Mayor of Aomori / Kuroishi Election 3 incumbents without voting
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Mr. Takahi made a commitment to promote organic farming and to develop and promote distribution bases.
In the Mayor of Kuroishi election, which was announced on the XNUMXrd due to the expiration of the term of office, there was no notification of candidacy other than the incumbent, and the third election of the incumbent was decided ... → Continue reading
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Agriculture of each country|
Organic farming(Yuki no Ugyo,English: Organic farming, Organic agriculture) IsAgriculture:One of the formsOrganic farming,Organic,Organic farmingAgriculture that does not use chemical fertilizers or pesticides..Yields decrease when pesticide-free or organic farming is used compared to farming with chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
natural Science OfTerminologyAsorganicIs generallyOrganic compoundIt comes down to.It flourished in an era when the development of agriculture should be examined.Chemical fertilizerwas inorganic, classical fertilizers werecompostsymbolically because it wasorganicWas used.したがってThereforeOrganic farmingOmitorganicIf you do, you need to be careful because it doesn't make sense.For example, "food grown in organic farming"Organic foodIt can be said that the abbreviation is inappropriate because most foods are organic.
International organizations, etc.
The "Principles of Organic Farming" by IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Farming Movements) are preventive management, traditional knowledge, social and social.EcologyIt includes a wide range of content such as fairness.According to the federation, the role of organic farming is in ecosystems and in production, processing, distribution and consumption.soilIt is to sustain and strengthen the health of organisms from the smallest organisms to humans.United States Department of Agriculture The standards for organic farming by (USDA) etc.gene recombinationVarietyIs not forbidden.In many countries, except for special cases家畜Dosing to is prohibited.
on the other hand,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) andwho"Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and sale of organically produced foods" (commonly known as "WHO")Codex guidelines") Is also commonly used worldwide..JapanGuidelines for Organic Agricultural ProductsJapanese Agricultural Standard) Was created based on the Codex guidelines, Basically the same definition of organic farming[Annotation 2]..However, while the certification of organic agricultural products is based on the application of farmers in Japan, chemical fertilizers are used overseas not only during production but also during harvesting and transportation.PesticideRequires objective proof of non-contamination of genetically modified varieties.
United States of America,Bulgaria,アイス ランド,Norway,Romania,Switzerland,Turkey,Australia,India,Japan,The Philippines, South Korea,Taiwan,Thailand,Argentine,Costa Rica,TunisiaAndEuropean UnionIn many countries / regions, such as the (EU), organic farming is also defined by law, so the commercial use of the word "organic" in agriculture and food manufacturing is controlled by the government.If there is a law, the certification of being organic is charged.It would be illegal for an unlicensed farm to call itself or its products organic. CanadaAlthough the law is not in place, any certification is possible.
"Law on Promotion of Organic Farming"(HeiseiIn Article 18 of Law No. 112 of XNUMX), organic farming is defined as: "No use of chemically synthesized fertilizers and pesticides andgene recombinationAgriculture carried out using agricultural production methods that reduce the environmental load derived from agricultural production as much as possible, based on the absence of technology. ".
Ministry of Agriculture"Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Agricultural Products" Then, the agricultural products produced by organic farming (organic agricultural products) are defined as follows.
- Organic produce
- Organic produce: Cultivated in fields that do not use pesticides and fertilizers for more than 3 years[Annotation 2].
- Organic agricultural products during the transition period: those cultivated for 6 months or more.
- Specially cultivated agricultural products
- Pesticide-free agricultural products: Cultivated without using pesticides.
- Cultivated agricultural products without chemical fertilizer: Cultivated without using chemical fertilizer
- Agricultural products with reduced pesticides: Those cultivated using less than 5% of the number of times they are used in the area.
- Reduced chemical fertilizer Agricultural products: Cultivated without using the same chemical fertilizer.
According to the organic JAS standard, organic agricultural products are "synthesized with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. through the process from production to consumption.Chemical substanceAnd biopharmaceuticals,Radioactive material,gene recombinationseedAnd use local resources as much as possible without using any products, etc.NATUREIt was produced by a method that respects the original productivity of the company. "
United KingdomBotanistBut from 1905 to 1931 in India in the OrientView of natureStudying agriculture based on, called the indole methodcompostAnnounce how to make. "Agricultural scriptures" There are works such as.
In 1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) was established.
Suddenly in 1990MutagenicityDetection methodAmes testAccording to Dr. Ames, who is famous for the development of pesticides, the natural chemicals produced by the plants themselves are better than residual pesticides because the crops using pesticide-free and low-pesticide farming methods resist pests due to insufficient pest control. There are reports that it is much more toxic... Generally in agriculture after the 20th century, it is a substrate for the purpose of effect on agricultural chemical synthetic substrates (agricultural crops, pests, weeds, diseased microorganisms, etc. produced in the chemical industry) such as chemical fertilizers and chemical synthetic pesticides. (Produced by the chemical industry) is used, and agricultural output is increasing dramatically.However, on the contrary, there are people who advocate the principle of organic farming, but they have made disaster-level failures in Sri Lanka, which did it at the national level..
The size of the organic food market in 2014 was about 1,300 billion yen in Japan, about 3.7 trillion yen in Europe, and about 3.8 trillion yen in the United States...In 2014, the ratio of the area of organic farming to the agricultural land area of each country was 0.3% in Japan (organic JAS), 10.8% in Italy, 6.3% in Germany, and 4.1% in France..
In the 1930sMasanobu FukuokaAnd religionistsMokichi OkadaBut leave most of the farming work to natureNatural farmingStarted.Also,MacrobioticIs the founder ofGeorge OhsawaRaised a problem with farming methods using pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
In 1961Basic agricultural lawWas enacted, and the use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides was greatly promoted.This is to significantly increase the yield per unit area of farmland.However, the use of chemically synthesized substrates has been regarded as a problem for the reasons described later, which has become a background for organic farming that does not use chemically synthesized substrates.
The word "organic farming" came from 1971Agricultural cooperativeInvented by the officer (1906-1994)..Already at this time, Japan's agricultural policy was on the path of increasing food production on the premise of using chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, and the foundation of organic farming was lost from rural Japan...Ichiraku questioned the modernization of agriculture promoted by economic rationalism, and modern agriculture is not only about the toxicity of pesticides and fertilizers, but also the idea of destroying the livelihoods of farmers is human society. And thought that the survival of the natural ecosystem could be jeopardized.Independent producers and consumers are inextricably linked through the ideal form of agriculture that transcends economic boundaries, "healthy and tasty food produced from soils supported by abundant soil and diverse ecosystems. Aiming at "the development of local society and culture and the realization of a stable, lasting and happy life", we named the agriculture that is the basis of such a major change in society as "organic agriculture". ..At the same time, the "Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group" was established in 1971 as the parent body of such social movements, and positioned the study group as the core of dialogue between farmers, consumers, researchers and the government on the same table.Since then, the term organic farming has gradually spread to Japan, but with the majority of people supporting pesticides and chemical fertilizers, the initial attempts by Ichiraku and others were extremely difficult.Farmers who aspire to organic farming are treated as eccentrics and weirdos.VillageOften excluded from the community of.
The efforts of pioneering organic farmers and consumers were gradually recognized in the 1980s as the environmental destruction caused by economic priorities became more prominent..1987The official recognition of organic rice (specially cultivated rice) was established in 1991, and the guidelines for organic cultivation were established.
Research on organic farming and pesticide-reducing agriculture began in earnest in the 1990s..So far, research on organic farming has been conducted on the effects of organic materials application, that is, comparison with the application of inorganic fertilizers, and the effects of inorganic fertilizers, rather than the effects of organic farming (including the use of no pesticides). Prevention of soil erosion caused by application, Improvement of soil physical properties Etc. were the center.Around this time, LISA (Low lnput Sustainable Agriculture) was proposed in the United States...日本でも、1992年にIn Japan, in XNUMXMinistry of AgricultureAdvocated sustainable "environmental conservation agriculture" in harmony with the ecosystem in "New Food, Agriculture and Rural Policy Direction (New Policy)".
2000 year 1 month,Japanese Agricultural Standard(JAS standard) has established the "organic JAS" standard that complies with the Codex Alimentarius Committee.Certified foods are non-GMO and basically avoid chemically synthesized pesticides and fertilizers. In December 2002,Agricultural Chemicals Control LawA specific pesticide designation system was established in.Specified pesticides are defined as those with clear safety, and are commonly called "specific control materials".しかし、定義が安全性の明らかなものとされているのに農薬という呼称をつけるのはどうかとの批判があるHowever, there are criticisms about the name pesticide even though the definition is clear...とはいえ、有機JASにおいては、緊急の際にHowever, in organic JAS, in case of emergencySpecific pesticideOr, pesticides derived from permitted naturally occurring substances may be used.In addition, due to the revision on August 2009, 21 (Heisei 8),Genetically modified cropsDerived fromcompostThe use of is permitted for the time being.
May 2006,Law on Promotion of Organic Farming" Was enacted and enforced.In response to this, in April 2007, the "Basic Policy on Promotion of Organic Agriculture" was published.As a result, organic farming, which was only seen as a subject of regulation under the Japanese legal system, will be promoted by law.
The Japanese government runs organic farming in the "Green Food System Strategy" compiled in May 2021.FarmlandHas set a goal of expanding to 2050% of the total by 25. As of April 2020, organic JAS fields account for only 4% of total cultivated land.It has been pointed out that the issues are that the reliability of conventional cultivation using pesticides is high and that consumers understand that the appearance is likely to be uneven..
China's total organic food production in 2016 was 0.2% of total crops..However, the ratio of organic food sales in China to total food sales has increased from 2007% in 0.36 to 2013% in 1.34..
In 2016, the production area of organic farming in China was 272 million hectares, 0.9% of the cultivated area in China, which is the fourth largest in the world...In addition, the domestic transaction value of organic products is about 800 billion yuan, and the annual export value is about 4 million dollars..
Organic farming in each country
Since the 1960s, subsidies for synthetic fertilizers have been provided, and the yield of crops including rice has more than doubled before the supply.Thanks to this, even when the domestic food shortage occurred in the 2s, it was possible to survive by earning foreign currency by exporting tea and rubber, whose yield was surplus from domestic demand, and importing from other countries...However, in the 2019 Sri Lankan presidential election, he made a pledge to shift all domestic agriculture to organic farming within 10 years.Gotabaya RajapaksaThe president was elected.Instead of excluding domestic agricultural experts and scientists who are negative about organic farming from the field of policy making, he told the Minister of Agriculture and related committees.ViyathmagaI appointed a member of the organic farming promotion group.Then, in April 2021, the world's first organic farming policy of "banning the import of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and converting all domestic agriculture to organic farming" was implemented...As a result, contrary to the claim of the organic farming promotion group that "organic farming can produce a yield comparable to that of conventional farming", the yield of rice, which is the staple food of Sri Lanka, decreased by 20% and the domestic price was 50. It was a big failure to import rice worth 4 million dollars (about 5000 billion yen) in addition to the sharp rise in%.Therefore, in November 620, the government partially approved the use of chemical fertilizers for major exports, and in February 2021, the transition of major exports to organic farming was suspended..Foreign policyWarned that agricultural scientists around the world would significantly reduce yields from the beginning of the announcement of the organic farming plan for all crops, but the Sri Lankan government insisted on increased production of other organic fertilizers as a substitute for imported fertilizers. Points out that it was not possible to produce enough fertilizer in Sri Lanka to make up for the shortfall.The foreign policy is "a false economic policy of handing over agricultural policy to believers in organic farming and banning imported fertilizers" and the amount of foreign currency expenditure on chemical fertilizers and the total amount of subsidies for chemical fertilizers reduced in yield. He pointed out that the cost of food imports and the cost of compensation for farmers whose production has decreased due to organic farming have exceeded..
As of 2016, the number of certification mechanisms for organic products in China is 24..
Organic farming in China began in the 1990s, and four major models have been formed from the resource advantages and technical conditions of each region..
- A model in which the government provides large-scale assistance in setting agricultural land areas, moving land, developing brands, scientific and technological support, research and development, quality control, etc..
- Leading company towed type
- A model that forms an economic community in which agricultural product processing companies and marketing companies take the lead in integrated management such as production, processing, and sales..
- Characteristic industrial upgrade type
- A model that complements economic effects and ecological protection through organic farming in the production of traditional and distinctive agricultural products.
- Environmental protection promotion type
- It was started to protect the ecological environment and solve the problem of environmental pollution, and is a model for changing farmers' production and lifestyles in leisure tourism agriculture by organic farming..
Cultivation of vegetable crops has mainly developed in the Beijing / Shanghai region, and it has become a new model of urban agriculture, such as the combination of travel and traditional agriculture with government subsidies for cultivation using organic fertilizers..
Organic farming is labor-intensive and requires a large amount of labor before, during, and after production, increasing the cost of producing production labor...In addition, organic products require a certification fee for organic certification, quality assurance of organic foods, training and education for farmers for the implementation of organic farming, and reduction of various environmental and food pollution risks in production. Cost is also required..In China, the price of organic foods is often 2 to 5 times higher than regular foods, and some foods are 8 to 10 times higher..
- Producing safe and good quality food
- Protect the environment
- Coexistence with nature
- Local self-sufficiency and circulation
- Maintenance culture of soil fertility
- Guarantee of a healthy breeding environment
- Guarantee of human rights and fair labor
- Producer-consumer alliance
- Spread the value of agriculture and build a society that respects life
Substances approved for use in organic JAS standards
Organic JAS standards allow the use of naturally occurring substances such as:.
In addition to organic fertilizers, various inorganic fertilizers are found.They are,Plant ash,Calcium carbonate(SoilContains calcium carbonate. ),Kari Chloride,Sulfuric acid potassium, Sulfuric acid potassium magnesium, naturalPhosphorusore,Sulfuric acid magnesium,Hydroxide magnesium,Gypsum,sulfur,quicklime(Including bittersweet lime.),Slaked lime, Trace elements (manganese,Boron,鉄,copper,zinc,molybdenumas well as the chlorine), Crushed rock,basesexSlag,SlagSilicic acidQuality fertilizer,Yonari fertilizer,Sodium chloride,Aluminum phosphatecalcium,Calcium chlorideIt is a misunderstanding that only organic fertilizers are used in organic farming.
The pesticides that can be used are subject to usage conditions,pyrethrumemulsionas well as the Pyrethrinemulsion,Rapeseed oilemulsion,Machine oilAerosol, Machine oil emulsion,soylecithin・ Machine oil milkStarchWettable powder,fatty acidGreasedemulsion,MetaldehydeGranules,sulfurSmokeAgents, sulfur powders, sulfur / copper wettable powders, sulfurized sulfur agents, sulfur / soybean lecithin wettable powders, lime sulfur,Shiitake mushroomMyceliumExtract liquid agent,sodium hydrogen carbonateWater solvent andbaking soda,sodium hydrogen carbonate-copperWettable powder, copper wettable powder, copper powder, copper sulfate, quicklime, natural enemy, etc.Biopesticide,Sex pheromonesAgent,chlorellaExtract liquid, mixCrude drugExtract liquid agent,ワ ッ ク スWettable powder,Spreading agent,carbon dioxideAgent,Diatomaceous earthPowder,VinegarThere are two types.
In addition, according to the organic JAS standard, it is originally used for seedlings, control materials, fertilizers, etc.Recombinant DNAThose using technology cannot be used.しかし、附則（平成18年10月27日農林水産省告示第1463号）により、特例として遺伝子組換え作物に由来する有機質肥料であるHowever, according to the Supplementary Provisions (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. XNUMX, October XNUMX, XNUMX), it is an organic fertilizer derived from genetically modified crops as a special case.compostWas allowed to be used for organic farming ("GM crops # GM crops and organic farming"reference).
Quality of organic produce
The table below shows the results of studies on the quality of crops that compared organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation and organic material input with conventional farming methods.
|Agricultural Products||Cultivation method||Quality change|
|Rice||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||StarchStickiness, Mg / K ratio, and taste improved.|
|Chemical-free fertilizer and pesticide-free cultivation||Yield decreased by about 10%.|
|Input of organic materials||Taste,Amylosecontent,Mg/KThere was no difference in the ratio.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||There was no difference in taste and yield.|
|carrot||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|CarotenoidThere was no difference in content.|
|Weak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by.|
|With sulfur in the leavessodiumWas expensive.yield,Vitamin CとVitamin E, Α and β-carotene, N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), K (potassium), Na (sodium), Ca (calcium), Mg (magnesium), S (sulfur), Fe (iron), B (Boron), Mn (manganese), Zn (zinc), Cu (copper) did not make a difference.|
|Sensory testThere was a difference.Vitamin C,Reducing sugar,amino acidThere was no difference in content and combination.|
|Input of organic materials||Improved carotene content and shelf life.There was no difference in fine yield.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||sugar content, Vitamin C, β-carotene content did not differ.|
|Radish||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was a difference in shelf life and flavor.|
|There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|Can be identified by.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|Input of organic materials||SpicyThe ingredients were low..There was no difference in the yield of fine products.|
|Input of organic materials (oil cake)||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Organic materials (Burke) Input||Became.|
|Yield and soil sunshineionIncreased exchange capacity.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||The content was low.|
|Tomato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|The evaluation of the conventional farming method was higher in the sensory test..|
|In the sensory test, the evaluation of redness and umami on the surface was higher.糖度とビタミンC含量がより高かったHigher sugar content and vitamin C content.LycopeneThere was no difference between the content and the amino acid content.|
|Input of organic materials||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|It tasted good and was highly storable..|
|There was a large variation in the survey components depending on the year of cultivation and the position of fruit set..|
|Fruit color, sugar, acidity,Vitamin CThere was no difference.|
|Spinach||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||With leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content..Vitamin C,Oxalic acidThere was no difference in shelf life and inorganic component content.|
|There was a difference between the sensory test and the shelf life.|
|Moisture, vitamin C, sugar,nitric acid, Oxalic acid content, and shelf life were not different.|
|Input of organic materials||There was no difference in taste.|
|Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|cabbage||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||Yield, vitamins C and E, α and β-carotene, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, B, Mn, Zn, Cu did not differ.|
|Tumor necrosis factorNo association was found between induction of (TNF-α) production and (liver detoxifying enzyme) activity.|
|Input of organic materials||Increased yield and soil cation concentration.|
|Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|lettuce||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Input of organic materials||High sugar content and storability.|
|Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|High reducing sugar content and low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|potato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Input of organic materials||There was no difference in internal quality (vitamin C / protein / free amino acid content, dry matter ratio).|
|Chinese cabbage||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|Can be identified by.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|UVThere was no difference in the fluorescent photographs.|
|Leaf green onion||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||With leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content..There was no difference in vitamin C, oxalic acid, shelf life, and inorganic component content.|
|onion||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||FlavonoidThere was no difference in content.|
|There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves|
|sweet potato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|There was no difference in content.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|Identifiable by near infrared spectrum.|
|Maize||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||Yield decreased by 10%, but protein content decreased and amino acid composition did not change.|
|time||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||The active ingredient content varied widely among crops...The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.|
|Chamomile||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||The active ingredient content varied widely among crops...The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.|
|pea||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|pepper||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Strawberry||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was a difference in shelf life and flavor.|
|broccoli||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|eggplant||Input of organic materials||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Chingensai||Input of organic materials||High reducing sugar content and low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|Wenzhou oranges||Input of organic materials||High yield and sugar content..However, the quality deteriorated due to pests.There was no difference in acidity, fruit weight, fruit specific gravity, and pericarp color.No improvement effect on soil physical properties was observed.|
|tea||Input of organic materials||There was no difference in sensory evaluation, yield, or total nitrogen content.|
|wheat||Input of organic materials||Low protein content.|
|Improved yield and soil properties.|
|soy||Input of organic materials||Improved yield and soil properties.|
|Net melon||Input of organic materials||Low free amino acid content.|
|cucumber||Input of organic materials (oil cake)||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Organic materials (Bark compost) Input||Poor shape.|
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- Sri Lanka-Countries that have implemented a policy of mandating organic farming for all domestic crops
- Organic fertilizer-Manure
- Pesticide-free cultivation
- Organic materials
- Organic farmer
- Natural farming - Duck farming