strengthen the collaboration of community residents at all stages of planning, implementation and evaluation.
  • Community-based agriculture A stable agricultural base is the key to the community food supply system.Farmers need more market users, better pay for their labor, and plans to protect their land from suburban urban development.By building a strong bond between farmers and consumers, consumers can gain more knowledge and appreciation for their food resources.
  • Based on the system CFS plans are generally internal normative, crossing many boundaries and embodying collaboration with many institutions.

Food emergency

A food emergency is "a state in which a person cannot obtain basic food with the energy and nutritional value necessary to lead a productive life." (Hanger Task Force) In 2005, 2270 million Americans, including 1240 million adults and 3510 million children living in their families, were unable to obtain the food they needed for the year.[20] Families who are unlikely to get more foodPoverty lineThey are single-mother families who live on the following incomes, and they live in both urban and rural areas.[21]From 2003 to 2005, the top three states where many families were unable to obtain the food they needed.New mexico(16.8%),Mississippi(16.5%),Texas(16.0%).[21]

The USDA report raises the following questions: "How often are people hungry in a family that cannot get food?"Approximately 4% of people are reported to be hungry at least once a year, and it is estimated that 1% to 1% are fed nothing during the day.[22]

August 2009, 3,Associated PressIntroduced examples of many children on the verge of hunger in the United States.The article talked about all the mothers of the child, but never mentioned the father.Some mothers also said they were feeding their children junk foods such as potato chips and hot dogs rather than nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and milk.[23]

Dysgenesis and chronic malnutrition

Many countries have constant food shortages and distribution problems.A huge number of people suffer from chronic and frequent hunger.Due to chronic hunger and malnutrition, more and more people are suffering from a stunting illness known in medical terms as dysgenesis.This is about a year for my mother13If that condition continues, the process begins in the womb.It has a high probability of killing a child, but has a lower mortality rate than famine.When dysgenesis occurs, the damage cannot be recovered even if the nutritional status is improved later.Dysgenesis itself is a mechanism that determines body size by the available calories.Due to low energy (calories), limited body size has three negative effects on health:

  • Early organ failure after adulthood For example, dysgenesis occurs at age 50 due to structural defects in the early developmental stages of the heart.heart failureMay die
  • People who are stunted are much more likely to get sick than those who are not.
  • Severe malnutrition at an early age often leads to defects in the developmental stages of cognitive ability

"Analysis is ...MalthusHe points out the essential fallacy of the concept of survival used by, and states that it is still widely recognized.Survival is not determined by nutritional limitsDemographicsDetermined by the catastrophe above.There are multiple stages of survival, not just one, and in that sense population and food supply can be balanced, but it is uncertain whether they are sustainable.However, the number of people who can survive at one stage is small, and it is possible to record a higher case fatality rate than at other stages. "[24]

Global water crisis

Water shortageHas already spurred an increase in grain imports in small countries,[25]Powers like India and China may follow suit.[26]Due to over-collection of groundwater using powerful diesel and power pumps, groundwater levels are declining around the world, including the United States, India and northern China.Pakistan,アフガニスタン,(I.e.Is affected by that.This will eventually lead to water depletion and reduced grain yields.China continues to be in a grain shortage even with such over-collection of groundwater.[27]If that happens, grain prices are certain to rise.By the middle of this century, it is estimated that 30 billion people worldwide will be born in countries that are already short of water.Afghanistan, next to India and ChinaEgypt,Iran,MexicoAnd small countries such as Pakistan are suffering from large water shortages.These countries, with the exception of Pakistan, already rely on imports for most of their grain.However, with Pakistan's annual population growth of 1 million, it looks like it won't be long before we seek grain from the global market.[28][29]

Soil deterioration

Incentives for agriculture often lead to a vicious cycle of soil exhaustion and reduced agricultural land.[30]About 40% of the world's agricultural land is in severe soil degradation.[31]United Nations University OfGhanaAccording to the African Institute for Natural Resources, based in Africa, if the current trend of soil degradation continues in Africa,2025May only be able to supply 25% of the population.[32]

Land acquisition

Governments and businesses in rich countries have millions of hectares to secure long-term foodDeveloping countryAgricultural land is being acquired.United Nations Food and Agriculture OrganizationSecretary-General Jack Diuf warns that the acquisition of such land creates the problem of "new colonialism" in which poor countries produce food for the rich at the expense of their hungry people. .. South Korea TheDaewooLogisticsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFor biofuelscornAgricultural land for cultivating(I.e. TheUkraineSecuring 25 ha of land, ChinaSoutheast AsiaA survey was started to secure land in Japan.[33]Arab oil millionaire investors, including fundsスーダン,エチオピア, Ukraine,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Pakistan,Cambodia,Kingdom of ThailandIs investigating.[34]

Climate change


According to the United Nations Climate ReportGanges River,Indus River,Brahmaputra River,Yangtze River,Mekong River,Salwin river,Yellow RiverIt is the water source of the big river in AsiaHimalaya OfGlacierMay disappear due to rising temperatures by 2035.[35]Approximately 24 billion people live in the basins of rivers that have Himalayan glaciers as their water source.[36]India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan,Bangladesh,Nepal,MyanmarCan be hit by floods and severe droughts in the coming decades.[37]In India, the Ganges is used as drinking water and agricultural water for more than 5 million people.[38][39]Rocky mountains,Sierra Nevada MountainsThe west coast of North America, whose water source is glaciers in the mountains such as, is also affected.[40]Glacier disappearance is not just a problem in developing countries, sea levels are also reported to be rising due to climate change, and less land is available for agriculture.[41]

According to the World Food Trade Model, climate change is expected to have a significant impact on grain yields in other parts of the world, especially in low latitudes where many developing countries are located. There is.Since the recent rise in grain prices, developing countries have been focusing on grain cultivation.As a result, prices for all grains have risen by 2-2.5% and the number of people in starvation has increased by 1%.[42] Decreased yields are just one of the problems faced by farmers in low latitudes and tropics.According to the Department of Agriculture, the timing of crop planting and the length of the growing season are expected to change dramatically due to unexplained soil temperatures and changes in water vapor conditions.[43]


On April 2008, 4, the world's poorest and most vulnerable children reported that they were the most affected by climate change. The report, entitled "Our Climate, Our Children, Our Responsibility. The Impact of Climate Change on Children Around the World," provides clean water and food, especially in Africa and Asia. He said things would get harder and harder.[44]

Wheat stalk rust

Currently by Ug99wheatStem rust has spread from Africa to Asia and is of concern.This highly toxic wheat disease has killed the world's major varieties of wheat and has driven millions to starvation. Ug99 has spread from Africa to Iran and may have already spread to Pakistan.[45][46][47]

Wheat crops of wild relativesGenetic diversityIs used to improve to modern varieties with rust resistance.Rust-tolerant varieties survive rust at the heart of the origin of wild wheat varieties, and their genetic information is analyzed to finally transfer resistant genes from wild to modern varieties. Was mated by modern breeding methods.[48]

Dictatorship and theft politics

Nobel PrizeIs an award-winning economistAmartya Sen"It is impossible that food problems have nothing to do with politics," as he admits.droughtAnd other natural phenomena are conditions for famine to occur, but government actions or omissions determine the extent to which famine often occurs. In the 20th century, there are many examples of national governments deliberately harming food security.

Government-forced or unfair and closed meanselectionWhen seized power by, their support base is often limited, with peers andpatronTo patronize.In such situations, "domestic food distribution is a political issue. Most countries often prioritize urban areas with the most influential and powerful families and businesses. Governments in general. Often ignores the survival of farmers and rural areas. Farther underdeveloped areas that require government support are further neglected. Many agricultural policies, especially those on crop prices, discriminate against rural areas. Governments often keep basic grain prices artificially low, thus effectively avoiding precarious situations. "[49]

In addition, dictators and military leaders use food as a weapon and do not give it to areas that oppose their rule, while rewarding their supporters.Under such circumstances, food iscurrencyUsed as, thereby acquiring support,famineIs used as an effective weapon against conflicting things.

Governments with a strong tendency to steal politics threaten food security even during a good harvest.When the government monopolizes trade, farmers may be free to make cash crops for export, but they are not allowed to sell at prices below the world market price.The government then sells the grain at global market prices and puts the difference in its pocket.This creates an artificial "poverty trap" that motivated farmers cannot escape even if they work hard.

Rule of lawIn the absence of, or in the absence of private property systems, farmers have little incentive to improve productivity.If one farmland is significantly more productive than the next farmland, it can be an individual goal that affects government.Farmers may be content with the mediocre safety given, rather than taking the expected risk of losing land.

As William Bernstein once pointed out in his book The Birth of'Affluence', "Individuals without property are prone to starvation and to submit to the will of the state because of fear and hunger. If (farmers') property is arbitrarily invaded by the state, those in power will inevitably hire people to threaten them in order to divide those with different political and religious opinions. "

Economic approach

In developing countries, various economic approaches are taken to improve food security.Three typical examples are given below.The first is typical of what is advocated by the governments and international organizations of most countries, and the other two are more universal to NGOs (non-governmental organizations).

Western perspective

The idea of ​​maximizing universal farmer interests in a westernized nation is the surest way to maximize agricultural production.

Providing farmers with the maximum and highest quality means possible (meaning here means improving production techniques, improving seeds, securing land ownership, accurate weather forecasts, etc.) ).However, which method to choose depends on the individual farmers' own knowledge and local circumstances.

Like other businesses, the rate of return is usually reinvested in sectors where production is expected to increase, thus increasing future profits.Usually most of the profitsDrip irrigationInfrastructure development and agricultural education, etc.温室It is spent on the technology development department that improves productivity.The increased profits will also attract and increase farmers' double cropping, soil improvement plans and incentives for expanding arable land.

Food justice

A common approach is taken from an alternative perspective to achieve food security.It points out that there is enough food on earth to free all people in the world from the fear of hunger and hunger.It aims to ensure that no one lives without adequate food due to economic constraints and social inequality.

This approach is often referred to as food justice and sees food security as a fundamental human right.It advocates fair distribution of food, especially grains, as a means of eliminating chronic hunger and malnutrition.At the heart of the food justice movement is the belief that it is not food that is lacking, but the political will to distribute it fairly regardless of the economic circumstances of what it receives.

Food sovereignty

The third approach is known as food sovereignty.It overlaps with food justice in some ways, but not exactly the same.It sees the activities of multinational corporations as a new colonialism.It insists that it has the financial resources to buy poorer countries, especially tropical agricultural resources.They sell these resources to developed countries other than the tropicsCommodity cropHas a political influence to produce monopoly, and in the process drives the poor out of more productive lands.From this point of view, farmers who practice sustainable agriculture have only cultivable farmland left, and there is little productivity in terms of productivity, and there is no interest in multinational corporations.

It bans the cultivation of commercial crops and advocates devoting local farmers to the cultivation of sustainable crops.It also opposes allowing developed countries to give less subsidies to developing countries as so-called "import dumping."

Summit, etc.

World Food Summit

The World Food Summit was held in 1996 with the aim of renewing the sense of responsibility for fighting hunger.RomeIt was held in.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the World has called for a summit in response to an increase in undernourished people and growing concerns about whether agricultural productivity can meet future food demand.Two key documents have been adopted: the Roman Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Action Plan.

The Rome Declaration called on UN member states to cut the number of people on the planet suffering from chronic malnutrition in half by 2015.The Action Plan is to achieve food security at the individual, family, national, regional and global levels.政府,NGOI set a numerical target for.

World Food Security Summit

The World Food Security Summit will be held from 2009th to 11th November 16.ItalyWas held in Rome.The convocation of the summit was decided at the Board of Directors of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in June 2009, at the suggestion of the Secretary-General and Dr. Jack Diuf.The summit will be held at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is expected to bring together representatives of the state and government.

APEC Food Security Ministerial Meeting

2010 year 10 month,NiigataOpened in1st APEC Food Security Ministerial MeetingSo, worldwidePopulation growth,Abnormal weatherIn the backgroundFood shortageIn response to strong concerns aboutAgricultural Products"We said that we would cooperate to strengthen the stable supply ofNiigata DeclarationWas adopted.

July 2012th and 5th, 30KazanMade in2st APEC Food Security Ministerial MeetingThen, while reconfirming that we will continue to work on the "Niigata Declaration", as an effort to ensure food security, discussions were held on expanding agricultural production while coexisting with diverse agriculture, and "APEC's" Regarding food securityKazan DeclarationWas adopted[50].

Toward the realization of food security

"The number of people who are not always getting enough food remains high at 8 million and has not declined significantly. 60% of the world's malnourished people live in Asia,14Lives in Africa.However, the proportion of people who are hungry is higher in Africa (33%) than in Asia (16%).Of the 22 countries in Africa, 16 have more than 35% of malnourished people, according to the latest FAO data. "[51]

In the 2003 World Food Emergency Nation, FAO states:[52]

"In general, in countries that have succeeded in reducing the number of people suffering from hunger, it is rapid.economic growthIt was characterized that it was able to achieve, especially the growth of the agricultural sector was remarkable.Also, low population growth rate, lowHIVNumber of infected people is highHuman development indexWas also seen. "

According to FAO, solving the problems of agriculture and population growth is essential to achieving food security.Other institutions or individuals (egPeter singer) Also came to this conclusion, advocating agricultural improvement and population control.[53]

United States Agency for International Development[54]Suggests several steps to increase agricultural productivity that are key to increasing rural income and reducing the risk of food emergencies.They include the following:

  • Agricultural scienceAnd improve the technology.Current crop yields are inadequate for an ever-growing population.In particular, improving agricultural productivity will accelerate economic growth.
  • Ownership protection and financial guarantee
  • EducationAnd through improving healthHuman capitalImprovement of
  • Mechanisms of Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts Based on Responsibility Principles and Transparency and Rule of Law in Public Institutions Democracy and governance are the basis for reducing vulnerable members of society.

United NationsMillennium Development GoalsIs one of the initiatives aimed at achieving food security in the world.In its list of goals, the United Nations "eradicates extreme hunger and poverty" in its first Millennium Development Goals, "agricultural productivity will be key to achieving it on time." It is stated.

"Of the eight Millennium Development Goals, agriculture is the most important to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty." (The Millennium Development Goals call for halving hunger and poverty compared to 8 by 2015).

Collecting wild plants for food, especially in tropical countries, is likely to be an effective alternative to survival and may play a role in poverty reduction.[55]

The link between agriculture, hunger and poverty

To eradicate hunger and poverty, it is necessary to understand the link between these two injustices.Hunger and its associated malnutrition impede the learning and labor of the poor, their health and their family's health, and prevent them from escaping poverty.People are in a food emergency when food is not physically available, when they are not socially and economically successful enough to get enough food, or when food is underutilized. Present when malnourished.People who are in a state of food emergency are not enough, and those who show physical symptoms that the body cannot digest food effectively due to infectious diseases and illnesses caused by lack of energy and nutrients due to an unbalanced diet. Individuals who do not have the minimum required energy.It is also possible to define the concept of food contingency from another perspective by considering the physiological use of food in the body within the area of ​​nutrition and health and by mentioning only the inability to ingest sufficient nutritious food.Malnutrition can also be detrimental to one's health, which makes it impossible for the person to feed the family.If left unresolved, hunger can lead to a series of malnourished people, reducing the workforce of adults and the chances of having healthy children, children's learning ability and a productive, healthy and happy life. It will take away the opportunity to send.This truncation of human development gradually undermines the economic growth potential of the next generation of nations.

There is a strong, direct link between agricultural productivity, hunger and poverty.Of the poor in the world34Live in rural areas and they make a living from agriculture.Hunger and malnutrition in children are more common in these areas than in urban areas.Not only that, the higher the proportion of the rural population that earns from self-sufficient agriculture alone (without the benefit of using advanced technology and markets), the higher the incidence of malnutrition.Therefore, the improvement of agricultural productivity for small-scale farmers is aimed at first benefiting the poor in rural areas.

Increased agricultural productivity allows farmers to produce more food, which leads to better diets and increased incomes for farmers under market conditions given equal competitiveness. ..Farmers are likely to produce more diverse and value-added crops with more money, contributing not only to them but to the economy as a whole. [56]

(Sub) Biotechnology for microfarmers in the tropics

Developing countryThe expansion of the region where GM crops are cultivated in Japan is catching up with that in developed countries. According to the ISAAA (International Agribio Corporation), the number of farmers cultivating genetically modified crops has increased from 2004 million in 17 countries in 825 to about 2005 million in 21 countries in 850. Brazil has the largest increase in GM crops in the world in 2005, estimated to increase from 2004 km² in 50,000 to 2005 km² and 94,000 km² in 44,000.India's growth rate is much higher than in other countries, from 2004 km² in 5,000 to about three times to 2005 km² in 3.[57]

The current variety of high adjustment costs produced by more modern methods has hampered the development of genetically modified crops by modern genetic techniques suitable for farmers in developing countries.But once new seeds are developed, the new seeds bring an improvement in comprehensive distribution methods that are favorable to farmers.

Currently, some laboratories and research groups are, in principle, with people from non-profit, underdeveloped countries.BiotechnologyHave a plan to share.These laboratories utilize high-cost biotechnology methods such as germ plasm and plant protection that are inexpensive to research and register.

Food security risks

Dependence on fossil fuels

Green revolutionAs the production of agricultural products continues to increase as a result of the above, the use of energy in the process (because the production of crops requires the consumption of energy) also shows a dramatic increase rate, and the ratio of the effect of energy required for the production of crops. Has decreased.The technology of the Green Revolution is alsoChemical fertilizerInsecticideHerbicideRemarkably dependent on, some of whichFossil fuelMust be developed from, resulting in a reliance on agricultural petroleum products.

From 1950 to 1984, the Green Revolution changed the world's agriculture, increasing world grain production to 250%.The energy for the Green Revolution is chemical fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (petroleum), andhydrocarbonbyIrrigationPowered by.[58]

Cornell UniversityEnvironmental studiesAgricultureProfessor David Pimentel and Mario Jampietro, a senior researcher at the National Institute of Food and Nutrition, said that a sustainable economy can support a study entitled "Food, Land, Population and the US Economy." He points out that the population of the United States that can be produced is 2 million.To maintain a sustainable economy and prevent catastrophes, the United States has at least a population13Must be reduced, and the world population23The study states that it must be reduced.[59]

The authors of this study believe that the agricultural crisis mentioned is only the beginning of the blow to humankind after 2020 and will not be critical by 2050. There is.The upcoming global oil production peak (and subsequent decline) and in North AmericaNatural gasIt is expected that a peak in production will much accelerate the arrival of this agricultural crisis.[10] Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer has experienced a never-ending rise in food prices and a massive scale in the coming decades.hungerClaims to be seen on a global scale.[60]

However, one thing to point out is (the numbers areThe World Fact BookBangladesh, which is much more densely populated than the United States, achieved full food self-sufficiency in 2002. (American population density is 30km2Bangladesh is 1000km, compared to 1 people per person2There are 1000 people per person, which is more than 30 times higher).It also depends on very little oil, gas and electricity compared to what the United States uses.In addition, China's micro-farmers and landscape architects before the Industrial Revolution are 1km away.2He was developing agricultural technology that could support a population of more than 1000 per person (see FH King's 1911 report, Permanent Agriculture in East Asia XNUMX Years).


April 2008, 4, Thailand prices for ricecartelAnnounced plans to create a potential that could lead to.[61][62]

Treat food like any other international trade product

August 2008, 10,Associated PressReported as follows.

"Bill ClintonThe former president said at the United Nations on Thursday:The global food crisis "has hit us all, including me," by treating food "like a color television" rather than having to treat it like the poor in the world.Clinton received support from the United States, especially for fertilizers, breeding seeds, and other Africans who were unable to receive the government subsidies needed to continue farming.World Bank,International Monetary FundCriticized policymaking by other groups over the last few decades.Africa's food self-sufficiency has declined and food exports have increased.International grain prices have now skyrocketed, doubling on average between 2006 and early 2008, driving many in poverty-stricken countries into further poverty. "[63][2008 10, 16]

Food is not the same as any other product.weFood self-sufficiencyWe must return to a policy that maximizes the number of people.It is ridiculous to think that countries around the world can continue to develop without increasing food self-sufficiency.[64] — Former US PresidentBill Clinton,United NationsWorld food dayIn a speech at, October 2008, 10

Citations / footnotes



  1. ^ Agriculture and Food urine gricultural Production Indices: Food production per capita index, World Resources Institute
  2. ^ Nearly 1 in 5 Chinese overweight or obese, MSNBC, August 18, 2006
  3. ^ Chinese concern at obesity surge, BBC, October 12, 2004
  4. ^ 2008: The year of global food crisis
  5. ^ The global grain bubble
  6. ^ Food crisis will take hold before climate change, warns chief scientist
  7. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite
  8. ^ Experts: Global Food Shortages Could'Continue for Decades'
  9. ^ Has Urbanization Caused a Loss to Agricultural Land?
  10. ^ a b The World's Growing Food-Price Crisis
  11. ^ The cost of food: Facts and figures
  12. ^ Food Price Unrest Around the World, September 2007-April 2008
  13. ^ Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring
  14. ^ Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?
  15. ^ Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits
  16. ^ Mathew Maavak–WE ARE IN A BAD FIX
  17. ^ Amid strong farm economy, some worry about increased debt, Associated Press, April 20, 2008
  18. ^ New ISPP Journal. Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food
  19. ^ Melaku Ayalew–What is Food Security and Famine and Hunger?
  20. ^ America's Second Harvest --Hunger and Poverty Statistics
  21. ^ a b ibid
  22. ^ http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err11/err11.pdf
  23. ^ Pictures of hunger: Photo project captures the life of those in need, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 1, 2009
  24. ^ Robert Fogel, The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death: 1700-2100; Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  25. ^ Water Scarcity Crossing National Borders
  26. ^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news --India grows a grain crisis
  27. ^ Outgrowing the Earth
  28. ^ The Food Bubble Economy
  29. ^ Global Water Shortages May Lead to Food Shortages-Aquifer Depletion
  30. ^ The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization
  31. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land
  32. ^ Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025
  33. ^ Rich countries launch great land grab to safeguard food supply, The Guardian, November 22, 2008
  34. ^ Arable Land, the new gold rush: African and poor countries cautioned
  35. ^ Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
  36. ^ Big melt threatens millions, says UN
  37. ^ Glaciers melting at alarming speed
  38. ^ Ganges, Indus may not survive: climatologists
  39. ^ Himalaya glaciers melt unnoticed
  40. ^ Glaciers Are Melting Faster Than Expected, UN Reports
  41. ^ Issues In Food Security
  42. ^ Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security
  43. ^ Issues In Climate Change
  44. ^ UNICEF UK News :: News item :: The tragic consequences of climate change for the world's children :: 29 April 2008 00:00
  45. ^ Millions face famine as crop disease rages
  46. ^ “Billions at risk from wheat super-blight”. New Scientist Magazine (issue 2598): 6–7. (2007-04-03). http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19425983.700-billions-at-risk-from-wheat-superblight.html April 2007, 4Browse.. 
  47. ^ IRAN: Killer fungus threatens wheat production in western areas
  48. ^ Hanan Sela, University of Haifa, Israel See DIVERSEEDS short video
  49. ^ Fred Cuny窶擢 amine, Conflict, and Response: a Basic Guide; Kumarian Press, 1999.
  50. ^ Summary of Results of "2nd APEC Food Security Ministers' Meeting"Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Press Release June 2012, 6
  51. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization
  52. ^ The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003
  53. ^ Peter Singer advocating population control
  54. ^ USAID --Food Security
  55. ^ Claudio O. Delang (2006). He role of wild food plants in poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. Progress in Development Studies 6 (4): 275–286. two:10.1191 / 1464993406ps143oa. 
  56. ^ http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/books/ar2003/ar2003_essayall.htm Agriculture, Food Security, Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals 2003-2004 IFPRI Annual Report Essay Joachim von Braun, MS Swaminathan, and Mark W. Rosegrant
  57. ^ http://www.isaaa.org/ ISAAA Briefs 34-2005: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech / GM Crops: 2005
  58. ^ http://www.energybulletin.net/281.html, Eating Fossil Fuels.
  59. ^ http://www.soilassociation.org/peakoil, Peak Oil: the threat to our food security
  60. ^ http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/2225,Agriculture Meets Peak Oil
  61. ^ Australia | April 30, 2008 | Mekong nations to form rice price-fixing cartel
  62. ^ Post | May 1, 2008 | PM floats idea of ​​five-nation rice cartel
  63. ^ Charles J. Hanley (October 2008, 10). “` We blew it'on global food, says Bill Clinton ”.Associate Press, San Francisco Chronicle. originalArchived as of October 2008, 10.. https://web.archive.org/web/20081028071414/http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/10/23/international/i142025D32.DTL April 2010, 1Browse. 
  64. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/10/23/international/i142025D32.DTL


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cityWhat is (to)Commercial-distributionAs a result of development such aspopulationIs the area where is concentrated.


Internationally unified about citiesDefinitionno.Cities are functionally composed of residential areas, industrial areas, and commercial areas.in the centerOfficialand areas where offices and commercial facilities are concentrated, such asCity center-Central business district(CBD: central business district), and the city centerResidential areas(Inner City) And the industrial areaSuburbIs formed.

Draw a donut-shaped concentric circle or spread radially from the cityRailway line,The motorwayOn top of theSatellite cityAnd the way in which it spreads around the topographyTransportationIt also depends on the maintenance situation. In addition, the population flowing into the city, the economicProducts, The shape of the concentric circles changes in various ways like the amoeba movement, depending on the requirements such as the movement of people, and there is no constant peripheral edge.

The formation of the city was accompanied by the history of humankind, and was composed mainly of religious facilities and administrative facilities. Also,Port,Post townDistribution bases such as these also form cities through the concentration of distribution and related industries.

CurrentJapanSo, in general, it ’s an administrative division.CityIs regarded as a city[1]But,Great Showa mergerIt has both a densely populated area and an area with rural characteristics, and land use that is inconsistent with the urban landscape.[1]Because the number of cities that do[2], The country has carried out work to establish an "urban area"[1], 1960CensusThe area with a population density of 4,000 people / ㎢ and a population density of more than 5,000 people is "Concentrated area(DID)” statistically treated as a city[2]..Coordination of multiple urban areas (Conservation) And spread beyond the boundaries of the municipality, the whole cityMetropolitan areaWill be called.

The definition of "city" varies from country to country. The minimum standard population to consider as a "city" isSweden-DenmarkThen there are about 200 people[1],AmericaThen 2500 people[3],SwitzerlandThen there are 1 people[3], Japan has 5 people (there is an example of 3 people in the timed legislation)[2]Therefore, according to UN statistics, the "urban population size" varies from 1,000 to 30,000.[2].

Also, in the United States, there is a statistical region with more than 5 people and one with a population of 1.5 or more, and when the two are combined, there is a continuous statistical region with more than 2 people.Metropolitan statistical area(MSA), and this area with a population of 1 or more and 5Micropolitan Statistical AreaDefined as.The concept of CMA in Canada and SMLA in the United Kingdom is similar.[3].


Synonyms of city

As a synonym for cityMetropolis,and so on.

When we call it a ``city,'' it doesn't matter whether it's big or small, but when we say ``urban'' or ``miyako,''Countryside"It is an antonym of "hina" and often refers to a relatively large city.

  • City ⇔ Village(Academic term)
  • City ⇔ village(Abbreviation)
  • City ⇔ Countryside(Slang)
  • Metropolitan ⇔ Zheng (slang reading)
  • Downtown ⇔ Heilong (Slang with a perspective of expanse)
  • Metropolis ⇔ City (From the original meaning of kanji, the capital city is an administrative city: a capital city with a head of state and a large population. A city is a commercial city.

Functions common to all cities

In the citylife line-foodSupply ofWed-electricity-communicationSuch as in the cityresidents OfLifeIs needed as a means to maintain and maintain ties with other cities. The city has a means of power supply and up and downWaterequipment and道路-Railway stationYaminato・空港Such asinfrastructureEven needed depending on its population. Also, sewage andgarbageIntravenous distribution such as the treatment of is also essential. Furthermore, after entering the age of mass consumption,wasteHas become a serious problem even in large cities.

19st centuryAfter that, in order to use the limited space of the city efficiently,skyscraper,地下(in recent yearsDeep underground) Came to be used[4].

Due to the development of the city, even in rural areas around the city,FarmlandOf residential land工場・Become a city character, such as the establishment of commercial facilities. This phenomenonUrbanizationSay. Of these, unplanned urbanizationSprawl phenomenonThat.

Type of function

Political and administrative functions
(municipal office-City council-Fire department
city ​​Hall·PrefecturesAgencies, state governments, national agencies, etc.Administrative agency,裁判 所Included,Police stationAnd a fire station are located.PolicemenAlso, the jurisdiction of fire fighting may cover areas (multiple cities).Waterworks・Things that support lifelines such as sewage bureaus and garbage disposal facilities.In Japan,the 1990sSince then, there have been cases where large-scale government buildings were constructed and relocated in the suburbs.
Commercial function
(Department store-Shopping district-Hotel-fast foodshop·Restaurants
In Japan, department stores and shopping streets in the city centerRoadside shopOr largeShopping centerIs being pushed by,consumerIs moving to the suburbs. DowntownMovie theaterIs gradually disappearing.
Transportation/communication function
You can control the entry of cars into the city centerNew urbanismHave started in European cities,BRT(express bus system) andTram(Next-generation tram) has been reevaluated for its low pollution and barrier-free aspects.
Education, culture and entertainment functions
(Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular-University-library-Museum-park-Sports Facilities-hole-live house
For the continuous development of the city, we will nurture and nurture the next stageEducationInstitutions are needed in cities. The relocation to the suburbs has been progressing from early on, but in recent years due to that reflectionReturn to the city centerIs also progressing.
Medical/welfare function
(hospital-Maternal and Child Health Center-Nursing home
ResidentAgingAlong with,MedicalInstitutionssocial welfareThe improvement of facilities is becoming an important issue for the survival of cities.Senior citizensDedicatedApartmentThe number of group homes and group homes has been increasing recently, mainly in the suburbs. A city for elderly people built from subdivisions for elderly peopleSenior townSay.The United States of AmericaIn a typical senior town,Sun City, ArizonaThere is.


Population ranking

Ranking of world urban population(2016)
1Tokyo Ward38,140,000
5Sao Paulo21,297,000
7Mexico City21,157,000
10ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク18,604,000
Source:United Nations [3]

Scale indicator

Even if we measure the size of the city by population,Developed countryIn many large cities, the separation of work and residence is advanced, and the range of central municipalities and the range of residence of people mainly engaged in urban functions are often not necessarily the same (eg:Chiyoda OfNighttime populationIs about 4,Daytime populationIs about 85). Therefore, to express the size of the city, the population of the municipality,Concentrated areaThere are various population indicators such as (DID) population and urban population.

In addition, EconomyStatistics and economic power are expected to appearCentral business district(CBD) andCity centerThere is also a view that the size of the city is regarded as the scale of the city.

Big city

So-called"Big city,” the nominal (populationarea), rather than the actual (functions and density of the central city) are excessively concentrated,Overcrowdingcity"" refers to the city. It is characteristic that it started from a single medium (castle, port, etc.) and became huge. Also,Commercial-Transportation-EntertainmentAnd so on, the degree of fulfillment is high.

JapaneseMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIt is,Osaka-横 浜 市-Kobe City-Nagoya city-Sapporo-Fukuoka City-Sendai cityな どGovernment-designated cityIs referred to as a metropolis[5]But in general, to thisspecial areaIsTokyo23 wards will also be added.Some large cities, such as Sapporo, Shizuoka, Hamamatsu, and Kyoto, have depopulated areas in the surrounding area as a result of the merger.

Mega city

Urban populationIn a huge city of over 1000 million peopleMega cityThat.United NationsAccording to the statistics of2009Currently, there are 21 mega cities in the world with a population of more than 1000 million. The world's largest megacity has a population of over 3500 millionTokyoIt is a sphere.

Example of a big city

World city

World citymainly in economic, political and cultural activities,globalIt is a city that is highly important and influential from various perspectives.globalcityAlso say.

Examples of world cities


History of urban population

About the estimated population

History-GeographyScholars(I.e.Area, of each eraProductivityThe urban population is estimated from.Ancient times-中 世Demographics are rare and unreliable.

Below, regarding the city estimated to have an urban population of more than 1850 million by around 100, two peoplescholarList the estimated peak population of. The error in the estimated population is large when historical materials are scarce, and often even orders of magnitude change. For more detailed estimatesEstimated historical city populationSee.

Name of a cityChandler (1987)Modelski (2003)Remarks
Age distributionEstimated populationAge distributionEstimated population
B.C.361150,000300 BC400,000Maurya dynasty OfChandragputaVisited Pataliputra in the era ofGreekMegasthenesAccording to the record, the east-west is about 14.4km, the north-south is about 2.7km, and the circumference is about 35km.parallelogramcity.Castle wallSurrounded by 180m wide around the wallmoatWas circling.
ア レ ク サ ン ド リ ア
B.C.60325,000100 BC1,000,00030 (60 BC, freed population, "History book』); Maximum estimated 110 million people
RomeA.D.100450,000100 AD1,000,00017.83 km2(AugustusThe territory of the city of Rome defined by
171-180 year600,0002001,200,000Maximum estimated 200 million people
271-280 year500,0003001,000,00013.05 km2(270-273 years, Aurelian WallsInside)
500-565 year600,000600600,00012 km2(447, inside the wall)
944330,0001000600,00016 km2(11th century, inside the ramparts); up to an estimated 100 million people
1600-1650 year700,000  11 units (1552); maximum estimated 130 million people
1675-1690 year750,000  88,185 units (1794); maximum estimated 110 million
1850785,000  873,565 (1885, inside the ramparts)
JingzhaoChang'an(Xi'an700-750 year800,0007001,000,00030 km2(Inside the walls of Sui Tang Castle); 362,921 units (742, Jingzhao); Maximum estimated 200 million people
Madinato al-Salaam
9321,100,000900900,00073.42 km2(932, estimated urban area); maximum estimated 300 million people
1000125,00010001,200,000Public baths 1,500 (993); up to an estimated 150 million people
1100150,00011001,200,00065 km2(Around 1070, estimated urban area)
1150-1258 year100,00012001,000,000Public baths 2,000 (1185, Ibn Jubayr)
Al-Kurtuba (Cordoba1000450,0001000450,000Mosque 471, 11.7 km2 (1009, inside the ramparts); up to an estimated 100 million people
Yashodarapura (Encore1000200,0001000400,0009 km2(Around 950, inside the ramparts); 105 km2(Whole area of ​​Angkor ruins)
1200150,000  11 km2(Around 1200, inside the wall); maximum estimated 150 million
Songdo (Gaeseong927-1100 year60,000  8,457 (around 1000, craftsmanship); maximum estimated 100 million
TokyoOpenedPrefecture (Hyokyo)1100-1102 year442,00011001,000,00060 km2(1127, inside the wall); maximum estimated 200 million
1232210,00012001,000,00090 massacre (1232, Jin Shi
Melv(Mali)1150200,000  38 km2(Around 1150, estimated urban area); maximum estimated 150 million
SecurityFengqiantang (Hangzhou1200255,00012001,000,000302,800 units (around 1250, Lin'anfu)
1273-1350 year432,00013001,500,00023 km2(1360, inside the wall); maximum estimated 250 million
(MostRoad Taoxing, Suncheon Fu Daox)
1270-1300 year401,0001,100,00036 km2(1264-8, inside the wall); 401,350 (1270, Daito Road)
1575-1600 year706,0001500-1600 year1,000,000706,861 (1579, Suncheon)
18001,100,00018001,100,00030 km2(Around 1750, inside the wall); maximum estimated value 150 million
1845-1850 year1,648,000   
Al-Kahira (Cairo1348-1349 year494,000  Mosque 494, 20 dead in plague (1348-9, Abu Lugod)
Jingling, Otenfu Nanjing1400487,00014001,000,00075 km2(1373, inside the wall); 1,193,620 (1394, Otenfu); maximum estimated 140 million
Vijayanagar1500500,000  30 km2(16th century, inside 7-story wall); maximum estimated 130 million
Heianjing(京都1624-1632 year410,000  410,098 (1632); maximum estimated 130 million
Isfahan1673-1675 year360,000  29,469 units (1673, inside the castle wall); 38,249 units,
90 km2(1673, all urban areas); maximum estimated 110 million
Ayutthaya1767180,00017001,000,00016 km2(1720, estimated urban area)
Edo(Tokyo)1721700,000  509,708 (1721, Machikata dominated field townsman population); maximum estimated 100 million
1798-1804 year685,00018001,000,000492,449 (1798, Machikata dominated field townsman population); maximum estimated 130 million
1854788,000  573,619 (1854, Machikata dominated field townsman population); maximum estimated 120 million
UK1800861,00018001,000,000128,129 (1801, City of London); 959,310 (1801, Inner London)
18502,320,000  127,869 (1851, City of London); 2,363,341 (1851, Inner London)
1825-1835 year900,000  499,298 (1895, inside the city walls of Guangzhou); maximum estimated 150 million (including Foshan)
18501,314,000  1,053,262 (1851, inside the ramparts)


AsiaIs traditionally a large city. This is because the base population is large, and it is considered to be the staple food in the whole area.riceIt is,wheatThis is because the productivity per farmland is superior to that of the above, and a certain amount of food can be supplied even if the population increases.

That is, the yield per unit area is highRice cultivationHowever, it has supported the large population of Asian cities.KanjiAccording to a census in 2 AD, Chang'an had a population of 80,800 and 246,200, and it is estimated that it had a population of about 40, including the population that did not remain in the family register. Or later,ChugokuThen.Chang'an for generations,Northern Song Dynasty - unpacking of money,Southern Song Dynasty - yuanHangzhou (Qiantang),LightNanjing,yuanIt is estimated that Beijing and other cities after the generation were large cities with a population of over 100 million. Even in Japan,Heijokyoand Heian-kyoHiraizumi-KamakuraAre estimated to have a population of over 10.

Late Middle Ages (in JapanThe early modern periodAround that time, Edo had a population of over 100 million, and was the largest city in the world at the time alongside Beijing and Istanbul (at that time Constantinople).

Since modern times in AsiaPopulation explosionWill encourage rapid growth in big cities.

Meiji RestorationAfter that,Tokyo cityContinues to grow20st centuryAt the beginning, it was a city with millions of people. In addition, at that timeOsakaAlso has a scale comparable to Tokyo,Great Kanto EarthquakeLater, Osaka temporarily became larger than Tokyo.

Second World WarAfter the war, the population of Tokyo decreased, and it grew again during the postwar reconstruction. At present, Tokyo is about 1000 million people when viewed as a "city,"SphereWhen viewed asKanagawa-千葉-埼 玉-IbarakiThe residential area spreads out to the scale of 3,400 million people. Also, Osaka city is also Kyoto city,Kobe CityThe total population of the metropolitan area is 1700 million, followed by a 1.5% metropolitan area with a population of less than 1000 million.NagoyaHowever, as a regional center cityFukuoka-SapporoHas a population of over 200 million in the metropolitan area,SendaiIs a metropolitan area with 160 million people.

In the second half of the 20th century,IndustrializationNot only in advanced countries,Developing countriesBut the city population has increased rapidly. BetteremploymentThis was due to the large influx of people from rural areas to overcrowded cities in search of opportunities for education and education.China, India,PakistanIn a large population nation such as, nominally over 1 million peopleHuge cityIn addition to the capital city, many big cities have been born.

When large cities become overcrowded due to overconcentration in urban areas, globalization progresses, not only as regional and domestic bases, but also as exchange bases with overseas, so land prices soar, and central areas are even more expensive. Further development will be required.As a result, we can see many large cities with skyscrapers in the center reminiscent of large cities in North America.In China, Southeast Asia, India, and the Middle East (described later), where economic growth is remarkable, there are many cities of this type, and in recent years, such city formation is being carried out even in inland hub cities.Residential development also followed the expansion of the city, mainly along the motorways, for the middle class.Housing complexWill be built endlessly, but on the other hand, the development of infrastructure and transportation infrastructure cannot keep up with the formation of a bloated city,Traffic jam,Commuting rushOn the outskirts of it, the poor who cannot live in urban areas or housing complexes are illegallySlumIs often formed.


Ancient timesEuropeIn Rome, after the growth of Rome into a huge city with an estimated 200 million people,ManorThe cities of Europe have declined as a result of the progress of urbanization and destruction of cities due to successive invasions of different ethnic groups and civil war.[6]

The medieval urban population has a maximum scale of 40 to 60 (After UmayyadThe capital ofCordobaAndEastern Roman EmpireThe capital of Constantinopolis, etc. BothIslamic,Eastern Orthodox ChurchThe area of ​​influence). Especially in Western Europe, the number of cases exceeding 10 was rare (Centennial warEstimated 28 people in Paris during the truce,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アThere are an estimated 11 people).Age of DiscoveryAfter arrival, cities with more than 10 people will appear in various places in Europe.

Industrial revolutionrear,IndustrialLondon becomes huge due to the accumulation of. It has become a city with millions of people and has become the world's largest city in the mid-19th century. After that, as industrialization progressed in various places, several large cities with a population of over 100 million were born.

In the modern era, the rapid growth of cities has disappeared due to the stagnant population in Europe. There are few major cities other than the major cities of each country. Examples of large cities outside the capital include:Barcelona,Birmingham,Milan, Hamburg,MunichSuch,Nation-stateThere are cities that were the capitals of local nations before birth, and cities that became mining and industrial cities during the Industrial Revolution.

In addition, there are many cities with historical value in the city center, so there are restrictions on urban development (the city itselfworld HeritageMany cities are registered in). Therefore, it is difficult to establish a large city with skyscrapers such as Asia and North America. A financial city in Germany that was completely destroyed by the World War II air raidFrankfurtOr near the city centerruinsWas redeveloped as a building town in London (Docklands),Berlin(Potsdamer Platz), located at the gateway to EuropeRotterdamAre exceptions.

Since the beginning of modern times, efforts have been made to create cities in a functional and friendly way.A typical example was founded in the 16th centuryPoland OfZamoscIt is a city.Zamosc It is,LublinAbout 80km from the cityHighlandWas built in. At the time it was a perfect city thanks to the special layout of the streets and buildings.

In EuropeRussia OfMoscowOnly boast a population of over 1000 million.


AfricaThen from BCEgyptA city is developing in. Especially,HeliopolisIn the neighborhood, cities gradually change places and grow,Fast start, Develops into Cairo. Depending on the scholarPtolemaic morningOf the eraAlexandriaEstimates that it had a population of over one million. Also,PhoenicianWas made a colonial cityCartagoIt is estimated that there was a population of 50 people in the heyday,Roman periodAlso flourished as an important city in North Africa.

7st centuryOr later,IslamWith the spread oftransactionWas established and a city was developed in northern Africa.SaharaCross overcaravanThe network of trade expanded, and cities gradually developed in sub-Saharan Africa.

European countries since the Age of DiscoverySlave trade,Commodity tradeAs a base forGulf of GuineaA port city was built on the coast. Since then, cities have been created in various places as the central centers of the colonies.

After World War II,African yearAfter that, independent countries began to develop their own cities, but soon after内 戦Broke out. Due to the prolonged war, economic activity has stagnated and development has been hindered. On the other hand, in the capital of each country,famineThe population has flowed in a chaotic manner, escaping from the civil war and rushing to seek opportunities for education and employment. The population that cannot be accommodated forms slums around the city.

Middle East

Middle EastIs one of the places where humankind first built a city,戦 争Is one of the places (HamukarSee). Since manykingdom,empireWas born, and a commercial city was prospering as a base of.Ur,Uruk,Babylon,Susa,Nineveh,Damascus,Jerusalem,Persepolis,SeleukiaAnd the other sideCtesifonIs a typical example. Many of them declined due to changes in river flows and loss of political hubs.

With the expansion of Islam11st centuryBy then, it became a hub of prosperity, where the world's most advanced technologies and cultures were created. Million City Baghdad, Holy Land of IslamMecca,Basra,Aden,IsfahanOr, Istanbul in Europe, Cairo in Africa, etc.Islamic cultureFlourished as the center of the city.

After the Great Voyage, land trade declined, and the city, which lost its advantage as a commercial hub, gradually reached its peak of development, and in the 19th century, it experienced a relative downfall in the face of European urban development. On the other hand,BeirutHas developed as a port city that is the gateway to the West. 1975Lebanese Civil WarIt became an important economic and trading hub in the Middle East until the outbreak.

Especially since World War II,Oil crisisAfterOil moneyHas made an economic leap by the influx ofArabian GulfOn the shore appeared a rich city, which was maintained with huge funds. The population is concentrated on the wealth of these cities, and large cities exist in the desert.

Anglo America

Anglo AmericaThen,Mississippi cultureLarge-scale ritual centers were built in various places during theCahokiaIs believed to have reached a population of 1 at its peak. However, by the time they came in contact with Europeans, people were already dispersed.

17st centuryAround the beginning of colonization by Western countries,大西洋A new city was born on the shore. Originally confined to the Atlantic coast, the city becameMidwestからThe Pacific OceanIt was even present on the shores, some of which became big cities in the early 20th century.

Since Anglo American cities experienced motorization ahead of the world,AutomobileBased on possessionLand use planningIs carried out,FederalBeing a controlled nation, the wealth and technology generated in each region accumulated without spreading to the central part, and matured industries such as commerce and industry, so many base cities were formed. Also, there are not many mergers of local governments and counties. Therefore, it does not make much sense to compare only with the population of the central city and compare with the cities of other countries, and urban geography often analyzes the city scale at the level of the urban area. The indicators of analysis include MSA (Metropolitan statistic area) analyzed in urban areas and CSA (Combined statistic area) analyzed in wide area urban areas. The following figures are examples in CSA and MSA, 2020)[7][8].

As a main example,San FranciscoCityCan be mentioned. San Francisco has a population of 87, but MSA including Auckland on the east coast has 475 million, including nearby cities such as San Jose.San FranciscoMetropolitan areaHas a CSA of 971 million. Washington DC (city area 69, MSA 639 million, CSA including Baltimore 997 million),Duffel Bag(City area: 68, MSA: 494 million, CSA including Providence, etc.: 847 million),Atlanta(City area 50, MSA 609 million, CSA 693 million),Seattle(City area 74, MSA 402 million, CSA 495 million),Miami(City area 44 people, MSA 614 million people, CSA 687 million people) are typical. Other than thatMinneapolisas well as the Saint PaulTwin City (City area: Minneapolis 43, St. Paul 31, MSA 369 million, CSA 408 million),Denver(City area 72, MSA 296 million, CSA 362 million). Outside of the usaToronto(550 million people in the metropolitan area) is a representative, and a large-scale CBD with a forest of high-rise buildings (Central business district) Is seen, the regional center city, orGlobal cityAs a remarkable base.

Detroit(City area: 64, CSA: 542 million),Baltimore(City area 59, CSAWashington DC(Including 997 million)Cleveland(City area: 37, CSA: 363 million, including Akron),St. Louis(City area: 30, CSA: 292 million),Pittsburgh(City area: 30, CSA: 266 million),Cincinnati(City area: 31, CSA: 232 million),Richmond(City area 23, MSA 131 million, no CSA calculation),BirminghamOld bases such as (city area 20 people, CSA 135 million people), industrial cities are hollowing out of central city areas, slums in inner cities, higher buildings and higher land prices due to redevelopment, etc. In some cases, the urban areas were expanded due to the residents moving to the suburbs. otherHartford,Salt Lake City,Dayton,Grand RapidsFor example, the population of the city is less than 20, but the MSA also exceeds 100 million. In extreme cases,Albany(City area: 9.9, CSA: 119 million),Green building(City area: 7.1, CSA: 149 million),Harrisburg(City area: 5.0, CSA: 130 million).

On the other hand, it has developed rapidly since 1970.West coast,Sun beltThe cities such as have expanded the city area due to wide-area mergers due to population increase, so there are cases where MSA and CSA are relatively small in number, contrary to the city area population. FloridaJacksonvilleThe city has an urban population of about 95, which is the largest in the state, but the city area was expanded by a wide-area merger, so it was only 173 million when measured by CSA.OrlandoSmaller than CSA (422 million). In other examplesEl Paso,Austin,San Antonio,San Diego,San Jose,シ ャ ー ロ ッ ト,Phoenix,Portland,Nashville,Tucson,Albuquerque,FresnoFor example. Also, except for the West Coast and Sunbelt cities,Indianapolis,ColumbusThere are examples such as these, but the social population of these cities is remarkable, and they have come to dominate the old metropolitan areas.

On the other hand, MSA and CSA alone are not enough to reliably calculate the city scale. The first problem isCalifornia,Texas,フ ロ リ ダIn areas where the influx of population is increasing significantly, the population value may be calculated to the same level as large cities for satellite cities and corridor cities where CBD is not formed.An example of this is California.San Bernardinoas well as the Riverside(Inland city located in the eastern part of Los Angeles. MSA has a scale of 460 million people (13th in the United States) including surrounding cities, but CBD is hardly formed (small MSA with a population of about 10) In CSA, it is included in the Los Angeles metropolitan area), TexasMcAllen(Gulf of MexicoThe city on the shore.Located on the Mexican border and on a major road, the population influx is significant, reaching 87 in MSA terms, but only on the roadside), FloridaTampaSuburbsCape coral(MSA 76 people) and so on.These citiesBoon barbMany are called.

Another problem is that MSA and CSA are statistical calculations based on bases and central cities, so satellites in large cities and suburban cities (especially cities in other states that straddle the central area) It is impossible to measure the city scale. Examples include satellite cities near the New York metropolitan area, Newark, Jersey City and satellite cities near Los Angeles, Anaheim, and others.

Latin America

Latin AmericaSo, since ancient times, as the center of the festival,Mexico and Guatemala,AndesAsTeotihuacan,Tenochtitlan,CuscoAnd other cities flourished.

In the Age of DiscoverySpainPortugalHave been destroyed by the invasion by theキ リ ス ト 教It became a colonial city centered on. Also, on the Atlantic coast, with EuropeFri,エ メ ラ ル ドAs a trading window forCaribbeanPort cities on the coast, Brazil, Argentina, etc.Cartagena, Buenos Aires,Rio de Janeiro,RecifeEtc. were built, and during the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, these cities prospered as a distribution center for agricultural products and an export base to Europe. Built on the Pacific coastLimaFrom cities such asPanama GorgeAfter that, gold and silver were transported to Europe.

In the latter half of the 20th century, urbanization continued due to industrialization,Sao Paulo,Mexico City,ブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ スThere are several cities with 2 million people. In Brazil, which has a population of nearly XNUMX million,CuritibaThe central cities of each province, such as the and Recife, are being modernized. On the other hand, like Asia and Africa, these cities have serious population influx and slum formation.

In addition, large cities in Latin America are often divided into historic old towns, where remnants of the colonial era remain, and modern new towns, where wealthy people gather, and symbolize class society.


OceaniaThen, from around the 19th centuryAnglo-SaxonThe rule of the city was started, and the cities that became the bases were developed accordingly. However, the inland region that occupies most of the continent is an unsuitable desert, so the population is only 2000 million, many of which areMelbourneLiving in a base city such as. Also, the size of the population of Sydney and Melbourne, which are generally known, is equivalent to the conversion in the metropolitan area, and the population of the city of Sydney is only 5 (BrisbaneIs the only urban area population because it merged with the city area). on the other hand,AustraliaExcept for theNew Zealand OfAucklandThe island nations on the Pacific Ocean are not formed of large cities because the tourism industry and industries are barren, and there are few flatlands, which is unsuitable for urban formation.

Requirements for establishing a city

Topographical requirements

Heart of the plain
wide平野Has less restrictions on development and can effectively use land. Therefore, large cities are easy to develop.
Example:Tokyo,Osaka ,Nagoya,Sapporo,Sendai,Niigata,Okayama,Fukuoka,Kumamoto,Miyazaki,Kurume,佐賀,Moscow,Los Angeles,Paris,ブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ ス,Xuzhou,成都
basinIs surrounded by mountains, but the land is relatively large, so the land can be used effectively.
valleyBetween,MountainAnd the contact between the plains. People living in the mountains gather for business purposes.
Example:Ome,Hanno,Yorii,Kiryu,Omama,日立,Tanagura,New city,Nakatsugawa,Gojo,Asakura,Hita,Saito
Bay depression
BayIs a trading base between the sea and land,Port townIs easy to develop.
Example:Tokyo Yokohama,Osaka Kobe,Nagoya,Muroran,Fukuoka,Hiroshima,Shimizu,Kagoshima,Beppu,Nagasaki,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク,Sydney,Rio de Janeiro,St. Petersburg,Genoa,San Francisco,
Both ends of the strait
Maritime trafficIn, it will be an important base.StraitOften cities are formed on both sides.
Example:KobeAwaji IslandNaruto(Akashi StraitNaruto Strait),ShimonosekiKitakyushu(Kanmon Strait),AomoriHakodate(Tsugaru Strait),CopenhagenMalmo(Alesund Strait),Istanbul,Gibraltar,DetroitWindsor,VancouverVictoria
Both ends of the canal
canalWill be an important hub for maritime traffic in.
Example:Suez,Portside,colon,パナマ, Sault Marie (United States side-Canadian side
Estuary/navigable river coast
It occupies an important position as a contact point for water and land transportation.EstuaryAndriverThe confluence oftidalLocated at the limit point. It is almost unobservable in Japan, but it is still abundant because there is a lot of boat transportation in large rivers overseas.
Example:Sakata,Shinjo,Niigata,Mito,Choshi,Kurosawa,Shingu,Fukuyama,Sukumo,Yanagawa,Tamana,Nobeoka,Miyazaki,UK,Bremen,Cologne,Rotterdam,New Orleans,Lisbon,Belem, Buenos Aires,モ ン テ ビ デ オ,Le Havre,Shanghai,Tianjin,Jinan
(I.e.landDevelops in contact with. Lakes usually reach canals via canals.
Waterfall line(Also called the waterfall line)
waterfallNear the end of river traffic. Utilizing the rapid headHydropowerIs carried out and an industrial city is developed. Especially from the eastern to the southeastern United StatesAppalachian MountainsSpread to the eastern footPiedmont PlateauOn the eastern edge,Waterfall line cityAre often seen.
Example: Philadelphia,Baltimore,Washington DC,Richmond,Lorry,Augusta,Montgomery,Helsinki
Foot of the pass
Pass OfAt the footIs a transportation hub for people and supplies.
The point where the road crosses the river. Due to the retention of people and supplies, cities can easily develop.
Example:Ebetsu,Takigawa,(I.e.,Kuwana,Paris,Berlin,St. Louis,Minneapolis-Saint Paul,Memphis,Manaus
Land connection island(Tonboro)
It is easy to create a good natural port, and because it is scenic, it is easy to be touristed.
Example: Hakodate,Fujisawa,Kushimoto,Reihoku,Dakar,Cadiz,Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Underground resources
Iron ore,Fri,coalThe mining and industrial city develops due to the burial.
When developing due to deep international relationships,ImmigrationIt may develop because there are many traffic such as.
Example:San DiegoTijuana,El PasoCiudad Juarez,LaredoNuevo Laredo(that's allUnited States and Mexico), Detroit and Windsor (United States/Canada),Basel(Switzerland, France, Germany)

Morphological requirements

castle town
mainly中 世A city that was developed in the medium of a castle of samurai and lords.Japan,GermanyAnd so on.
Japanese example:Hirosaki,Morioka,Oshu,Ichinoseki, Sendai, Aizuwakamatsu,Sakura,Kawagoe, Edo, Odawara, Matsumoto,Shizuoka,Nagoya,Inuyama,Cheongju,Komaki,(I.e.,Toyohashi,Nishio,Gifu,Kanazawa,Fukui,Hikone,Himeji,Wakayama,Okayama,Fukuyama,Hiroshima,Hagi,Kochi,Kitakyushu(Kokura),Asakura,Nakatsu,Oita,Saeki,Kumamoto,Yatsushiro,Nobeoka,Miyakonojo,Kagoshima
Outside Japan:Munich,Karlsruhe,Freiburg,Heidelberg,Edinburgh,Toledo,Beijing
Monzen Town/Terauchi Town
Monzen-cho or Terauchi TownCalled shrines andTempleA city that has developed using religious facilities such as.Religious cityAlso called a certainReligious OfSacred placeThere are also places. In many cases, the economy of a city consists of the cost of staying by a visitor.
Japanese example:Kashima,sunlight,Narita,Suwa,Ichinomiya,Tsushima,Toyokawa,Fujinomiya,Minobu, Nagano,Ise,Eiheiji Temple,Osaka,京都,Tianli,Koyasan,Kotohira,Golden light,Izumo,Dazaifu,Munakata,Mt. Hikosan,Usa,Takachiho,Miyazaki,Kirishima,Futenma
Outside Japan:Mecca,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ル ル ド,Jerusalem,Salt Lake City, Cologne,Santiago de Compostela
Post town
A city that has developed as a lodging center along the highway to accommodate travelers
Japanese example:Mizusawa(Oshu City),Fukushima, Mishima, Shiojiri,Seki(Kameyama City),Nakatsugawa,Daqu(Daisen City),Yukuhashi
Port town
A city developed through a port. As a fisheries cityFishing portIs often developed.
Japanese example:Tomakomai,Otaru,Hakodate,Aomori,Akita,Sakata,Niigata,Yokohama,Numazu,Shimizu,solder,Tsu, Tsuruga,Maizuru,Kobe,Takamatsu,Onomichi,Kure, Fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Sasebo,Nagasaki,Beppu, Miyazaki, Kagoshima
Examples of fisheries cities:Kushiro,Hachinohe,Ishinomaki,Shiogama,Onahama(Iwaki),Sakaiminato,(I.e.,(I.e.,Ikiな ど
Outside Japan:Marseille,Rio de Janeiro,Barcelona, Genoa,ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ ア,Mumbai,Seattle,Bergen,Incheon,Kaohsiung
Ancient government town
A city developed from ancient government and government offices.Tourist cityThere are many places. Among them, the cities where the capital has been placed areAncient capitalAlso called.
Japanese example:京都, Nara, Otsu, Kamakura,Nagaokakyo,Hiraizumi,Shuri
Outside Japan:Athens(However,GreeceIs the capital ofRome(However, this is also nowItalyIs the capital ofGyeongju,Xi'an, Toledo,Cordoba,Istanbul(Constantinople),ア レ ク サ ン ド リ ア,Cusco

Classification by function

Accumulating multiple functions is an essential feature of a city, and one city often belongs to multiple categories.For example, in the 23rd ward of Tokyo and the city of Kyoto,International cityIt is also a tourist city and an academic city.

Administrative City/Political City

Country OfCentral government(国会-Supreme Court-Central government agency) And local government (roadgovernment·Stategovernment·Prefectural officeA city where a regional government such as) is located. Especially the cities where the central government of the nation is locatedcapitalThe city where the state government is locatedState capital, The city where the road government is locatedPrefectural capitalAlso called.

Announcement of policies from the central and local governments (in the Japanese government,Cabinet SecretariatWill be announced), so naturallyBroadcaster,News (Chinese)CompanyNews agencyThe location is also the source of information. In addition,Administrative agencyCompanies are lined up for notifications to ), and there are many cities that will eventually become the "center of the economy." (Tokyo special ward andSeoulSuch)

After this, some of the countries with capitals separate the political and economic centers,Transfer of capital(Capital function relocation) Will create a new city (Brasilia,CanberraSuch). However, there are cases in which the plan fails because many problems (such as economic problems and public opinion opposition) are pregnant during the capital transfer. In Japan, the capital function relocation plan remains suspended,South KoreaAlso in the capital relocation planConstitutional courtRejected, etc.

Regional center city

The city where the central organization in the region (especially the provincial government, in the case of Japan, the local agency of the country that controls the region) is located.This type is found in the state capital.The area in parentheses is the area where the city is the center.

Commercial city

A city where trade has been active since ancient times. Since ancient times, the method of transporting large items has beenboatTherefore, there are many places facing the sea where the river and the tide are calm. It is easy to create tourist spots near commercial cities.

Industrial city

A city where specific industries are concentrated. The economy of the citySecondary industryIt consists of. Many ancient industrial cities have port facilities for transporting raw materials and finished products. Recently, in the case of industrial products that are small like PC parts, there is a new case where an airport can be used to promote industrial development even if it is an airport.

In addition, in the cities where the head offices and main factories of companies with a wide industrial base (automobile industry, etc.) are located, factories for subcontracting related to the companies are also established, so it is popular.Castle townIs called. A typical example is Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, which changed its city name after Toyota Motor's founder Toyota. (The name was changed because the old name, Koromo, was difficult to read.)

Agriculture / Fisheries / Forestry City

Economy is the primary industry (Agriculture:-Fishing industry-forestry) Is a city.natural environmentIt is located in a privileged place. When the weather is unseasonable, it will be severely hit financially. In addition, a distribution center is formed in the area, and it is easy for cities to develop mainly for processing (milling, etc.). In addition, Maebashi City, Hachioji City, Atsugi City, Okaya City, etc. used to function as agricultural product distribution centers, and in many cases their elements are now obsolete.

Military city

base,LogisticsThe city where military institutions such as are located.army,air forceIn the case of the subject, on a vast flat land,NavyIn the case of the subjectwarshipIt is often located facing a port suitable for berthing.

Academic city / research city

Research city,Academic city,Academic research city-Gakken cityIt is,UniversityHigher education institutions such asgraduate SchoolA city where people gather.High tech parkSuch. With the establishment or relocation of a university, attached research institutes may be established and further developed, and factories of advanced industries may be located. Overseas, prestigious university is basedUniversity city (College town(University town or University district) Exists. Besides thisAcademic city,Research school city,Education cityThere is a city like.

Resource city

Underground resourcesOr the production factor (Labor force-Material-machine-TechnologyEtc.) supplying city. Transport resourcesTrain-ShipAnd workers and resourcesHeavy industryGather. They often have problems such as a decrease in output and a decline.

Tourist city

(I.e.With city. Since the city's economy is based on tourism, the economic damage caused by unseasonable weather is particularly great at leisure activities involving nature (summer beach bathing, winter skiing, etc.).

  1. Mainly historical and cultural resources (temples, churches, historic buildings, cityscapes, etc.).
  2. Mainly natural resources such as the sea and mountains (including resort cities).
  3. The leisure industry is developing (large-scale theme parks, casinos, shopping malls, etc.). Located near a big city.
  4. Mainly traditional crafts, culture and arts.
  5. FestivalIt sells large-scale events and sports events.

There are types such as. Inevitably, a phenomenon occurs in which customers are concentrated for a period of time.

Resort city

A city with a resort.Spa,plateauA lot of recreational facilities are located here, as well as summer and winter areas. It may be included in a tourist city.

Religious city

Rural city

Submarine city

Submarine city(Kaiiteshi) is a city built on the seabed. At present, it has not been put to practical use at the stage of conception.

Other cities

Free city,Empire free city(In the Holy Roman Empire),Twin cities,Central city,Satellite city,Autonomous city,Inland cityetc.

Urban problems

Urban problemsThere are the following issues.

Biological nature of the city

Each region has its own nativeBiological communityI haveHuman capitalHe often has a slightly different group of organisms around him. For example, for those who actively grow家畜,作物There are also many organisms that accompany the environment created to grow them.Therefore, many alien species appear there.Furthermore, in a city where only houses are concentrated from there, the conditions are far from the environment where a natural biological community is established because the part related to crops and livestock is reduced.Therefore, there are not many creatures living there.However, it is not completely nonexistent, and it has its own unique biological community.From this point of view, if the city is regarded as one natural environment,Urban ecosystemThere are also cases.

This is partly due to the existence of organisms that can withstand such environments. Can't wither even when stepped onPlantainOr even bloom from cracks in asphaltVioletEtc. also appear on the street side of the city. Also,parkA variety of creatures live in the green space left in the form of.

On the contrary, there are some that increase because the environmental conditions created by human beings are favorable. For example, human dwellings often provide dry vertical walls and eaves structures,SwallowNowadays most of humans make nests. Jun Aoki in the citySaladaniA rare species was found in the moss growing on the concrete. It was later discovered that they lived on rocks near the coast. In addition, there are cases in which warm-sea creatures breed in cities due to their high heat retention.cockroachIs also an example of this.

Common name that describes a city

Refers to a specific city,SuffixThere are times when they are named as "○ city", "○ city of ○", "○ Kyoto" (not the same as the historical "city"). In the old days,KokufuAnd the city where the guardian daimyo is located(LuoyangThat is, the capital of that country)[Source required]There was also a name with ". Some have been inherited from the current city names, such as Kofu and Hofu, and some have been named after the history and industry of the region to revitalize the town and create regional brands.


  • Saikyo:Yamaguchi.Onin's rebellionOr later,Mr. OuchiIt came from the fact that it was called the "Kyoto Nishi" because it prospered culturally with the nobles and literary people who fled the war. The name of history and sightseeing is darker than that of Yamaguchi City.
  • Chukyo: Sometimes used as an alias for Nagoya.

"○ city"


City function


Nature related



"○ prefecture"

  • Kofu: Kofu
  • Shinfu: Matsumoto
  • Hofu:Hofu
  • Sunpu: Shizuoka
  • Kofu: Former Edo
  • Beppu: Beppu
  • Suifu: Mito
  • Chofu: Chofu (current Shimonoseki City)
  • Toyofu: Oita

"○ yang"

  • Uyo: Utsunomiya
  • Takeyo: Tokyo (formerlyEdo
  • Kayo: Gifu[14]
  • Biyo: Nagoya
  • Luoyang: Kyoto[15]
  • Sakiyo: Nagasaki

"City of ○"

  • City of Music / Rakuto:Sendai,浜 松,Vienna,Warsaw,St. Petersburg
  • Flower capital/flower capital: Kyoto, Tokyo, Paris,Florence.
  • City of Fog: London
  • Eternal City: Rome
  • City of Arts: Paris, Florence, Vienna
  • capital of fashion: Paris, London, Milan, New York
  • Millennium Capital: Kyoto
  • Golden City/Peace City: Hiraizumi
  • City of Water/ Water city: Osaka, Hiraizumi,Gujo, Hiroshima, Niigata, Matsue,Ogaki,Saijo,Tokushima,Yanagawa, Kumamoto, Nobeoka, Venice,Bruges(Bruges), Stockholm, St. Petersburg,Suzhou
  • Ancient city: Synonymous with ancient city.Nara, Asuka, Kyoto.

Saijo(There are many self-propelled wells called "Uchinuki" because of the abundance of groundwater), Ogaki (also used for the names of companies located in Mizuto Taxi, Delica Sit, etc.)


Also, when transliterating an overseas city in Kanji, the initials of the sound in the city name may be replaced with Kanji, and "tou", "fu", and "minato" may be added to it. However, this is an old-fashioned expression and is rarely used at present. The current kanji notation is shown in parentheses.

  • String education: New York
  • Paris: Paris
  • Rinatsu: London
  • Rauma: Rome
  • Hakurin: Berlin
  • Masanori: Athens
  • Ino: Vienna (Iya)
  • Kotobuki: Geneva (Nichinai tile)
  • Kuwa Port:San Francisco(Sanhan, Kanayama)
  • Rafu: Los Angeles (Rakusugi Iso)
  • Shato, Shako: Seattle
  • Hafu: Boston
  • Huafu: Washington DC (Huashengton)
  • Expense Office: Philadelphia
  • Star Port: Singapore (Shin Jiapo)
  • Mandani: Bangkok

"Tokyo of XX"

"○○ of Osaka"

"○○ Paris"

"Venice of ○○"

"○○ of Florence"

"○○ Athens"

"○○ of Naples"

"Pearl of XX"


Japanese administrative system

City administration system outside Japan

Regardless of scale, such as large cities, small cities, and villages,Basic municipalityMany countries call the same name in Europe.

In this representative nation,France,Italyand so on. In these countries, even in big cities like Paris and Milan,CannesEven in a small city likeCamembertEven in a village liketown(Buddha:commune)” and “common(Ita:Komune)” is called. In Italy, the city hall (and village hall)Website OfURIIn many cases, the city name (or village name) is added after “comune”.

Special cities other than the capital

Generally, the capital is a “special city”State-roadThere are many places that make up. However, there are cities other than the capital city that are overcrowded and become big cities. Among them, as a "special city", there is also a place where a single city forms a state/road. An example is given below.


注 釈


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d Nagano (2009), p.18
  2. ^ a b c d Tosho (2000), p.48-49
  3. ^ a b c Hayashi (2012), p.4-6
  4. ^ Skyscraper
  5. ^ In the “Local Finance White Paper” issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “major city” was used in the sense of a government-designated city until the 20 version (Explanation of terms FY20 White Paper on Local Finance) Has been changed to the “City-designated city” since the 21 edition (Explanation of terms FY21 White Paper on Local Finance).
  6. ^ Reiko Hayashi "Evaluation of World Historical Population and Study on Estimating Method Using Urban Population Chapter 4 Consideration XNUMX. European Population" (Original work June 2007, 6).Bibliographic ID 27.http://www.linz.jp/worldpop/jp07/540.html.April 2014, 11Browse. 
  7. ^ QuickFacts. US Census Bureau. 2020.
  8. ^ OMB Bulletin No. 20-01, Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of Delineations of These Areas. Office of Management and Budget. March 2020, 3.
  9. ^ Definition of Ancient City in the Ancient City Conservation Law
  10. ^ "A New Era of Ice Hockey-Current Situation and Challenges of Tomakomai, the Ice City- (5)". Tomakomai Folk News (2007). As of October 2013, 5originalMore archives.April 2022, 1Browse.
  11. ^ “212 Newspaper Iburi Tomakomai (Population 171795) Shiratori Arena Ice City Pride International Link”. Hokkaido Shimbun (Hokkaido Shimbun). (May 1997, 11)
  12. ^ , 2010, "The name of the ice city Kushiro is nationwide, "Public Relations Kushiro" (January issue), Kushiro City Hall General Policy Department Citizens' Collaboration Promotion Division p. 1
  13. ^ Makoto Takada (December 2018, 12). "The treasure of the ice city ... Kushiro discouraged". Asahi Shimbun. http://www.asahi.com/area/hokkaido/articles/MTW20181220010200001.html April 2022, 1Browse. 
  14. ^ Mt. KinkaDerived from. "YangIsNorthern hemisphereIn, it means the south side of the sunny mountain or the north side of the river. The original city area of ​​Gifu extends around the southwest of Mt. Kinka.
  15. ^ LuoyangNamed after.Heianjing OfSakyo(East side)Ukyo(West side)Chang'anIt is said that the whole Kyoto came to be called "Ruoyang" as Ukyo declined and the center of Kyoto city became Sakyo.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ Originally, a city with a population of 100 million or more is designated in the future, and a city of 70 or more (a metropolitan area population of 100 million or more) that merged municipalities under special circumstances in the operation of the municipal merger support plan. Is specified.
  19. ^ Bremen(Bremen) AlongsideHanseatic AllianceSinceFree cityIt holds its position as of today.


  • Yukio Nagano (2009) "Notes on Urban Geography" Fuzambo Tomiyama International
  • Takashi Todokoro (2000) "Introduction to Regional Policy Studies" Kokon Shoin
  • Hayashi (2012) "Modern Urban Geography" Hara Shobo
  • Goro Hani"City Logic-Historical Conditions-Modern Struggle"
  • Mashiro Shiro"city"
  • Tertius Chandler, "Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census", Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1987. ISBN 0889462070
  • George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 0967623014
  • Kostov, History of the City, Toyo Shorin, 2021, ISBN-978 4887218284

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