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🏛 | House of Councilors election Kumamoto one after another from the executives of each political party


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House of Councilors election Kumamoto one after another from executives of each political party

 
If you write the contents roughly
In addition, the political organization "Sansei Party" is scheduled to give a street speech in Kumamoto by party executives.
 

July XNUMX The House of Councilors election for ballot counting will enter the second half of the game from July XNUMX.Executives of each party to support the candidates ... → Continue reading

 TV Kumamoto

"TV Kumamoto" (Fuji TV affiliate) news account. We will send you the latest news about Kumamoto.


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Participation party

Participation party(Sanseiito,British: Party of Do It Yourself) IsJapanese political party.2020Was established in2022 Of26rd House of Councilors ordinary electionWith a vote rate of 2%, he won one seat and became a national political party that meets various legal party requirements.

catch copy"I don't have a political party I want to vote for, so I'll build it from scratch."[10].

Party name

The party name means "a" team "that creates" politics "that everyone can" participate ".[17]..The English name is "Party of Do It Yourself". It means "do it yourself"[Annotation 1]..Both party name and political party DIY (described later)KAZUYANamed by[20].

Party history

2019Original in JanuarySuita City CouncilAs a member of the DietRyoma ProjectChairman'sKamiya SoheiOpenedYouTubeChannel "Political Party DIY"[Annotation 2]Is the predecessor[19]..The channel has distributed more than 1 videos about social issues and politics over a period of about one year, and has received about 50 subscribers.[19].

20203/17Reported as a political organization[21],same year4/11Formally formed a party[19]..In addition to Kamiya, the members of the partyKAZUYA,Yuya Watase,Mitsuharu Furuze,Manabu MatsudaListed[19]..In addition, about 3,000 people, including viewers of the delivered video, gathered as party members.[22].2021Of year49th House of Representatives general electiondeclined to field a candidate, citing ``uncertainty about the spread of support''[22].

In the summer of 202226rd House of Councilors ordinary electionToward the goal, we promoted activities with the goal of having five candidates each in the constituency and proportional representation, and winning seats.[22]..Although it was initially difficult, according to party officials, the state of the street speech spread in the Internet world such as YouTube from around April of the same year, and before the election announcement day, there were 4 party members and supporters, and the donation amount was 3 million. Enlarged to exceed the yen[22]..In the election, five candidates were set up as proportional representations, and candidates were set up in all 5 constituencies.[23], As a result of the election, Sohei Kamiya was elected as a proportional representative and won one seat.[24][11]..In addition, both the constituency and proportional representation recorded a vote rate of 2% or more, satisfying the party requirements under the Public Offices Election Law and the Political Party Subsidy Law.[11][Annotation 3]. AlsoFukui Prefecture Election District-Saga Prefectural constituency-Miyazaki Prefecture Election DistrictThen.Japan Communist PartyThe vote rate is higher than the official candidate ofKumamoto PrefectureThen the vote rate exceeded 10%[26].In a proportional vote,Social Democrats,NHK Partyreceived more votes than[27].

On July 7th, after the Upper House election, it was announced that Manabu Matsuda will be appointed as the new representative and Sohei Kamiya will be appointed as the deputy representative and secretary general.[28]..He also announced his intention to work on creating a local organization and aim to support candidates in 4 prefectures at the unified local elections in April next year.[29].In the Okinawa gubernatorial election, he postponed fielding his own candidate.Kamiya said, "We received a request for support from the Liberal Democratic Party, but we are not a political party that complements the Liberal Democratic Party, so we cannot stand in front of and support the Liberal Democratic Party's candidate." He also said, "If the LDP agrees on policies, such as incorporating the policies advocated by the suffrage party into its campaign pledges, I would like to actively announce it to the party members."[30].

20228/9, party affiliationHanno City CouncilThe parliamentary group "Team Hanno" (3 seats) submits a notification to change the name of the parliamentary group to "Party Party"[31].Named after a party consisting of multiple membersParliamentary groupIt will be the first time for the organization to be formed through the National Assembly or a local assembly.

20229/11Made inOkinawa内 のUnified local electionstook place as part ofOkinawa CityParty official candidate Kazuya Niisato wins parliamentary election[32].For the first time except for incumbents joining the partyLocal councilwon a seat in

20229/14,partyHiroshimaFuminori Ogimura, who belongs to the party, was accused of fraud in the accounting work of the branch, etc.Hatsukaichi City CouncilThe member of parliament was expelled.The city council resigned on the same day[33].

Political position

Political position

Right,Maintenancea political party of strong color[10][11],PopulismIt is sometimes pointed out that[3][9].ProtectionismTypicalAnti-globalismadvocatingAnti-immigrantRaise[9][14].Also, as they claimnationalismOne of its characteristics is its strong color.[34][12].. In the 2022 House of Councilors election, "education reform" that cultivates the ability to think and values ​​tradition,Pesticide-freeThe priority policies are "food safety" to promote such things and "national protection" to regulate investment from foreigners.[22],New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19)"Liberalization of mask wearing" etc.[11].. for that reason,"Conspiracy theoryAnd "Anti-vaccine], [No mask]Far rightPolitical party'often criticized as[4][5][6][35][8][7][36].

It advocates a ``participatory political party'' and intends to formulate the party's policy together with its members.Strictly against existing political parties, he said, "Priority is given to interests within the group" and "Only relatives and hereditary".PoliticsIt aims to serve as a receptacle for dissatisfied voters who are interested inhe is conservativeLDPPeople concerned were wary that some of the conservative supporters would be undermined.[10]..Regarding the policy, Kamiya says, "I'm not involved at all. (Omitted) There are some things that are different from what I think, but I hope the party members can do that."[37].

According to SNS analysts, the influence of official political party accounts is fifth.YouTube is particularly strong, and the LDP is also overwhelming.However, there are not so many views.This contradiction is cut out and used as a video. Since April 5, the number of accounts that post clipping summaries has increased, and short videos have become widespread.AlsoTikTokThe influence of[38].

FactionNumber of registered people
TwitterYouTubeInstagram
LDP250,000128,00041,821
Constitutional Democratic Party193,00023,0005,448
Komeito107,000143,00041,788
Japan Restoration Party70,00032,6001,159
National Democratic Party51,90016,0004,053
Japan Communist Party134,000101,0004,204
New team selected125,000228,00019,584
NHK Party25,700476,0002,890
Participation party100,000181,00023,378
Social Democrats46,5004,8502,062

As of July 2022, 9, Twitter ranked 5th in the number of registered people. YouTube is third. Instagram was third[39].

Philosophy / Platform

The idea is "to protect Japan's national interests and create great harmony in the world."[12].

The guidelines are "to utilize the wisdom of our predecessors to create a peaceful country centered on the emperor," "to pursue the independence and prosperity of Japan, and to contribute to the development of humankind." Create a model of a harmonious society by making the most of it. "[12].

Ten pillars

As a basic policy, 10 policies have been announced under the name of "Ten Pillars".[40].

Support layer

JNNAccording to a survey by2022 Upper House electionBy gender, 56% of the respondents are male. Teenagers accounted for the highest percentage at 10%, and the younger generation was more likely to vote for a political party.About 6.9% of respondents said they did not support the Kishida Cabinet, which was the highest among all parties that ran candidates in proportional representation.[23]. further,Asahi ShimbunIn the 2022 Upper House election, 8% of voters who did not support the Kishida Cabinet voted for the Sanseito in the proportional district.Only 2% of the supporters of the Kishida Cabinet voted for the Sanseito.Similarly, according to the Asahi survey, the number of people who voted in the proportional districts of the non-supporters of the Cabinet exceeded 4% of the Social Democratic Party and 3% of the NHK Party, and reached almost the same level as 7% of the people and 10% of Reiwa.Although it is far from 21% of the constitution, it is clear that a certain amount of votes from non-supporters of the Cabinet have flowed to the Sanseito.[41].

According to political scientists, young people who are disappointed with the traditional politics centered on the elderly are at the center of their support.[10].

Clinical psychologist・According to a management psychology consultant, ``People who have been indifferent to politics and elections haveAnti-vaccine","No mask","organic” is the key word.Policy is accessible without ties, purpose, security, harmony and political literacy.Rather than being able to change politics with one vote, I feel that I support a political party that tries to do what I think is good.The narrative appeals emotionally rather than logically.That's why I appealed to the sensibilities of politically naive people and increased their support."[42].

Position

Representative

The term of office of the representative shall be the party convention period (until the next party convention) and will not prevent reappointment.The appointment of representatives will be decided on the board with the approval of a majority of the board members.Representatives and deputy representatives are appointed from board members. (Article 12 of the Party Regulations)[43]

Successive representatives

  • No vote in the representative election column
RepresentativeRepresentative electionTerm of officeRemarksperiod
0(Vacant seat)March 2020, 4-March 11, 2021The representative on the notification is the secretary generalKamiya Sohei[44]
1Manabu Matsuda
Yumi Akao
Toshiaki Yoshino
NoMarch 2021, 12-March 23, 2022The title is co-representative1
2Manabu MatsudaNoMay 2022, 7-(Incumbent)1

Party officer

The board members (party officers) as of July 2022 are as follows.[45][46].

PositionNameAffiliation / main title
RepresentativeManabu MatsudaFormer member of the House of Representatives
Deputy Representative / Secretary GeneralKamiya SoheiMember of the House of Councilors
Deputy Secretary GeneralYuichiro KawaIshikawa Prefectural AssemblyMember
board memberYumi AkaoChairman of Akao Aluminum Co., Ltd.
board memberHokkaidoKutchan TownMember of parliament

Advisor

Advisors as of August 2022 are as follows:[46]

PositionName
AdvisorYoshiyuki Onagi
External advisorMasayasu Inoue
Hidemi Kato
Toshiaki Yoshino
Kunihiko Takeda

Past board member (executive) table

executive directorDeputy Secretary GeneralPolicy managerPublic relations officerInauguration
Kamiya Sohei
[Annotation 4]
Mitsuharu FuruzeManabu MatsudaYuya WataseKAZUYAApril 2020, 4[20]
April 2021[47]
RepresentativeDeputy representativeexecutive directorDeputy Secretary Generalboard memberInauguration
Manabu Matsuda
Yumi Akao
Toshiaki Yoshino
Kamiya SoheiMitsuharu FuruzeApril 2021, 12[48]
Yuichiro KawaApril 2022, 3[49]
Manabu MatsudaKamiya SoheiYumi AkaoToshiaki YoshinoApril 2022, 7[28]

組織

Headquarters

The location of the headquarters as of 2022 isTokyoMinato-kuAzabudai2-2-12 Sanki Building 3F[1].. In the 2020 Political Funds Balance ReportOsakaSuita CityIt was 1-37-40 Senriyamanishi[44].

Party members / supporters

Supporters will receive an email once a week with activity reports and event notifications.In addition to the above, e-mail newsletters will be provided with voice e-mail newsletters by Kunihiko Takeda, Toshiaki Yoshino, Sohei Kamiya, etc. twice a week for 500 yen per month.In addition to the above, general party members are eligible to participate in the policy school "DIY School" for 2 yen a month.Qualified to participate in the management of party conventions.In addition to the above, the members of the steering party have the right to vote in the policy making decided by the policy meeting and the right to vote in the primary election of the runners, in addition to the above for 1,000 yen a month.[50].

Party

House of Councilors

electionWinning/CandidateNon-electionconstantNumber of votes (rate of votes)Remarks
ConstituencyProportional representation
26st regular election1/5002482,018,214 (3.80%)1,768,385 (3.33%)

Member of the Diet

Member of Parliament

Member of the House of Councilors
2028Re-election
Kamiya Sohei
(1 times,Proportional

The number of winnings and the constituency are in parentheses.

Local assembly

Prefectural assembly member (1 person)
Yuichiro Kawa
(Ishikawa
Municipal assembly members (12 people)
Yoshito Tanaka
(HokkaidoKutchan Town
Hitomi Patterson
(SaitamaHanno
Otsu Riki
(Hanno City, Saitama Prefecture)
Kazuhiko Noguchi
(Hanno City, Saitama Prefecture)
Shiro Ishii
(NaganoUeda
Shigeo Ishijima
(ShizuokaIto
Hideaki Izuhara
(OsakaKaizuka City
Tetsuya Toyoto
(TottoriMt. Ooyama Town
Takusei Ishida
(Yamaguchi Hofu City
Isamu Cho
(SagaTakeo City
Kazuki Toki
(KagoshimaKikai Town
Kazuya Niisato
(OkinawaOkinawa City

finance

Reiwa 2th yearPolitical fund balance reportAccording to the report, the income is about 8600 million yen, of which the membership fee income from the members is about 2400 million yen.[44].

catch copy

Yearscatch copy
2022We don't have a political party to vote for, so we'll build it from scratch[10]

party song

The official theme song isThe Mass Missile"Good morning".Sohei Kamiya asked his friend, Takagi.The jacket uses yuyu's illustration of dawn.[18].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ When the party was formed, he called himself "Party of Do It Yourself"[19]
  2. ^ "DIYIs an abbreviation for "Do It Yourself"[19].
  3. ^ Political party requirements are the requirements necessary to be recognized as a political party in the legal system, and are stipulated by the Public Offices Election Law and the Political Party Subsidy Law.[25]..As a general rule, if there are 5 or more members of parliament, or if the vote rate in the latest election is 2% or more, the party requirement is satisfied, but for the party requirement under the Political Party Subsidy Law, the vote rate is 2% or more. At least one member of parliament is required even in this case[25].
  4. ^ Notification representative[44]

Source

  1. ^ a b "Contact/Donation”. Kamiya Sohei. April 2022, 8Browse.
  2. ^ "Sanseito, Sohei Kamiya "A party that can say things without hesitation" Hiroyuki, "Are you deceiving a fool?"”. AbemaTV (July 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  3. ^ a b c "Reasons for populism”. Mainichi Shimbun (December 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  4. ^ a b "Weekly Bunshun”Editorial Department (June 2022, 6). “Reporter shaking against anti-vaccine political party, public security to mark”. Weekly Bunshun electronic version / Weekly Bunshun 2022 year 6 month 30 day issue (Bungeishunju Co., Ltd.). https://bunshun.jp/denshiban/articles/b3371 April 2022, 8Browse. 
  5. ^ a b “Extreme right-wing conspiracy theory spreads `` Suffrage party '' XNUMX seat, proportional to the House of Councillors ''. Chunichi Shimbun Web (Chunichi Shimbun Co., Ltd.). (November 2022, 7). https://www.chunichi.co.jp/article/507000 April 2022, 8Browse. 
  6. ^ a b “Large Side” Suffrage Party Wins XNUMX Seat in Upper House Election “Foreign Forces Dominate Japan” Concerns over Right-wing Moody and Conspiracy Theories”. Okinawa Times + Plus (Okinawa Times Co., Ltd.). (November 2022, 7). https://www.okinawatimes.co.jp/articles/-/990725 April 2022, 8Browse. 
  7. ^ a b Yujiro Okabe, Public Opinion Research Department. “Why were suffrage parties able to win seats? XNUMX factors revealed by exit polls and election results”. Yomiuri Shimbun Online (Yomiuri Shimbun Tokyo Headquarters). https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/column/opinionpoll/20220810-OYT8T50005/ April 2022, 8Browse. 
  8. ^ a b Hiroyuki TanakaWhat is the “party suffrage phenomenon”?Crowds with no masks Winning seats in the House of Councilors election"Mainichi Newspapers"Mainichi Newspaper Co., Ltd., August 2022, 7.April 2022, 8Browse.
  9. ^ a b c d "Gossip YouTuber, comedian and an athlete win seats in Upper House publisher=Asahi Shimbun”(May 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  10. ^ a b c d e f ""Blue Ocean" Involves the SNS generation of the party that jumped in”. Sankei Shimbun (June 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Political party requirements are met by acquiring one seat ... The vote rate is XNUMX% or more in proportion to the constituency.”. Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  12. ^ a b c d "What is the "Sanseito" that has gained support in speeches and SNS?What kind of party?Why is the power expanding?There is also danger in the claim ... Obtaining a seat in the Upper House election”. BuzzFeed (July 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  13. ^ a b Participant Party Q & A Basics & 2022-6.
  14. ^ a b "Anti-immigrant party opposing COVID measures wins Diet seat”. Asahi Shimbun (September 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  15. ^ "Engine paper”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.
  16. ^ "What is the bird with the logo of the party?”. Kamiya Sohei. April 2022, 7Browse.
  17. ^ a b Participant Party Q & A Basics & 2022-6, pp. 1–10.
  18. ^ a b "Good morning”. TuneCore Japan. April 2022, 8Browse.
  19. ^ a b c d e f "Souhei Kamiya and others form a new party "Sanseito", announced on the net video”. Bulletin Japan (April 2020, 4). As of March 12, 2022originalMore archives.April 2022, 7Browse.
  20. ^ a b I made it myself & 2020-11-17, pp. 1–36.
  21. ^ May 2020, 2 (Reiwa 5) Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Notification No. 28 "Matters to be announced because there was a notification of a political organization pursuant to the provisions of the Political Funds Control Act"
  22. ^ a b c d e "Emerging power "participation party" National party Aiming for the first seat acquisition”. NHK (July 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  23. ^ a b ""Assistant Administrator" who is sure to win a seat What kind of person voted? -The fastest analysis from exit polls! ~”. TBS (August 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  24. ^ July 2022, 4 (Rewa 7) Notification No. 15 of the Central Election Commission "Number of votes for the House of Councilors list notification political party, etc. in the election of members elected to the proportional representation of the House of Councilors executed on July 22, XNUMX, elected Matters concerning the number of people and the addresses and names of the winners "
  25. ^ a b Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). “Political party requirements". Koto bank. DIGITALIO Co., Ltd.. April 2022, 7Browse.
  26. ^ Reiwa July 4, 7th Execution House of Councilors Election Contest Number of votes by candidate (electoral district)Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications January 2022, 7
  27. ^ Sanseito, proportionally won 176 million votes, exceeding the Social Democratic Party and N Party, and Mr. Sohei Kamiya was elected for the first time.Nikkan Sports April 2022, 7
  28. ^ a b (Sanseito) Manabu Matsuda is the representative of the Sanseito Party, and Kamiya is the deputy representative.Nihon Keizai Shimbun January 2022, 7
  29. ^ Mr. Matsuda as the representative of the Sanseito, won one seat in the upper house, aiming for unified local electionsAsahi Shimbun November 2022, 7
  30. ^ "how does it affect?Participating parties did not field their own candidates in the Okinawa gubernatorial election.”. TBS. April 2022, 8Browse.
  31. ^ List of factions (R4.8.9) (file name: 29330482059c9.pdf size: 32.71KB)August 2022, 8 Hanno City Council Secretariat Assembly General Affairs Division
  32. ^ September 4, 9 Execution 11th Okinawa City Assembly Member Election ResultsSeptember 2022, 9 Okinawa City Election Administration Commission Secretariat
  33. ^ "Ogimura city council resigns, expelled from political party for accounting fraud Hatsukaichi city council". Chinese newspaper. April 2022, 9Browse.
  34. ^ The suffrage party, which has achieved unprecedented success, is, in short, a national movement for the rise of healthy nationalism.So the party members agreed.Therefore, even if the party members are diverse, as a modern political party in which members think about policies, if everyone learns through thorough deliberation within the party, the conclusion will naturally converge.Something very interesting is starting to happen. - Manabu Matsuda 00:09 am August 2022, 8
  35. ^ Hiroyuki Kojima (July 2022, 7). “Mr. Kamiya, a member of the political party, holds a press conference in his hometown.. Asahi Shimbun digital (Asahi Shimbun Co., Ltd.). https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASQ7F6K89Q7FPISC00M.html April 2022, 8Browse. 
  36. ^ “The reason for the correction of the “Jewish conspiracy theory” that directly hit Mr. Sohei Kamiya, a member of the political party… [Deep News]”. NTV NEWS (Nippon Television Network Corporation). (November 2022, 8). https://news.ntv.co.jp/category/politics/462ddc0a119d415192590dbcc95c9d29 April 2022, 8Browse. 
  37. ^ "Mr. Sohei Kamiya felt this during his speech!Summary of live chat with key persons of the House of Councilors [House of Councilors election 2022]”. Election.com (October 2022, 7). April 2022, 7Browse.
  38. ^ "Why did Garcy and the Sanseito win a seat? "SNS election" seen from Twitter and YouTube analysis”. Business Insider Japan. April 2022, 7Browse.
  39. ^ "House of Councilors election 2022 Political party / candidate SNS utilization ranking! Why do you have many followers on Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram?”. Election dot com. April 2022, 7Browse.
  40. ^ "Ten pillars”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.
  41. ^ 8% of Kishida Cabinet disapproval to Sanseito asahi exit poll, analysis of proportional voting destinationAsahi Shimbun November 2022, 7
  42. ^ "The "Sanseito" psychologist who made a leap forward in the Upper House election "working on the senses" method”. NEWS Post Seven. April 2022, 7Browse.
  43. ^ "Philosophy”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.
  44. ^ a b c d Published Political Funds Balance Report of the Participating Party (Reiwa 2 years) (PDF)
  45. ^ "Manabu Matsuda, a former member of the House of Representatives, is the representative of the Sanseito party.”(Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers. April 2022, 7Browse.
  46. ^ a b "Members”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.
  47. ^ "Member introduction Sanseito”(Japanese). As of September 2021, 2originalMore archives.April 2022, 7Browse.
  48. ^ "Sanseito aims to hold 12 candidates in the Upper House election (22/XNUMX press conference summary)”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.
  49. ^ akaoyumi1's tweet (1511148074608959489)
  50. ^ "Party member”. Participating party. April 2022, 7Browse.

References

Related item

外部 リンク

Political party

Edit link

Political party(Seito) is commonPoliticsOfthe purposeBy those who have組織Be doneGroupIs[1].election,revolutionThroughPolitical powerAttempts to achieve policy by acquiring, maintaining, or exerting influence over the policy-making process.Political partiesCivil revolutionSince modern timesWesternDeveloped with the electoral system in each country.In modern times, politics based on political parties is being developed in most countries, not just in Europe and the United States.[2].

Overview

In politicspolicyPeople who have something in common with each other gather together to gather opinions and form a unified policy.administrationA group that aims to realize a policy by being in charge of or having an influence on the policy-making process is called a political party.[2]..Consists of celebrity and influential activistsNoble family partyOrganize as many party members as possible, raise funds from them, and elect representatives by party members.Popular partyIn reality, most political parties have a mixture of these two types of elements.[2].

Political partyFormationTheParty[3],DissolutionTheDisbandingGood[4], Those who are members of political partiesParty member[5], Its chief executive officerParty leader[6], Those who support and support the party from the outsideParty friendCall[7].

Also, documents that define the purpose of a political party and the path to its realization are generallyPlatformCalled.Historically, parties aiming to reform the regime, especially socialist parties, often have a detailed platform.In the case of parties that do not have a specific world view, such as conservative parties and centrist parties, they often remain in the general and abstract platform.[8].

For analysis based on the number of political parties and their relationship with power,One-party dictatorship,Multi-party system,Hegemony party systemand so on[9]..Also, the political parties participating in the administrationRuling party, Political parties not participatingOppositionHowever, in socialist countries, the only political party is the Communist Party, and there are often no opposition parties.[10].

Features

Political parties need to present conflicts that occur in society as political issues.Gabriel AlmondCalled this function the profit expression function[11]..It also has the function of aggregating various interests within society and reflecting them in politics.Political parties present the aggregated interests to citizens in the form of policies and strive to present and implement them to the government.This is called a profit aggregation function.It also has the function of promoting the understanding and participation of citizens in politics by presenting the citizens with easy-to-understand policies and issues gathered by political parties.[11].

The function of recruiting and selecting political leaders is also important.Candidates with similar policies will be selected and run for elections, and if they are elected, they will be trained while gaining experience within the party, and leaders who can lead more advanced groups will be trained.And use the power of political parties to make that leaderHeadTo be appointed as a national leader.At this time, the political party is inside the governmentCabinetAnd Cheong Wa Dae are organized mainly by their own members, and policy-making bodies are also organized.[12]..The party that wins the election is in charge of the administration as the ruling party, and the defeated party has the function of criticizing the ruling party's policy deficiencies as an opposition party and monitoring and correcting them.[13]..If the ruling party and the opposition party are democratic nations, they will naturally be replaced depending on the election results, so political parties are required to possess both the ability to take charge of the administration and the ability to criticize the administration.[14].

As the term one-party dictatorship impliesDictatorshipEven in this case, political parties are by no means useless.AuthoritarianismThe function of political parties under the system is to secure the sharing of power.In a one-party dictatorship, the top of the administration often has a fixed term, and the successor is elected from within the party again, so influential people can expect to win the next administration, and power by force. It plays a role in restraining the movement of capture.[15]..In a one-party state, the system of inheriting power as described above has been established, so it is a system that is highly stable and easy to prolong even in the authoritarian system.[16].

Management

The strength of political party discipline varies from country to country.In countries with a parliamentary cabinet system such as Japan and Western Europe, there is strong discipline within the party, and each member of the Diet has strong discipline.Party detentionAnd the parliament is required to vote as the party decides.On the other hand, in the United States and other countries, the discipline of the party is weak, and each member of the Diet votes according to his or her own judgment, and the party is not bound.[17].

Political party income includes party expenses collected from party members and income from businesses run by the party itself.Political contributionThe main items are such as, and the pillars of income differ depending on each country and party.Also, from the government to political partiesSubsidyIs issued in some nations, and even in Japan since 1995Political party grantIs issued to each party[18].

A group formed by people who have something in common within the party to influence the entire partyFactionIs called.Factions have a main function of allocating gains such as funds and job titles.BranchIs different.A sect refers to a group that aims to change the entire route based on a certain claim, and in some cases does not hesitate to divide.[19].

Party system

Political parties have various systems depending on the country (Party system) Exists.The party system depends on the number of political partiesOne-party systemMulti-party systemIt is customary to be divided into two types.In a one-party country, there is no political party selection system, so a change of government is impossible in principle, and it is practically impossible.DictatorshipIs synonymous with.Even in countries that are nominally multi-party, for examplePeople's Republic of China,1989previousEastern EuropeAs in some countries, the change of government is impossible in principle, and with the hegemonic partySatellite partyOnly exists, so-calledHegemony party systemThere are also nations, and these nations are not naturally considered democracies.In a country with a substantial multi-party system, it can be divided into several types mainly according to the number of political parties and the relationships between political parties.Maurice DuvergerIn the classification ofTwo-party systemMulti-party systemIt was classified into two, but laterGiovanni SartoriFurther subdivided byOne-party dominant party system, Two-party system,Moderate multi-party system,Polarized multiparty system, Became divided into five atomic party systems[20]..In addition, there are several other party system classification methods.

The party system of each country is governed by the various circumstances of the country.It is said that there is a close relationship between the electoral system and the number of political parties, and only one person from one constituency will be elected.Single-seat constituency systemThen, the political parties are likely to be consolidated into a two-party system, and seats are allocated according to the voter turnout of each party.Proportional representationIs likely to be a multi-party system[21]..If the largest party fails to win a majority seat in parliament, it is oftenCoalition governmentOrganize and secure a majority, but in rare cases, the cabinet may be organized and the administration may be operated with less than the majority.[22].

Also, political parties have their political claimsideologyIt is also divided into several categories.Communism,Socialism,Social democracy,Democratic socialism,Liberalism,Christian democracy,ConservatismAnd so on.Each of these parties is ideologicalInternational organizationTo belong to socialist, social democratic, democratic socialist political partiesSocialism internationalAnd to which the liberal party belongsLiberal international, Conservative party affiliationInternational Democrat UnionAnd so on.Political parties that are strict with respect to the platform are sometimes called ideological parties.[11].

In each country, political partiesPolitical spectrumClassified by.Political parties that find profit in maintaining the current system and emphasizing traditional values ​​and aiming for gradual reform rather than radical reformConservative partyIs called.United KingdomTory partyWas a typical example,19st centuryWhen socialist parties emerge in each country from the end資本主義Came to be called a conservative party to refer to the party that defends[23]..On the other hand, political parties seeking reforms and revolutions in the established national systemInnovation partyCalled.Generally refers to the Socialist Party and the Communist Party.In European countries, after World War II, the ideological conflict weakened due to the inclusion of political parties, and a coalition government including both camps was established. of55 yearsUntil the time of collapseUS-Japan Security,SDF,Emperor System, There was a fierce conflict of leather protection over issues such as constitutional amendment[24]..Political parties that make intermediate claims that are not biased to the left or rightMiddle roadA moderately innovative political party called a political partyCenter left, Moderate conservative partiesCenter rightCall[25].

Alternatively, act in a local council in a particular area or represent the interests of the area.Regional party[26]Aims to protect vested interests and beliefs in the social life of churches, cults, and religious groupsReligious party[27], Make only one claim the issue, do not claim other political issues / issuesSingle-issue party (one-issue party, single-issue party)[28]There is also a classification such as.

History

Modern

The EstatesThere was no political party in those days because parliamentary powers were weak and lawmakers had to accurately represent the will of their mothers.However, the power of the parliament has expanded to become a national decision-making body, the delegation to parliament has been relaxed, a representative delegation system has been established, and parliament has been able to vote freely within the parliament. At the innerMajority voteThe establishment of the principle increased the importance of political groups within the parliament and formed political parties.[29].

Made by a powerful member of the Diet for the operation of the parliamentNoble family party(Political party) Is an early political party.General electionMany outside the parliament when it becomes difficult to connect with the increasing number of electorates due to the adoption ofParty memberhavePopular partyHas appeared.In response to the challenge of the new mass-based party, the former noble party has also expanded its membership.Conservatism,LiberalismPolitical parties often take the form of noble parties,Social democracy,CommunismPolitical parties often took the form of mass-based parties.Then came political parties that garnered support from every group in society as a whole, rather than being based on a certain class or group.[30]..This type of partyBig tentAlthough the party members are thin and widespread, it is characterized by the fact that the members are in control.[31].

modern

Mass mediaWith the development of the party, the opinions of prominent politicians and parties came to reach the electorate directly, so the role of the party organization declined and the mass-based party also stopped acting.There are observations that the power of political parties has further declined as people's attention has focused on the prime minister and president, who are the chief of national affairs, and individual candidates for public office.

However, even now, decades after the phenomenon that leads to the decline of political parties has permeated society, the fluidization of election results, which should theoretically occur, has not occurred.Many in advanced democraciesParty systemHas remained unchanged.It is the cartel party theory that explains this as a party that has lost its infrastructure is simply surviving as a monopoly with vested interests in the election market.[32].

Legalization

public opinionThe attitude toward political parties has changed to antipathy toward political parties, acceptance of political parties, and legislation of political parties.Political parties were originally private associations and had no legal basis, but as this association advanced into parliament and government through elections, the function of connecting voters and parliament became effective. As it was recognized, political parties gradually became more important.[33].. In the 19th century, the idea that political parties were incompatible with democracy was the mainstream, but with the expansion of voting rights, the existence of political parties became large, and democracy centered on political parties was established.[34].

Political parties in each country

Japan

Definition in Japan's Political Funds Control Act

JapanesePolitical Funds Control LawThen it is stipulated as follows[35].

  • Political party-A political organization that has five or more members of parliament or meets the following conditions.Law Concerning Grant of Legal Person to Political Parties, etc. Receiving Political Party GrantsBased onregistrationBy doingLegal personalityTo get
    • 2% or more of the votes obtained throughout the country in either the previous general election of members of the House of Representatives (single constituency, proportional representative) or the previous or previous general election of members of the House of Councilors (electoral district / proportional representative)
    • Notification systemPolitical Party Subsidy LawByPolitical party grantTarget of delivery[36]
  • Political fund --An organization whose purpose is to provide financial support for political parties
  • Other Political Organizations-Political organizations other than the above two examples
    • Principle advocacy groups, policy research groups, recommendation groups, sponsor groups, specific party holding groups (of political fund parties with income of 1,000 million yen or more), etc.
    • Political organizations that do not actually meet the above political party requirements, such as newly established organizations, even if they are treated as "political parties" in the media.
    • Money management group --Among the political organizations whose representatives are candidates for public office, those designated as political organizations that should receive political funding.

Political organizations related to parliamentarians (1 to 3 below) have special provisions regarding income and expenditure reports.[37].

  1. Political organization (No. 1 organization) whose representatives are members of parliament and candidates
  2. Among the political organizations that are subject to the donation deduction system, political organizations that aim to recommend or support specific members of the Diet and candidates (Group No. 2)
  3. A branch of a political party whose representatives are members of parliament and candidates (deemed No. 1 organization)

In the case of a political organization that mainly operates in one prefecture area, the notification destination is the election administration committee of the prefecture.In the case of political parties, political funding groups, or political groups that operate primarily across two or more prefectures, the prefecture'sElection Management CommitteeThroughMinister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsIs[35].

Political party colors and symbols

Most political parties use symbol colors to help voters recognize and identify political parties.symbol markHas been enacted.In such an image strategy, people who cannot read letters judge by the symbol mark or color instead of the letters on the ballot and vote.Literacy rateEspecially effective in low-lying nations[38]..Political parties with the same ideology often use the same symbol color in every country.[39][40]..In addition, symbol color is highly convenient when expressing political parties on image media.[41]..By symbol colorPolitical allianceCan also be revealed[42].TaiwanInNakuryoku Federation,Cailan FederationIs an example of this.

However, the relationship between color and ideology is inconsistent, and it is rare for the same ideology to use different colors in different countries, or for political parties with different ideologies in the same country to use the same symbol color. Absent[43]..In the United States, for example, red, which is usually used for communism and socialism, is used by conservative Republicans, and blue, which is often used for conservatism, is used by liberal Democrats.[39][44].

ideologyColorsymbolAn examplefootnote
Agricultural principle
  •   绿
DBD logo transparent.png Logo of the Agrarian Party of Russia (2013) .svg Centerpartiet Teillogo.svg[40]: 58[45][46][47]
Anarchism
  •   black
  •   "Red"
Anarchist flag.svg FRE-AIT.svg Partido Liberal Mexicano button 1911.svg[48][49][50][51]
Centrism
  •   purple
Logo PFP.svg DieMitte-logo.svg[52][53]
Communism
  •   "Red"
Emblem of Vietnam Communist Party.svg MLKP Badge.svg Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands Logo.svg[54][55][56]
Conservatism
  •   tag
Emblem of the Kuomintang.svg Bandera del Partido Conservador Colombiano.svg Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Emblem.jpg[57][58]
Democratic socialism
  •   "Red"
  • Handshake
  • 赤 い バ ラ
  • fist
Democratic Action Party Logo.svg Bandera del Partido Revolucionario Febrerista.svg[59][60]
Totalitarianism
  •   black
  •   tea
Flag of the National Fascist Party (PNF) .svg Union of Ukrainian Fascists logo.jpg Logo of National Socialist Movement.svg[40]: 56[61][62]
feminism
  •   white
  •   purple
  •   Fri
  •   pink
National Woman's Party logo.png FP logo.svg[63][64]
Green politics
  •   绿
  • (I.e.
  • Sunflowers
Global Greens logo.svg Alternattiva Demokratika.svg Logo of the Mongolian Green Party.svg[65][66]
Islamism
  •   绿
Logo PPP (1973-1982) .svg Logo of Jamiat-e Islami.svg PKS logo 2020.png[39][67]
Liberalism
  •   yellow
Social and Liberal Democrats logo.png[41][68][69]
Libertarianism
  •   yellow
PorcupineLibertarian Disc.svg Partido Libertarios Logo.png[39][70][71][72]
Royal party
  •   white
  •   Fri
  •   purple
crownPartito Nazionale Monarchico Logo.png Emblem of the Rexist Party.svg FUNCINPEC logo.png[40][73][74]
Pacifism
  •   white
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij logo.svg EDA logo.svg[40][75]
Social democracy
  •   "Red"
  • Handshake
  • 赤 い バ ラ
  • fist
Socialdemokratiet symbol (2014–present) .svg Logo e Lëvizjes Socialiste për Integrim.svg CSSD Logo Alt.svg[76][77][78][59]
Socialism
  •   "Red"
赤 い バ ラEmblem of the Socialist Party of Chile.svg Partia Socialiste.svg Bandera --Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional.svg[54][79][80][81][59]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "Political Science of Honor-Based on Burke's Political Party Theory" Chihiro Kamiya (Policy Science 14 (XNUMX) Ritsumeikan University)[1][2][3]according to18st centuryBritish House of CommonsEdmund BurkeIs a combination of honor and virtue about political parties, based on self-interestA humanIt is not a group (clique).
  2. ^ a b c Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia and Encyclopedia Mypedia "Political Party" (Kotobank)
  3. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Kaikai" (Kotobank)
  4. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Dissolution" (Kotobank)
  5. ^ Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary "Party Member" (Kotobank)
  6. ^ Daijirin XNUMXrd Edition "Party Leader" (Kotobank)
  7. ^ Daijirin XNUMXrd Edition "Party Friend" (Kotobank)
  8. ^ World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition "Platform" (Kotobank)
  9. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Hegemony Party System (Kotobank)
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Ruling Party / Opposition Party" (Kotobank)
  11. ^ a b c Katsunori Mito Shujiro Kato-Yoshikazu Iwabuchi(Edit) "Political Sociology" Ichigesha 2013 5th Edition ISBN 9784863590502 pp. 68-71.
  12. ^ "Next Textbook Series Political Science" p117 Mitsuya Yamada ed. Koubundou Publishers March 2011, 3 First Edition 15st Edition
  13. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p93-94 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  14. ^ "Next Textbook Series Political Science" p126-127 Mitsuya Yamada edited by Kobundou March 2011, 3 First edition 15st edition
  15. ^ "Comparative Political Science" p144-145 Yuko Kasuya Minerva Shobo September 2014, 9 First Edition First Edition
  16. ^ "Comparative Political Science" p149 Yuko Kasuya Minerva Shobo September 2014, 9 First edition First edition
  17. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 198rd edition" p2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  18. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p123-125 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  19. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Faction" (Kotobank)
  20. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 63rd edition" p64-2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  21. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p113-114 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  22. ^ "New Edition of Political Science" p104-105 by Shujiro Kato, Noritaka Hayashi, Masao Furuta, Masato Hiyama, Katsunori Mito Ichigesha April 2002, 4 First edition printed
  23. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Conservative Party" (Kotobank)
  24. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) and Encyclopaedia Britannica Sub-item Encyclopedia "Innovative Political Party" (Kotobank)
  25. ^ Britannica International Encyclopedia Sub-item Encyclopedia "Centrist Party" (Kotobank)
  26. ^ Digital Daijisen "Regional Political Party" (Kotobank)
  27. ^ Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica) "Religious Party" (Kotobank)
  28. ^ Digital Daijisen One Issue Political Party (Kotobank)
  29. ^ "Introduction to Political Science, 59rd edition" p60-2011 Shujiro Kato Ashi Shobo April 4, 15 3rd edition 1st printing
  30. ^ "Modern Political Science 3rd Edition" p141 Toshio Kamo, Hitoshi Onishi, Toru Ishida, Yasuhiko Ito Yuhikaku September 2007, 9 30rd Edition 3st Print
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  34. ^ "Political Party System" p194-196 Masahiro Iwasaki Nihon Keizai Hyoronsha, February 2020, 2, 25st print issued
  35. ^ a b What is a political organization? Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
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  37. ^ Election and political funding Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
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