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🏛 | Receiving the expected power tightness Sending a joint message in 1 metropolitan area and 8 prefectures Calling for energy-saving and power-saving actions


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Receiving the expected power tightness Sending a joint message in 1 metropolitan area and 8 prefectures Calling for energy-saving and power-saving actions

 
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In the office, there are four things, such as setting the computer or copier to the energy saving mode and thinning out the lighting as much as possible.
 

In response to the expected tightness of electricity due to the severe heat, the governors of 1 metropolitan area and 8 prefectures, including Yamanashi, said on July 7th, "Energy saving in summer ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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    Energy saving mode

    Copier

    Copier(Fukushaki) isManuscript,OurEtc.CopyIt is a device to do.In generalCopy machineAlso called.

    Overview

    The first copier that was widely used as an office machine wasJames WattBy1779It was invented in.Watt devised a method to transfer the contents from one paper to another by using a thin paper that easily penetrates the back of the ink and applying pressure by stacking another paper on it.Watt copierWas commercially successful and was used until the 20th century[1][2].

    The types of copiers currently in use can be broadly divided.Diazo copier(Diazo copier)PPC copier(Plain paper copier, plain paper copier).Currently, most of them are PPC copiers, but diazo copiers are also in strong demand for design drawings (especially large format paper of A2 size or larger).

    Many of the PPC copiers currently in use have enlargement / reduction functions, and paper of various sizes can be used.There are dry type and wet type, and the dry type is often used.In addition, there are many copiers capable of color copying.Plain paper (copy paper) is generally used as the paper,OH PFor special materials such as sheetsPrintSome models can.It is common to have a paper cassette that stocks a large amount of paper and a manual feed tray for temporarily inserting special paper.Also, as you can see from the name of the copier, it is intended to make a small number of copies, and while it is possible to easily make copies, it is not suitable for mass printing in terms of cost and speed.Usually for mass printingOffset printingThe machine is used.There is a simple printing machine as a machine located between the offset printing machine and the copier.Stencil printingUsedIdeal science industry OfLithographEtc. are widespread in schools and government offices.

    the 2000sMost of the business copiers have enteredデ ジ タ ルIt is an expression.Also,Personal computerLANCopiers with the spread ofprinter-facsimile-Image scannerDigital with integrated functions such asMFPHas come to be used.For these multifunction devices,LANMany can be operated via.

    In Japan, as a manufacturerRicoh,Canon,FUJIFILM Business InnovationHave a high share.There are many sales, including manufacturers and independent companies.OA equipmentIt is done by a sales company.In addition, several manufacturers are making digital multifunction devices.

    Although the number is small, home-use copiers were also on sale.[Note 1]..In ordinary households, a multifunction device or a facsimile that combines an inkjet printer and an image scanner is often used as a copier.The image scanner and the printer may be connected to the same personal computer, and the utility software attached to the scanner may be used to provide a copy function.

    Diazo copier

    GermanyWas developed in1951Copia[Note 2] Has started selling the world's first small office wet diazo copier "M type".

    There are three types: wet, dry, and hot.[3]In each copying process, the original and the copying paper (photosensitive paper) are brought into close contact with each other and passed through the copying machine.UVIrradiate.thisPhotosensitiveIn the process, on the copy paper that hits the background of the manuscriptDiazo compoundA latent image is formed by decomposing.nextdevelopingBy chemical reaction in the "character / line" part where the diazo compound was left in the processpigmentOccurs and develops color.There are blue, black, etc. in the color of the copy paper after development, but since blue was the mainstream,BlueprintWas called.Also, the diazo copierBlueprint copier,Blueprint machineSometimes called[3].

    Copier market establishedthe 1960sAt that time, thermal copiers such as "Thermofax" (3M) were the most popular in the world, mainly in the United States, but in Japan, "recopy" (Ricoh) And other diazo copiers occupy most of the market share, a unique phenomenon was seen.[4].

    Wet type is often used for old-fashioned small machines, and a liquid developer is applied to develop color.On the other hand, the dry type is used in large, high-speed, high-priced types for commercial use, and is used in the development process.ammoniaUse gas (because moistening large paper tends to wrinkle).After development, the paper was damp and had to be dried, but it was stillBlueprintThe durability after exposure was higher than that, and it did not take time and effort.

    Later, the thermal method using photosensitive paper, which does not require a developing solution, became widespread and became easier to use.In the thermal type, a color developer was included.MicrocapsulesToUVThe diazonium salt in the exposed part is decomposed by exposing with.After that, the unexposed portion develops color by releasing the developer in the microcapsules by developing with heat.

    Since the diazo copier uses transmitted light, it is desirable that the original is highly transparent paper.Tracing paperA semi-transparent special paper called or second base paper was used in the drafting field.

    • Merit
      • Unlike PPC copiers, it does not have an optical process, so there are very few differences (optical aberration, etc.) from the original.
      • The structure of the machine is simple, and large format (A0, A1) copying is easy.
      • The running cost was considerably lower than that of the PPC copier.
    • Demerit
      • The photosensitive paper must be stored in a light-tight (packed at the time of sale) bag.
      • Care must be taken when storing the developed copy paper, as it will fade rapidly under light.
      • It is not possible to copy thick objects such as books with low light transmission or double-sided printed originals.
      • Contact with the thermal paper for a long time before or after drying may cause the thermal paper to turn black.
      • If you make a mistake between the original and the photosensitive paper, not only will you not be able to copy, but there is a risk that the original will get wet when wet.
      • There is a risk of damaging the original due to wrapping.

    PPC copier

    PPC copiers (plain paper copiers) are1938ToAmerica OfChester F. CarlsonBy laterXerographyA basic technique called was invented.ThatPatentThe US Haroid (currentlyXerox) Purchased and proceeded with product development,1959The world's first office PPC copier was developed in Japan.Since then, products have been developed by Ricoh, Canon, etc., and have continued to this day.About the diazo copierBlueprint copierOn the other hand, the PPC copier is calledWhite copier,White baking machineSometimes called[3].. A color copier, a type of PPC copier, was introduced in 1970 in the United States.Three MFirst released by the company. In 1972Hitachi, Ltd.Launched the first domestically produced product[5].

    • Merit
      • You can use plain paper that has not been coated with chemicals.
      • There is little deterioration even if the copy is stored for a long time.
      • You can also copy thick objects and double-sided printed documents.
      • Can be enlarged or reduced when copying.
      • In the case of the digital type, the time for mass copying is short.
    • Demerit
      • Optical aberrations may occur (may cause problems when reading drawings).
      • Models capable of copying on large format paper of A2 or larger are large and expensive (hundreds to tens of millions of yen), and have not been generally introduced.

    PPC copiers are roughly divided into an image forming unit, a paper conveying unit, and a scanner unit.

    Image drawing department

    Developer (Developer)
    A material for visualizing a latent image on a photoconductor (described later).Generally, it is composed of toner and carrier.A toner-only developer is called a one-component developer, and a mixture with a carrier is called a two-component developer.There are wet (liquid) and dry (powder) types depending on the application, and there are magnetic and non-magnetic one-component developing agents.
    toner
    Fine particles in which colored particles such as carbon are attached to chargeable plastic particles.Has negative or positive electrical properties.It may be used only with toner or mixed with a carrier (conveyor).Depending on the manufacturing method, it is classified into a crushing method (manufactured by kneading and crushing materials) and a polymerization method (produced by chemical action in a liquid).
    Careers
    Fine particles coated with a magnetic material such as epoxy resin are mixed with toner and used.A catalyst and a carrier for giving a charge to the toner by stirring with the toner and adhering it to the photoconductor by utilizing the electrostatic effect.Generally, it has the same life as the photoconductor, so it is often replaced as a set.A method in which the developer is replenished and collected in synchronization with the consumption of toner and the developer does not need to be replaced regularly has become common.
    Photoreceptor (photosensitive drum / photosensitive film)
    Since it uses a semiconductor and has the property of an insulator in the dark and the property of a conductor in a bright place, it can be charged positively or negatively in the dark to have a charge for adhering toner.The part exposed to light becomes a conductor and loses electric charge.
    The process performed on the photoconductor is shown below.
    Primary charge
    The residual charge from the pre-exposure is removed and the photoconductor having no charge is given a positive or negative charge.First, there are a non-contact discharge type Corotron type and a Scorotron type as a type of a charger.Recently, there are many products that use contact-type charging rollers and charging brushes.
    exposure
    An electrostatic latent image is created by irradiating the surface of a charged photoconductor with reflected light from a document or laser light.In the laser exposure method, light is applied to the part on which the toner is placed.In the reflected light (conventional analog machine) method, light is applied to the part where you do not want to put toner (the opposite is true for some models).In addition, there are some laser exposure type products that shine light on the part where the toner is not to be applied.As an exposure method for digital machines, there are those using a laser and an aggregate of an LED and a glass fiber array.
    developing
    There are a method of placing toner having a charge opposite to that of the photoconductor on a portion where the charge is not lost by exposure, and a method of pushing the toner into the portion where the charge is lost.Here, a mirror image of the original by toner is formed on the photoconductor.
    Transcription
    The mirror image of the toner on the photoconductor is transferred to the transfer paper.An electric charge (transfer bias) opposite to that of the toner is applied from the back side of the transfer paper to adsorb the transfer paper to the photoconductor.
    分離
    In order to peel off the adsorbed transfer paper, there are "potential separation" in which an AC discharge containing an electric charge opposite to the transfer is applied, and "curvature separation" in which the transfer paper is bent and separated.At this time, there is a mechanism for assisting the separation from the photosensitive drum by using a separation static elimination needle or a separation charger that releases the electric charge of the transfer target.
    Static elimination
    In order to reduce the charge remaining on the photoconductor to 0 as much as possible, the surface of the photoconductor is uniformly exposed to light (pre-exposure) or AC discharge is applied.
    cleaning
    Since the toner on the photoconductor is not 100% transferred to the transfer paper, the toner on the photoconductor is collected with a charged brush or a rubber blade.

    Paper carrier

    Paper feed section
    Transfer paper is fed into the copier one by one from the paper tray.The mechanism for preventing multiple feeds includes a separation claw method, a separation roller method, and a separation pad method.
    Resist section
    In order to align the tip of the paper with the tip of the image, stop the transfer paper once and adjust the timing.It also has the effect of forming a loop and correcting the diagonal feed that occurs during paper feeding.In addition, the margin width at the tip of the paper is also adjusted by controlling the resist.
    Transfer, separation part
    Same as transfer and separation of the image formation part.
    Transport section
    The transferred paper is conveyed to the fixing part.It also serves to maintain a distance between the heat-sensitive photoconductor and the fixing portion of the high-temperature portion.
    Fixing part
    Since the toner on the transfer paper is unstable, heat or heat and pressure (nip pressure) are applied at the same time to weld the resin component of the toner to fix it.Methods include roller fixing (there is also a notation of "roller", but long vowels are abbreviated in industrial terms), film fixing, and flash fixing.
    Roller fixing
    Toner is fixed by a combination of a "fixing roller" that uses a tubular metal as a core material and is thinly coated with silicon or the like, and a "pressurized roller" that uses a rod-shaped metal as a core material and is thickly coated with silicon or the like.The roller itself also serves as a heat insulating material, and because the fixing temperature is relatively stable and the nip pressure is relatively easy to control, it is often used in high-speed machines and color machines.However, since it takes time for the roller, which is a heat insulating material, to reach the specified temperature, there is a demerit that the rise time is long.As a heat generating material, for a long timeHalogen lampWas used, but in recent years the IH method (Induction heatingMethod) is becoming mainstream.
    Film fixing
    A method that combines a ceramic heater and a tubular film instead of a fixing roller.In many cases, pressurization uses a pressurizing roller as in the roller fixing method.Since the only heat insulating material is a pressure roller, the heat generated by the ceramic heater is used for direct fixing.Therefore, the rise time is very short.Due to its inferior temperature retention characteristics and durability to the roller fixing method, plain paper documents are often used for the main business laser machines.
    Flash fixing
    A method in which flash light using a xenon tube is focused by a concave mirror or the like, and the heat melts and fixes the toner.The equipment is so large that it also makes the equipment so expensive that it is not used in common office copiers.Since there is nothing to touch the paper, there is no damage to the paper (wrinkles, retransfer, etc.) and the speed is very high.Further, by finely controlling the amount of light and the irradiation time, the fixability can be finely controlled.
    Paper ejection section
    The viscosity of the melted toner prevents the fixed paper from wrapping around the fixing roller with the separation claws, leading to the output tray.

    Scanner section

    Digital type

    For digital copiersComputerForScannerThe original is converted to digital data by the same mechanism as above, and the photoconductor is exposed.laserProduces light.

    CCD method
    The most common method.The first and second mirror stands move left and right when viewed from the front of the device, and the light emitted by the document illumination lamp of the first mirror stand allows the document to pass through the first and third mirrors.CCD image sensorGuided to. The CCD is fixed.If each mirror becomes dirty, there will be problems such as band-shaped stains on a part of the image or the entire image becoming black, so regular cleaning is required.
    CIS method
    The reading unit, which is a combination of a document lighting lamp and a CCD / glass fiber array, is integrated into the reading unit that moves left and right when viewed from the front of the device.Due to its structure, there is very little risk of foreign matter entering the optical path, so it can be said to be almost maintenance-free.In addition, because of its simple structure, it also has the advantage of being easy to miniaturize.As a demerit, when the platen glass and the original are separated from each other due to wrinkles or creases of the original, shadows, blurs, and show-through often occur.

    Analog type

    In the case of an analog copier, the reflected light of the light source irradiated to the document is guided by a mirror, the magnification and the focus are adjusted through the lens, and the light is directly applied to the photoconductor.

    First mirror stand
    It consists of a document illumination lamp and a first mirror, and is the first stage of document scanning.
    Second mirror stand
    Consists of XNUMXnd and XNUMXrd mirrors.The moving speed is slower than the first mirror stand.
    Lens base
    It is moved by the X motor and Y motor to correct the magnification and focus.
    XNUMXth, XNUMXth, XNUMXth mirror
    The light that has passed through the lens base is guided to the drum.Unlike the first to third mirrors, it does not move.In addition, there is dust-proof glass immediately after the sixth mirror so that the toner scattered from around the drum does not pollute the optical path.

    When the magnification is changed by the analog method, the magnification in the main scanning direction is changed by the lens, but the moving speed of the first and second mirror stands is changed in the sub scanning direction.

    Options

    As an option of the scanner part, there is also a product that can connect the following.

    Automatic document feeder (ADF, Automatic Document Feeder, feeder)
    A device that automatically sends multiple documents to a scanner and scans them continuously.Often installed in office products.

    Color copy mechanism

    It is a type of PPC copier.

    1. Like the PPC copy type, the light is applied to the paper you want to duplicate, but with color copyColor filter()soColorTo RGB ("Red",绿,tagEach acronym, of lightthree primary colors) And signal it.
    2. The decomposed color signal is processed by the computer, which is called YMC (yellow,マ ゼ ン タ,cyanEach acronym, three primary colors of color) and Bk (black) Converts the signal.
    3. Like the PPC copy type, toner is copied onto paper, but in color copy, toner of different colors is placed depending on the location by a signal from a computer (the order in which black is placed differs depending on the manufacturer).

    Previously, paper was wrapped around an intermediate transfer roller to transfer toner for each color, but recent models have a structure in which toner of each color is transferred to an intermediate transfer body and the toner is transferred to paper. ..This is because it is possible to increase the copy speed and to control the color blurring even if an intermediate transfer member is used.

    Color copy development method

    Rotary development method
    The basic structure is a method that uses as many developing units as the number of toner colors to be used and uses only one photoconductor.The toner placed on the photoconductor from the developing unit is transferred onto the intermediate transfer body and held as it is.After that, the positions of the developing parts are exchanged, the number of toner colors is transferred from the photoconductor to the intermediate transfer body, and finally the toner is retransferred onto the paper.The replacement method of the developing part and the structure in which it is storedRevolver pistolBecause it resembles a magazine, it has come to be called a rotary development method.Some manufacturers may call it "revolver development method" as it is. The operation is slow because each color process is required for one copy.
    Tandem development method
    Whereas the rotary development method uses only one photoconductor, the tandem development method uses as many photoconductors as there are toners.In other words, there are multiple image-creating parts of the PPC copier.Since the developing units are not replaced, the toner image creation time on the intermediate transfer body is shorter than that of the rotary developing method.As a result, the copying speed of the copying machine can be increased, but there are also disadvantages such as the machine body and the image forming portion being made large.
    Silver halide photography
    A method of exposing the scanned original image to something like photographic paper.Large scaleinstant cameraThe one of the method like.Or when exposed to something like photographic paper, the ink that can be transferred to plain paper inside the photographic paperPositiveSome make images.In this case, the photographic paper and the paper are brought into close contact with each other and transferred by pressure or the like.Since it is not necessary to have a photoconductor or a developing unit, the machine can be miniaturized, but due to the high cost of special paper, it has become a method that cannot be seen much at present.

    Precautions for color copiers

    Normally, the fixing temperature and nip pressure are set higher than those of monochrome copiers, so different modelsBacking paperWhen is used, the toner attached to the backing paper melts and adheres to the pressure roller and the fixing roller, and further adheres to the paper, which may cause a phenomenon called "retransfer".In addition, special paper such as label paper and coated paper tends to have specifications outside the expected range of paper, and use of paper other than special paper or recommended paper causes trouble.

    Other methods

    A method that is rarely used at present will be described.

    Direct electrostatic copying method
    Most copiers currently manufactured and sold use a method of forming a toner image on a photoconductor and transferring it to copy paper.Collectively thisDry indirect electrostatic copierThat is.On the other hand, although it is rarely seen nowadays, a method of creating a toner image on paper coated with a substance used for a photoconductor is used.Dry direct electrostatic copierThat is.Since the "dry type" here refers to particles of the developer and toner, the methods using liquid ones are called "wet indirect electrostatic copying machine" and "wet direct electrostatic copying machine", respectively. ..
    The merit of the direct electrostatic copying machine is that a very clear image can be obtained because the deterioration of the toner image due to transfer is eliminated.Take advantage of thisOffset printingIt was once used as a plate-making machine.In addition, since it is not necessary to have a photoconductor or an intermediate transfer body inside the machine, the machine body can be miniaturized.
    Wet electrostatic copying method
    Refers to a method that uses liquid toner or developer.The finer the toner particles, the easier it is to obtain a clear image.On the other hand, advanced technology is also required to produce fine particles.Therefore, by dissolving the toner in the liquid developer, fine particles could be easily obtained.This is the wet electrostatic copying method.While the image becomes clearer as the toner particles become finer, the toner tends to become uneven when trying to adhere to a large area, and regular stirring work is required to prevent the toner from drying out. There are also disadvantages such as.

    Copy and copyright

    Japan

    Generally, a copy of part or all of the workDistributing or selling without permissionWith some exceptions (not copying itself)Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricularAtLessonExcept for the minimum required materials to be distributed forCopyrightSince it conflicts with (copyright / publishing right), if it is a prohibited work,Copyright lawConflict with.In that case, it is necessary to obtain the permission of the copyright holder, but in order to simplify the procedure,Japan Reproduction Rights CenterIn some cases, the rights business is outsourced to.

    What makes copying illegal

    In generalbill(Counterfeit bill),checkな どSecuritiesIt is illegal to copy.Regarding these, it is illegal to create something that can be confused with the real thing even if it is not actually used publicly (personal collection, etc.).There is another law regarding the exercise, but if the judicial administration finds it to be "malicious," the act of copying itself will be used.Criminal penaltyDisposal (ex.Thousand yen bill trial) Has been received.

    In addition, there is a method in which a machine number is printed with a light yellow dot (encryption dot) on a part of the copy so that the copying machine can be specified for the copy.It is difficult to check visually, but the machine number can be checked by extracting the copied material in yellow with a scanner and converting it to black. It is explained that it is "in case an illegal copy is made".

    Some banknotes are recognized and have characters such as "COPY" or are printed in black.In general, most of them are simply image recognition, so some of them can be detected even with well-made "toy banknotes", but on the other hand, "EurionThere is also a clever one called

    Major copier manufacturers

    Related item

    footnote

    注 釈

    1. ^ Canon "Family Copier" etc.
    2. ^ 1979ToCanonHas capital participation,2000Merged with Canon Aptex to become Canon Finetech.CurrentCanon Finetech Nisca.

    Source

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