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🏛 | Democratic Party for the People, Tamaki, proposes to stop collecting "re-energy levy" Speech in Yokohama "should reduce the burden on households"


Photo: Representative Yuichiro Tamaki of the Democratic Party for the People, who appeals for support in a street speech = In front of Shin-Yokohama Station in Kohoku Ward, Yokohama City on the morning of the 28th

Democratic Party for the People, Tamaki, proposes to stop collecting "re-energy levy" Speech in Yokohama "should reduce the burden on households"

 
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Under the feed-in tariff system for the same energy, the user bears the cost required for the purchase by the electric power company as part of the electricity bill.
 

Yuichiro Tamaki, the representative of the Democratic Party for the People, made a speech in front of JR Shin-Yokohama Station on the 28th, aiming to eliminate the increase in electricity charges due to the intense heat ... → Continue reading

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Fixed price purchase system

Fixed price purchase system(Feed-in Tariff, FIT, Feed-in Law, FiL) is a subsidy system that sets the purchase price of energy by law.

Global warmingMeasures againstエ ネ ル ギ ー 源Securing,Environmental pollutionMainly as part of dealing with再生 可能 エネルギー(Or in JapanNew energy) Is used for the purpose of expanding the spread and reducing the price.In addition to legally guaranteeing the subsidy level for a certain period of time when the equipment is introduced, it is a system that can flexibly adjust the subsidy level according to changes in production costs and the stage of technological development.When properly operated, it is said that the effect of promoting dissemination per cost will be the highest.Used in more than 50 countries around the world[1], Has become a common method as a renewable energy subsidy policy[2]..On the other hand, depending on the purchase price setting, there is a risk of excessive installation and an increase in the burden on the household.

Name

Fixed price system, feed-in tariff system, electricity purchase compensation system[3]Also called. Often abbreviated as FIT (Feed-in Tariff). "Give, put in" (introduce continuously)[4]It consists of the words Feed in, which means "tariff, tariff rate, tariff," and Tariff, which means "tariff, tariff rate, tariff."It means "a fee system that incorporates the cost burden of introducing renewable energy into the purchase price".[5].

History

The feed-in tariff system is based on the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) law introduced in the United States in 1978. The PURPA Act contributed to the launch of wind power, especially in California and elsewhere.[6]..However, in 1990, the system that had a remarkable effect at the national level as it is nowGermanyIs said to be the first to be adopted.There are other policies to promote the spread of renewable energy, such as a fixed quota system and a bidding system, and many countries have adopted methods other than the feed-in tariff system based on consistency with the existing market and cheapness.However, in the feed-in tariff system and the bidding system, contrary to the claim, the effect was inferior to the feed-in tariff system.[6][7]..On the other hand, Germany has a feed-in tariff system.再生 可能 エネルギーAt the same time, reduce production costs and double the share of total electricity demand from 2000% in 6.3 to 2007% at the end of 14.[8]The result was significantly superior to other methods.Based on this result, many academic reports and public institutions now recognize its superiority (#EvaluationSee).Hiring has skyrocketed, especially since 2005, with at least 2009 countries and 50 states and territories as of 25.[1]..Today, it is the most common method for promoting renewable energy.[2].

How it works

principle

Measures against global warming,Energy resourcesReduce reliance on depleting fuels to ensure再生 可能 エネルギーWhen introducing, price competitiveness is a major obstacle.In order to reduce this price, it is desirable to reduce production costs and distribution costs through mass dissemination and at the same time promote technological development.[6]..From past achievementsbiomass,Wind-power generation,Solar powerThe price isExperience curve(OrLearning curve), It is known that the price will be reduced with a law as the amount of penetration increases, and some argue that the rate of future price reduction can be predicted from this.[6]..Based on this claim, the feed-in tariff system is one of the methods to subsidize the spread by using the funds obtained by adding a small amount to the electricity price.The feature of the feed-in tariff system is that the selling price (tariff) of energy to each power plant is fixed for a long period of time at the time of installation, while the subsidy amount is reduced (according to the price reduction) as the power plant is installed later. is there[6]..This mechanism makes it easier to set a target for recovery of equipment installation costs and promotes investment and financing, while enabling flexible adjustment of the subsidy level for newly installed equipment.[6][9]..On the other hand, some criticisms have been pointed out that the feed-in tariff system spoils high-cost, inferior suppliers.

system

Under the feed-in tariff system, the selling price of energy (Tariff) Is determined by law[6]..Renewable energy sources are legally guaranteed tariffs for a fixed period of time (such as 20 years) (which is why they are also called feed-in tariffs).This price will be reviewed regularly according to changes in the amount of diffusion and production costs, and will gradually decrease in a planned manner, but this review will not affect the amount that has already been introduced.The gradual reduction of tariffs through regular reviews will reduce the cost of subsidies per country or region as a whole.On the other hand, the tariffs of existing power producers will not change, so the investment risk of individual operators will be kept low.Feed-in tariffs take advantage of the characteristics of distributed generation in this regard.[6].

Generally, in the feed-in tariff system, a higher tariff is set for a business operator introduced in the early stage of the spread of the target technology.As the spread of energy expands and energy production costs (equipment prices and operating costs) decrease as technology develops, the amount of subsidy will be reduced for businesses that introduced it later.The cost of this subsidy is often added to the electricity bill and collected from all electricity consumers according to the amount of electricity used, and the state does not collect money directly.[6]..In Germany, the tax withholding is 2-3 euros per standard home.[10]..To prevent the amount of tariff from becoming too large or too small, it is regularly adjusted for each target technology according to the amount of diffusion and the reduction of production costs.[3][6][9].

How to determine the tarif

There are roughly two ways to determine the tariff for each power plant in the feed-in tariff system.[9]..In some countries, such as Spain, power producers can choose from multiple options.[6][9].

Fixed Tariff

It is a method of fixing tariffs for a certain period of time, and is used in many examples of adoption.The time of introduction of the power plant determines the amount of tariff for a period of time (eg 10-20 years) thereafter.Low investment risk for power producers and minimal subsidy costs[9].

Premium Tariff

This is a method of adding a certain amount to the electricity bill. Also called Premium Option, Feed-in Premium (FiP), Solar Premium (in the case of solar power generation).In addition to having the effect of encouraging power supply during times of tight demand, it is also characterized by being able to trade in the market.On the other hand, the purchase price fluctuates depending on the electricity rate, and the purchase is not obligatory, so there is a high risk for the power generation company.For this reason, the subsidy cost tends to be higher than that of Fixed Tariff.[9].

Things to consider when deciding on tariffs

When adjusting tariffs on a regular basis, it is said that the following matters need to be considered.[9].

  • Amount of investment in equipment
  • Costs such as license procedures
  • Operation and maintenance (O & M) costs
  • Fuel price (biomassin the case of)
  • Inflation rate
  • Loan interest rate
  • Investor rate of return

In addition, the following reductions in external costs associated with the use of depleting fuel may also be considered.[9].

  • Climate change (Global warming
  • Health hazards associated with air pollution
  • Decrease in agricultural production
  • Physical damage
  • Impact on energy security

Full purchase and surplus purchase

When a power generation facility to be subsidized is added to a building that consumes electricity, it is divided into the following two methods depending on the handling of electricity consumed by the individual.Each has different characteristics[11].

Purchase all
Even if it is your own equipment, all the generated power (energy) will be purchased once, and the power for your own consumption will be covered by the grid power separately.This is a common method in Germany and other countries.
It is indispensable for subsidizing public and industrial equipment with little surplus electricity.It is also used for the facilities of electric power companies and civil power plants.On the other hand, the effect of promoting power saving is small.
Surplus purchase
Surplus electricity excluding self-consumption is subject to purchase (self-consumption has the same value as grid power).It is used in Japan and other countries.Net metering (net metering) Is also called.
When the purchase price of the surplus is higher than the retail power of the grid power, it is advantageous to reduce the self-consumption as much as possible, which has the effect of promoting power saving.On the other hand, it is not suitable for cases where the surplus power is small.

Types of Feed in Premium system[12]

1, Premium fixed type FIP

 Electricity wholesale market (in Japan,Japan Electric Power Exchange(JEPX) Is a method of giving a fixed premium price to the price determined in).

·merit

 Renewable energy supply during times of high electricity demandIncentiveWill increase.

·Demerit

 Fluctuations in wholesale electricity prices affect the profits of renewable energy companies.

・ Countries with a track record of adoption

 Spain, Czech Republic, Slovenia

2, Premium fixed type FIP (with upper and lower limits)

 As with the fixed premium type, a fixed premium price is given to the price determined in the wholesale electricity market.In addition, a method in which an upper limit and a lower limit are set for the sum of the wholesale electricity market price and the premium price.

·merit

 By setting upper and lower limits, the profits of renewable energy companies are guaranteed to some extent.

·Demerit

 It is difficult to set an appropriate upper and lower price.

・ Countries with a track record of adoption

Spain / Denmark

3, Premium variable FIP

 A method in which the minimum price for selling electricity is determined, and the premium price is determined and granted by the fluctuation of the wholesale electricity market price.

·merit

 It is possible to secure a certain level of profit regardless of the wholesale electricity market price.

·Demerit

 If the wholesale electricity market price falls, the levy will increase.

・ Countries with a track record of adoption

Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland

Features

Under the feed-in tariff system, the purchase price is guaranteed for a long period of time.In addition, the amount of tariffs is adjusted so that the speed of dissemination and the final dissemination amount reach the target, and the feed-in tariff system has a strong ability to adjust this dissemination amount.Therefore, the risk of investment (financing) is low not only for the energy supplier but also for related businesses such as equipment production and maintenance and electric power companies.This is especiallyWind-power generation,Solar powerIn the method where the initial investment accounts for the majority of the investment amount, it has the effect of lowering the production cost.Looking at individual factors, the feed-in tariff system is said to have the following characteristics ([6]P.13,[13][14][3][15][16]).

advantage:

  • Currently, it is the most successful method for relatively low-cost wind power generation.
  • Public investment can be increased with private funds, regardless of the government's annual budget.
  • Since it is possible to solicit private investment, it is superior to other systems in terms of promoting dissemination.
  • You can improve the security of your loan.
  • Promote stable investment and development of target technologies and enhance the competitiveness of the industry.
  • Promote stable growth of small and medium-sized producers.
  • Flexible system design is possible, and it is easy to combine with other dissemination promotion systems.

Disadvantage:

  • If the purchase price is higher than the market price of electricity, the electricity price will be raised.
  • Depending on the purchase price setting, the penetration rate can be too small or too large for the planned value.If it is too small, it will not spread.If it is excessive, the spread cost will increase with respect to the spread amount, and the electricity rate will be increased more than planned.
  • It may be a limiting factor for cross-border electricity exchange.

Votes

The superiority of feed-in tariffs at low purchase prices has been recognized by many academic reports and international public authorities ([6]P.17).Global warmingTo(I.e.As part of its policyIPCC Fourth Assessment Report,Stern Report,International Energy AgencyIts effectiveness is pointed out in the reports of.

  • European Commission reports on January 2008 Renewable Energy Promotion Measures[17]In the analysis, the institutional efficiency of the feed-in tariff system is clearly advantageous over other systems.In addition, as a general theory obtained from comparisons between member countries, it is pointed out that the profit given to power generation companies is relatively small compared to the effect of the system (P.35).[18].
  • International Energy Agency(IEA) was negative to renewable energy itself and feed-in tariff until 2007[19][20]..However, in a report published in June 2008, renewable energy "must be mass disseminated."[21]Regarding measures to promote dissemination, "The feed-in tariff (fixed-price purchase) system is (such as the quota system).Green power certificateBetter than the base system "[22]Overturned the opinion[18]..Regarding the characteristics required for dissemination promotion measures, the level of subsidy will be lowered over time, technologies that may develop in the future but are inferior in price competitiveness will not be excluded, and that they will have the flexibility to follow the development of technologies. And points out that the feed-in tariff system is superior in this respect as well.[22]..Furthermore, in September 2008, a review was published on the measures to promote the spread of renewable energy itself, pointing out that FIT is suitable as a subsidy method for technologies that are still inferior in cost competitiveness.[16][19]..The report analyzes that Fixed Tariff or Premium Tariff is suitable for high-cost gap technologies, and Premium Tariff is suitable for low-cost gap technologies.[16].. The 2010 report also uses the outline.[23].
  • As a criticism, there are examples of criticizing the setting of a relatively high purchase price at the beginning of the system.[24]..The IEA mentioned above also criticized for this reason.[20].

System to be used together

Feed-in tariff itself option

The feed-in tariff system is not just a matter of introducing it, and its effectiveness will vary greatly depending on various other measures besides the amount of tariff.The following systems are used in combination ([3],[6]9 chapter[9],[25]).

These are introduced by most countries and regions that adopt feed-in tariffs:

  • Mandatory system
  • Adjusting the amount of tariff according to installation conditions and technology (Stepped Tariff)
  • Regular review of tariffs
  • Correction of unfairness (uneven distribution of burden on the grid side, etc.) due to differences in the amount of introduction in each region
  • Equal burden sharing or burden sharing in energy-intensive manufacturing and railway industries

There are also the following options.

  • The rate of tariff degression is also set in advance (tariff degression) ... The effect of promoting early introduction becomes stronger.
  • Mandatory output forecast
An example of how to combine options[9]
CountryPurchase obligationStepped TariffTariff DegressionPremium OptionEqual Burden SharingOutput prediction obligation
Austriawill get will get --will get -
Czech Republicwill get will get -will get will get -
Denmarkwill get will get -will get will get -
Francewill get will get will get -will get -
Germanywill get will get will get -will get -
Greecewill get will get --will get -
Hungarywill get ---will get -
Italywill get will get will get -will get -
Spainwill get will get -will get will get will get

Combined use with other dissemination promotion systems

The feed-in tariff system can be used in combination with the following systems.[26].

Introduction status of each country

The number of regions adopting feed-in tariffs is increasing year by year, and as of the end of 2007, 46 countries / states / prefectures have adopted it.[27].European UnionThen out of 25 countries,Germany-France-Italy-SpainIntroduced by 18 countries including[9][28].

Germany

Feed-in tariffs in Germany developed after the 1990 Stromeinspeisungsgesetz (StrEG, Power Supply Act), the 2001 Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG, Renewable Energy Act) enactment, and several subsequent revisions to the EEG Act. Have done[3][6][30]..As a result, the spread of renewable energy has progressed rapidly, and for example, its share of electricity supply reached about 2014% in the fall of 3.[31]..Costs have also fallen, and the purchase price of solar and wind power has become cheaper than the retail price of regular electricity.[32]..It is also evaluated to be beneficial to the economy of the whole country.[33]..In light of the increase in levies and the maturity of renewable energy, major revisions were made in 2014 with a view to shifting to market transactions.

In Germany, electricity prices more than doubled between 2000 and 2013 due to increased costs of conventional power generation such as fossil fuel-fired power generation, increased taxes, and the addition of FIT levies (2). At that time, the FIT levy accounts for less than 2013% of household electricity bills.)[34][35]..On the other hand, the transaction price of medium- and high-voltage electricity has returned to the same level as around 2004.[36], The average daytime transaction price is also cheaper due to the spread of solar power generation[37]..In addition, companies that consume a lot of electricity can receive a levy reduction or exemption.As a result, about half of the people became dissatisfied with the levy by the end of 2012.[38](However, 7% of the people answered that the energy conversion itself would be profitable, and more than 8% supported it.[39]).Also, some companies that consume a lot of energy have an unfair advantage.European UnionAlso investigated from[40]..On the other hand, as the cost decreased, the purchase price of solar power generation and wind power generation became cheaper than the retail price of electricity, and it was being excluded from FIT depending on the scale.[41][42]..The share of electricity supply from renewable energy has also reached about 3%.[43]..Major changes to the system were made in 2014 for multiple purposes, such as reducing the burden and sharing more equitably, responding to pressure from other countries, and integrating renewable energy into the market as it matures. It was conducted[44]..The plan is to gradually shift to market transactions while incorporating competitive bidding similar to that of California, USA.[45].

On June 2016, 6, the German government decided to abolish the feed-in tariff system in principle from 8.[46]..As a result of the rapid increase in power generation facilities, the cost of purchasing electricity was added to the electricity price and the price soared, and a large amount of electricity was left over depending on the weather, which were the main factors for the abolition. .. From 2017, it will be purchased at a price closer to the market price instead of a fixed price.The facility, which is already operating power generation, will continue to be purchased at a fixed price for the rest of the period.

Spain

スペインは1980年のエネルギー保存法(82/1980)、および1994年の新電気法にて固定価格買い取り制度の基礎的な要素を導入した後、1997年の新電気事業法(54/1997)、および1998年の勅令(Royal Decree)2818/1998で風力発電などの開発を本格化させた[6][47]..After that, further improvements were made in the Edict 435/2004, etc.[6]..Institutionally, the design is different from the German system, such as being able to choose any of the multiple subsidy forms (Fixed, Premium, free contract) (Fixed, Premium, free contract).[6]P.54,[48]).Wind power in Spain is 2007G as of 15WpBeyond[49], Accounts for 9.5% of the country's electricity supply[50]..The development of the wind power industryGamesa EoricaCompany andIberdrolaCompany,Acciona EnerhiaBirth of an international wind power company such as a company[47].

Since the use of solar heat and solar power generation in Spain did not spread as planned, the subsidy was significantly increased by the decree 2007/6 in June 661, and new construction and renovation were carried out after September 2007, 2006. Measures were taken such as obliging the installation of solar water heating equipment or solar power generation equipment for some buildings to be carried out and commercial facilities with a certain area or more.[51]..Equipment production companies were born in Japan and occupied the 1st and 2nd place in the market, and there was a movement to expand overseas.[52]..In September 2008, we also invited the world's largest solar power exhibition and academic society (EU-PVSEC).[53]..However, the level of subsidy for solar power generation in 2008 became excessive, and the annual introduction amount is the upper limit (400 MWp).[54]The subsidy level was lowered because it reached about 3 GWp far beyond[55].

Spanish government suspended renewable energy purchases in 2012 to curb huge debt[56][57].. Although the purchase was resumed in 2014, not only was the purchase price significantly reduced, but strict conditions such as shortening the purchase period and restrictions on the introduction of renewable energy power sources were added, so new power sources by renewable energy were gradually installed. On the decline[58].

Introduction status in Japan

Abstract
On November 2009, 11, the purchase of surplus electricity for solar power generation started (purchase unit price set for each electric power company)[59]
On July 2012, 7, the target was expanded to renewable energies other than solar power generation, and the system was changed from a surplus electricity purchase system to a total purchase system (nationwide uniform collection unit price).[59]

in Japan再生 可能 エネルギーAs a measure to promote the spread ofPower companyVoluntary purchase byRPS methodAnd subsidies from each local government have been used.This willSolar powerAlthough it had the largest production volume and market in the world, after the subsidy was cut off in 2005, all of them were overtaken by other countries and the domestic market was shrinking.[60]..Therefore, in January 2009, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry reinstated the subsidy in line with the urgent proposal.Also in February 1Ministry of the EnvironmentAlso announced a trial calculation of the cost and economic effect of introducing renewable energy[61][62]Proposed the adoption of a feed-in tariff system as a dissemination policy[63][64](Renewable energy #Movement in JapanSee also).

Of these, for solar power generation, on February 2009, 2, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced the strengthening of the subsidy system to shorten the recovery period of initial investment to about 24 years.[65][66][67][68].. Initially scheduled to be implemented from 2010, it has been moved forward from the perspectives of economic crisis countermeasures, energy policy, and global warming countermeasures.[69], "Surplus electricity purchase system for photovoltaic power generation" based on Article 2 of the Act on Promotion of Utilization of Non-fossil Energy Sources and Effective Utilization of Fossil Energy Raw Materials by Energy Supply Providers (Energy Supply Structure Advancement Act) 3 Started from November 2009, 11[70]..The purchase price of surplus electricity at the start is per 1kWh48 yen,Ene farm,Eco WillIf you have another private power generator such as39 yenIt was decided to buy at the same price for 10 years after installation.[69]..In addition, the purchase price of equipment newly installed later was planned to be reduced year by year, for example, if it was installed in FY11, it would be about 42 yen.[69]..Partly due to the effect of subsidies, Japan's solar cell production has resumed expansion[60], The scale of related industries is expected to grow to nearly 2010 trillion yen in 1[71].

From the end of 2009, it was considered to introduce full purchase and expand the target to other than solar power generation, and the status of the study has been published on the project team page of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.[72]..It was expected that such expansion would promote the spread of renewable energy.[73]..There were various opinions about the specific form of the system.For example, there was an opinion that the conventional RPS system and surplus electricity purchase system should be abolished and integrated into a total purchase system.[74]..On the other hand, purchasing surplus electricity also has advantages such as raising awareness of power saving, and if this is abolished, wiring work will be required at the existing house.[75]Therefore, there were some opinions suggesting the combined use.[76][77]..The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan submitted an opinion requesting consideration for system stabilization.[77]..In addition, industries that use a large amount of electricity have requested consideration of the burden on the people and industrial competitiveness.[78].

After going through such hearings, the bill (Renewable Energy Special Measures LawDraft, Renewable Energy Purchase Bill) submitted to the Diet on April 2011, 4[79]After discussions and amendments by each party, it was approved on August 8 and 23 of the same year with unanimous approval in both Houses of Representatives.[80][81]..At the examination stage, expectations for regional economic promotion and industrial revitalization were gathered, but there were also voices of dissatisfaction with the increase in electricity prices and concerns about the possibility of refusal of acceptance by electric power companies.[82][83][84].. On the other hand, with a view to introducing the system, commercialization of renewable energy sources that had been omitted from the target until now[85][86]And new market entry[87], Expansion of related investment[88][89]And so on.Purchase price / period (Renewable Energy Special Measures LawIn Article 3, the names in the article are "procurement price" and "procurement period", respectively, and the combined name of both is "procurement price, etc.") It was supposed to be decided at the meeting [90], Initially, regarding the personnel case presented by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAgree in parliamentWas not obtained, and the meeting of the committee was delayed.[91]..This is because the ruling and opposition parties have questioned that three out of five members are cautious about introducing the system.[91]..the government,Nippon Steel OfTakao ShindoOn behalf of the vice president (later promoted to president, the steel industry is a power-intensive industry)Kazuhiro UetaAppointed a professor at Kyoto University Graduate School as chairman and obtained the consent of the Diet[91]..At the hearing of the Procurement Price Calculation Committee, an expert said, "Late 30 yen levelIs appropriate, "but entered the solar business.SoftbankPresident'sMasayoshi Son"At least40 yen without taxInsistedIndustry group OfJapan Photovoltaic Energy AssociationAlso"42 yen without taxWas insisting[92]..The Procurement Price Committee compiled a written opinion in April 2012, and based on this, in June 4, solar power of 2012 kW or more40 yen excluding taxDetails of the purchase system have been decided[93][94]..The purchase level at the beginning of the system is set high with the aim of encouraging new entrants.[95], Companies and local governments are also moving[96][97][98]..On the other hand, Yoshihisa Murasawa responded to the higher purchase price.35 yenEven though it ’s definitely profitable40 yenHe pointed out that it would create a bubble like Spain.[99]..Public comments made prior to the decision received more than 5000 opinions, with pros and cons.[100]..It has been decided that the purchase price will be reviewed regularly based on the forecast of the spread amount.[101].. The Renewable Energy Special Measures Law came into effect on July 2012, 7.[102].

At the end of 2017, the certified capacity of photovoltaic power generation, which is subject to the feed-in tariff system, reached 1012 million kW for household use and 3377 million kW for industrial use.The total system is 5029 million kW, and sunlight accounts for more than 8%.[103]..Renewable energy, excluding large-scale hydropower, will cover about 2016% of Japan's total electricity generation in FY7.7.[104].

Discussions and initiatives in Japan

  • Regarding solar power generation in Japan, it has been pointed out that it tends to be difficult to install solar power generation in existing properties in terms of the need for permission from management associations and costs.[105][106]..Still, installation examples can be seen[105]In recent years, there are cases where house makers and solar cell makers handle it.[107]..In addition, it is expected that the introduction will be easier with the full purchase from 2012.[89].
  • Regarding subsidies for solar power generation in Japan, the amount of sunshine is relatively small in areas with snow, such as the Sea of ​​Japan side of Hokkaido, the Tohoku region, and the Shinetsu region, which is disadvantageous in terms of power generation.[108]..Therefore, the Sea of ​​Japan side of Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Shinetsu pointed out that the characteristics of the region were not taken into consideration and that it was unfair.[Source required]..On the other hand, there are many suitable sites for wind power generation in these areas.[109]..With the introduction of full purchase, movements regarding renewable energy sources other than solar power generation are becoming active.[85][87].
  • Until 2011, the target of the subsidy in Japan was mainly solar power generation installed in self-owned detached houses, but funds for large power generation facilities in other places.[110]And citizens' joint power plant[111][112]A business model of joint investment in the form of[110][113]..With the decision to introduce full purchase, new examples of consideration of civil power plants can be seen.[114][115]In addition, there is a movement to introduce a form called "roof rental" that rents out roofs and idle land as installation locations.[116].
  • Agency for Natural Resources and EnergyHas set up a public commentary site to publicize and comment on the status of the study.[102].

Changes in purchase price and purchase period

Below is a list of purchase (procurement) prices and purchase periods after the enforcement of the Renewable Energy Special Measures Law for each fiscal year (April 4 of that year to March 1 of the following year). ..

* Explanation of table items and display

  • Displayed by purchase price / purchase period
  • The purchase price does not include tax.However, since only solar power generation of less than 10kW is determined as a tax-included price, the price will not change even if the consumption tax rate fluctuates.
  • Private power generation equipment, etc. means that the electricity supplied by the power generation equipment, etc. affects the amount of renewable energy electricity supplied.
  • Specified hydropower is to newly install or renew all of water turbines, generators, transformers, barriers and other electrical equipment, and all or part of penstock pipelines.
  • The contents of (1)-(5) in the item of biomass are as follows.
    • (1) Equipment that converts methane obtained by fermenting biomass into electricity
    • (2) Equipment for converting unused woody biomass (excluding imported ones) generated by logging or thinned wood in the forest into electricity (excluding equipment in (1) and general waste power generation equipment)
    • (3) Equipment for converting woody biomass or biomass generated from the harvest of agricultural products (limited to those derived from the agricultural products) into electricity (equipment of (1), (2) and (4), and general waste power generation equipment except for)
    • (4) Equipment for converting construction material waste into electricity (excluding equipment in (1) and general waste power generation equipment)
    • (5) General waste power generation equipment or general waste power generation equipment and biomass power generation equipment other than the equipment of (1) to (4)
  • In 2012, the purchase price and purchase period for the period from July 2012, 7 to March 1, 2013, when the Act on Special Measures for Renewable Energy was enforced, will be posted.
  • After FY2017, solar power of 2000kW or more has shifted to the bidding system, and since FY2019, 250kW or more has been designated as a bidding system application category, and it has been expanded to 2019kW in FY500 and 2020kW or more in FY250.
  • Since 2018, all "biomass liquid fuel generated by harvesting agricultural products" and power generation using biomass (3) of 10,000 kW or more, which are independent of biomass (3), have shifted to a bidding system.
Sun light[117][118]
年度Sun light
Less than 10kW10kW or more
Stand alonePrivate power generation equipment, etc.Less than 2,000kW2,000kW or more
No output control obligationOutput control is obligatoryNo output control obligationOutput control is obligatory
201242.00 yen
/10
-
34.00 yen
/10
-
40 yen + tax
/20
40 yen + tax
/20
201338.00 yen
/10
-
31.00 yen
/10
-
36 yen + tax
/20
36 yen + tax
/20
201437.00 yen
/10
-
30.00 yen
/10
-
32 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
201533.00 yen / 10 years35.00 yen / 10 years27.00 yen / 10 years29.00 yen / 10 years29 yen + tax / 20 years (until June)
27 yen + tax / 20 years (after July)
29 yen + tax / 20 years (until June)
27 yen + tax / 20 years (after July)
201631.00 yen / 10 years33.00 yen / 10 years25.00 yen / 10 years27.00 yen / 10 years24 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
201728.00 yen / 10 years30.00 yen / 10 years25.00 yen / 10 years27.00 yen / 10 years21 yen + tax
/20
Determined by bidding system
201826.00 yen / 10 years28.00 yen / 10 years25.00 yen / 10 years27.00 yen / 10 yearsXNUM X yen + tax
/20
Determined by bidding system
年度No output control obligationOutput control is obligatoryLess than 500kW500kW or more
201924.00 yen / 10 years26.00 yen / 10 yearsXNUM X yen + tax
/20
Determined by bidding system
Wind power
年度Wind power
Less than 20kWOnshore wind[119]Offshore wind[119]
Newly establishedreplace
2012 to 2015 years55 yen + tax
/20
22 yen + tax
/20
-
-
201655 yen + tax
/20
22 yen + tax
/20
-
36 yen + tax
/20
201755 yen + tax
/20
22 yen + tax / 20 years (until the end of September)
21 yen + tax / 20 years (after October)
18 yen + tax
/20
36 yen + tax
/20
2018After that, the classification is abolished20 yen + tax
/20
17 yen + tax
/20
36 yen + tax
/20
201919 yen + tax
/20
16 yen + tax
/20
36 yen + tax
/20
Geothermal
年度Geothermal
Newly establishedAll equipment renewal type replacementUnderground equipment diversion type replacement
Less than 15,000kW15,000kW or moreLess than 15,000kW15,000kW or moreLess than 15,000kW15,000kW or more
2012 to 2016 years40 yen + tax
/15
26 yen + tax
/15
-
-
-
-
From 2017
Until 2019
40 yen + tax
/15
26 yen + tax
/15
30 yen + tax
/15
20 yen + tax
/15
19 yen + tax
/15
12 yen + tax
/15
Hydraulic power
年度Hydraulic power
Less than 200kW200kW or more
Less than 1000kW
1000kW or more
Less than 3 kW
Other than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic powerOther than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic powerOther than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic power
2012 to 2013 years34 yen + tax
/20
-
29 yen + tax
/20
-
24 yen + tax / 20 years
-
2014 to 2016 years34 yen + tax
/20
25 yen + tax
/20
29 yen + tax
/20
21 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax / 20 years14 yen + tax / 20 years
年度Less than 200kW200kW or more
Less than 1000kW
1000kW or more
Less than 5000kW
5000kW or more
Less than 3 kW
Other than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic powerOther than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic powerOther than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic powerOther than specific hydropowerSpecific hydraulic power
2017 (until the end of September)34 yen + tax
/20
25 yen + tax
/20
29 yen + tax
/20
21 yen + tax
/20
27 yen + tax
/20
15 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
14 yen + tax
/20
From 2017 (after October)
Until 2019
34 yen + tax
/20
25 yen + tax
/20
29 yen + tax
/20
21 yen + tax
/20
27 yen + tax
/20
15 yen + tax
/20
20 yen + tax
/20
14 yen + tax
/20
biomass
年度biomass
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Less than 2000kW2000kW or moreLess than 20000kW20000kW or more
From 2012
Until 2014
39 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
13 yen + tax
/20
17 yen + tax
/20
From 2015
Until the end of December 2017
39 yen + tax
/20
40 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
13 yen + tax
/20
17 yen + tax
/20
2017 (after October)39 yen + tax
/20
40 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
21 yen + tax
/20
13 yen + tax
/20
17 yen + tax
/20
Less than 10000kW10000kW or more
2018 to 2019 years39 yen + tax
/20
40 yen + tax
/20
32 yen + tax
/20
24 yen + tax
/20
Determined by bidding system13 yen + tax
/20
17 yen + tax
/20

Qualification system for maintenance and inspection of photovoltaic power generation

Japan Photovoltaic Energy Association (JPEA)Established "PV Construction Engineer System" in November 2012[120]..Under this system, JPEA certifies the level of acquisition of basic knowledge and skills of contractors required when installing a photovoltaic power generation system in a general house.

With the 2016th certification test conducted on October 10, 16, the "PV construction engineer system" was finalized, and two new "PV master construction engineers" and "PV master maintenance and inspection engineers" A new system was established.Of these, "PV master maintenance and inspection technicians" are the knowledge necessary for maintenance and inspection of photovoltaic power generation equipment, which is required by the "Photovoltaic power generation system maintenance and inspection guidelines" established on December 6, 2016. JPEA certifies the acquisition of technology[121].

Movement of system review in Japan

Sun light

At the start of the purchase system under the Renewable Energy Special Measures Law mentioned above, the price was an exceptional price of 1 yen per 40kWh excluding tax.Since then, the purchase price has continued to be reviewed, and as of 2020, the new purchase price has been lowered to the low 10 yen range, including the price determined by bidding, but since it is a fixed price for 20 years, the companies that initially entered the market have huge long-term profits. It was decided to get.There was concern that the spread of solar power generation would lead to a sharp rise in electricity prices.[122]Actually, before the price was raised in earnest, electric power companies refused to buy renewable energy, and the system itself was reviewed.[123].

Progress / transition

August 2013, 4,Hokkaido Electric PowerAnnounced that it can accept only a quarter of the solar power plant plans with an output of 2000 kW or more for which power sales were requested.[124]..On December 12, the same year, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced that it was approaching the connection limit of the connection capacity of photovoltaic power generation on the main island of Okinawa.[125].. During 2013, with Hokkaido Electric Power CompanyOkinawa Electric PowerHas decided to suspend or limit the acceptance of new solar power generation over a certain scale[126][127]..After April 2014, 4, Okinawa Electric Power will suspend the response to new purchase acceptance of general households and will not connect as a measure to further approach the limit of the connection amount.[128][129].. May 7, same year,Kyushu Electric PowerAnnounced that it will stop accepting purchases on remote islands for about a year[130]..It is said that the number of applications on remote islands that are not connected to the mainland of Kyushu by power transmission lines has increased, increasing the possibility that the power supply on the island will become unstable.

On September 2014, 9, Kyushu Electric Power suspended new contracts based on the feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy not only on remote islands but also throughout the jurisdiction from the following 24th, and responded to the amount already accepted. Announced that it will be put on hold for the time being[131].. September 9, Hokkaido Electric Power CompanyTohoku Electric Power-Shikoku Electric Power・ Okinawa Electric Power's four major electric power companies also announced that they will stop accepting new purchases from October 4st throughout the jurisdiction.[132]..With the exception of Okinawa Electric Power, purchases from ordinary households will continue as before.

On October 10, Kyushu Electric Power held a briefing session for businesses in Kagoshima Prefecture regarding the suspension of new renewable energy contracts.[133][134]..At the venue, businesses rushed to Kyushu Electric Power executives and angry, saying, "Show me the time" and "What if I go bankrupt?", And the venue was noisy.

On October 10, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry issued a request to the five companies, Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Tohoku Electric Power Company, Shikoku Electric Power Company, Kyushu Electric Power Company, and Okinawa Electric Power Company, for more detailed explanations.[135].. On the 11th, it began to consider suspending the new certification of large-scale solar power generation.[136].. On the 15th, the ministry's "Comprehensive Resources and Energy Study Group Energy Conservation and New Energy Subcommittee New Energy Subcommittee" (hereinafter referred to as "subcommittee") began to materialize the feed-in tariff review.[137][138]..The subcommittee proposed the introduction of the bidding system adopted by Spain and Germany as one of the measures to curb the burden on the people.The first meeting of the "grid working group" established under the subcommittee was held on the 16th to consider measures to expand the capacity to accept power grids.[138][139][140].

Meanwhile, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry reported on October 10th that it would freeze the entry of large-scale solar power generation.[136][141]As a result, the stock prices of solar power-related companies plummeted in the stock market on the 14th of the week.[142].

On October 10, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. announced that it will resume the purchase procedure for some small-lot projects with an output of less than 21 kW, which is called low voltage.[143]..Solar panels attached to the roofs of single-family homes are generally targeted.Projects submitted in writing by September 9, when Kyushu Electric Power announced a total suspension, will be accepted.As of the 24st, of the four electric power companies that have stopped accepting new power companies except Kyushu Electric Power, Tohoku Electric Power has stopped accepting 21kW or more, Hokkaido Electric Power and Shikoku Electric Power have 4kW or more, and Okinawa Electric Power has stopped accepting all projects.

In October 2014, the subcommittee will reduce the purchase price of electricity generated by solar power every six months.[144]It was reported that it is expected to propose to the government to change the time when the purchase price of electricity and electricity is decided from the current "at the time of national business approval" to "at the time of business start".[145]However, these have not been implemented until now.On the other hand, by changing the standard for determining the price from "the average cost of the entire power generation company" to "the cost of the cheapest company", the top runner system to lower the purchase price and the purchase price determination time are postponed. , A system that makes the purchase price as cheap as possible[146]Was introduced later.In addition, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has decided to prioritize the purchase of geothermal power generation and small and medium-sized hydropower generation.[147].

On November 11, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry instructed the subcommittee to consider measures for renewable energy companies that do not start power generation after receiving government approval.[148]..If the start of power generation is not expected or power companies refused to purchase is, the business who are with a prospect of the start of power generation by or a mechanism to accept preferentially, direction to expand the new entrants of the opportunity of regeneration energy businesses It is said that.Since the purchase price is the price at the time of applying for purchase to the electric power company after being approved by the government, there are cases where the start of power generation is postponed in anticipation of a drop in the price of solar panels and profits are to be obtained. Is a problem. From 2014, a rule was introduced for solar power generation equipment of 50kW or more, if the location and equipment are not secured within 180 days after certification, the certification will expire.[149]..In addition, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry says that if the power generation business is not started within a certain period of time, the electric power company will be able to stop the purchase or shorten the purchase period.In addition, if equipment is added after the start of operation, it will be considered to apply the purchase price at the time of expansion.

The revised FIT Law came into effect on April 2017, 4, and the feed-in tariff system has changed significantly. In principle, the certification will expire if the connection contract with the electric power company has not been concluded even if the feed-in tariff has been certified by March 1, 2017.[150]..In addition, for solar power of less than 10 kW, the certification expires if the operation start deadline of 1 year is exceeded, and for solar power of 10 kW or more, the procurement period is shortened if the operation start deadline of 3 years is exceeded.In addition, the point that the price is decided at the time of obtaining the certification is not changed, but the consent of the electric power company for the connection became the condition of the certification.[151].

Under the revised FIT Law, if a person has obtained certification under the old system before the revision, it will be deemed to have obtained certification under the new system from April 2017, 4.[152]..This is called "deemed certification".The business plan for deemed certification must also be submitted by September 2017, 9.The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has extended the deadline for photovoltaic power generation systems of less than 30 kW, which are mainly for ordinary households, within 10 months from the enforcement of the revised FIT, that is, until the end of December 9, as it is not well known.[153][154]..Due to the transition to the revised FIT Law, the number of FIT certified projects expired at 1610 million kW and 27.[155].

On August 2017, 8, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy revised the law enforcement regulations and notifications regarding the feed-in tariff (FIT).[156]..In fact, the expansion of solar panels will be restricted, and the procedure for changing the "total output of solar cells" has changed from "notification of change" to "application for change certification", and the total output of solar panels has been increased by 3% or more. Or, if you increase it by 3kW or more, or decrease it by 20% or more, the unit price of electricity sold will be changed.Since the change in the unit price of electricity is not limited to the expansion, but extends to the entire power generation facility, it has become virtually impossible to expand a power plant with a high FIT price.In addition, even if the increase is less than 3% and less than 3kW, it is necessary to apply for change certification.

On October 2018, 10, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. may implement "output control" in the Kyushu region on the 11th and 13th, asking power generation companies for renewable energy such as solar power generation and wind power generation to temporarily stop power generation. Announced that there is[157], Started wide area output control for 13 kW on the 43th[158][159]..Although there have been examples of temporary suspension of solar power generation on remote islands, this will be the first full-scale implementation in the entire province in Japan.However, businesses with less than 10kW, such as household solar power, are not subject to output control.

Problems that became apparent after the transition to the purchase system for all solar power generation

Among the feed-in tariffs, especially for the solar power generation business, the collection unit price (purchase price) was set high, so many businesses entered the market and various problems were exposed.

  • Power generation capacity from renewable energy that exceeds the transmission capacity
Electric power companies are developing power grids with the required capacity in anticipation of maximum power demand.If the capacity is exceeded, there is a risk of causing a large-scale power outage.In addition, renewable energy is easily affected by the weather and the amount of power generation is not stable, so if the capacity is expanded, there is a risk that stable supply will be hindered.However, as many companies that applied high purchase prices entered solar power generation, the power generation capacity reached more than the capacity that can be transmitted in 2014, leading to measures to suspend the purchase acceptance of electric power of each electric power company.[123], The above-mentioned measures have been taken.
  • Businesses that do not start a business to resell the purchase quota after securing a high purchase quota
Many businesses do not implement their power generation plans, such as reselling them to other businesses, even if they are certified as businesses.[160].
  • The problem that the rich become richer and the poor become poorer
The current system has the problem that only those who have land and can install solar panels make a profit, and the common people who cannot buy solar panels become poorer because they are added to the electricity bill instead of making a profit. In FY2018, the purchase cost of renewable energy will be 3 trillion yen, and the electricity bill (levy) will be 694 yen per 1kWh.It is a burden of 2.90 yen per year for standard households[161].
  • Large-scale damage to solar panels during deforestation and disasters associated with the development of mega solar
In Yamanashi Prefecture, there were voices concerned about the impact of deforestation on the landscape and disaster prevention, and the prefecture decided to consider the "Yamanashi Energy Local Production for Local Consumption Promotion Strategy" including a review.[162]..In addition, in Ibaraki and Miyazaki prefectures, there are cases where heavy rains have flooded rivers and the installed solar panels have been severely damaged.[163].
  • Macroeconomic concerns
It has become clear that the extra spending from electricity consumers on unprofitable businesses will be a heavy burden on the people.The entry of foreign capital into such businesses means the outflow of national wealth to foreign countries.In fact, in Japan, foreign capital such as ChinaMega solarConstruction has begun in large numbers[164][165]German photobolt with a plan of about 191.3 million kW[166]In some cases, one company accounts for a few percent of the total certified output.WTODiscrimination between domestic and foreign companies is not allowed.[167].

Small wind power

Japan's FIT system stipulates a high purchase price of 20 yen per 1kwh for wind power generation of less than 55kW, but the cost remains high.Capacity factorWas lower than expected.For this reason, as a general use, it is considered difficult to become independent from the FIT system, and from FY2018 it was classified as 20 kW or more and was virtually abolished.[168].

Related item

Source

[How to use footnotes]
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  100. ^ Regarding the results of the solicitation of opinions on the main issues for the enforcement of the Act on Special Measures Concerning the Procurement of Renewable Energy Electricity by Electricity Companies (Attachment) Regarding the summary of the results of the solicitation of opinions and the answers, June 2012, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  101. ^ Q.How is the unit price of the renewable energy levy determined? , Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  102. ^ a b Natoku!Renewable Energy, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
  103. ^ Feed-in tariff website for information disclosureUpdated on October 30, 10
  104. ^ About the current state of renewable energy and the procurement price calculation committee for this yearSeptember 29 Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
  105. ^ a b Current status and issues of installation of photovoltaic power generation system in apartment houses, March 21, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
  106. ^ Reasons why solar power generation is not widespread in condominiums-Discussion of feed-in tariff and complete liberalization of electricity! (Above), Japan Real Estate Journalists Conference
  107. ^ September 2010 by google search
  108. ^ Power generation in the real environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
  109. ^ 21 Renewable Energy Introduction Potential Survey Report, March 22, Ministry of the Environment
  110. ^ a b Example of a fund dealing with renewable energy (Ohisama fund)
  111. ^ Recruitment of Citizens' Joint Power Plant Investors! , Hikone City, Aisyo Town, NPO Sandenkai(Citizen's joint power plant, example of Hikone city)
  112. ^ German Environmental Observations 7th | Seven-Eleven Memorial Foundation
  113. ^ Turn around, windmills Wind farm, operating at the wish of the citizens Wajima, asahi.com, September 2010, 9[Broken link]
  114. ^ Residents' investment, jointly solar power plant Higashiomi model, expansion plan, asahi.com(Citizen's joint power plant, example of Shiga prefecture)
  115. ^ Kobe Shimbun, a model for resident-funded power generation / promotion of natural energy Archived August 2012, 5, at the Wayback Machine(Citizen's joint power plant, Hyogo prefecture's study example)
  116. ^ Introducing "roof rental" for prefectural facilities to popularize solar power generation Kanagawa, MSN Sankei News, 2012.6.7
  117. ^ "Natoku!Renewable energy”. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2018/9/14Browse.
  118. ^ "Natoku!Renewable energy”. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. 2020/4/22Browse.
  119. ^ a b 2017kW or more until 20
  120. ^ Revised FIT Law, new qualification for maintenance and inspection of photovoltaic power generation, certified by JPEA General Incorporated Association Energy Information Center
  121. ^ JPEA qualification "PV construction engineer" to new system Japan Business Publishing for two types of construction and maintenance inspection
  122. ^ “Purchase at a fixed price, and if it becomes more widespread, the electricity price will increase significantly.. Sankei Shimbun(July 2012, 6). http://sankei.jp.msn.com/life/news/120630/trd12063021300014-n1.htm 2012/10/1Browse. 
  123. ^ a b "Collapse of solar power generation bubble? Re-energy purchase system to review Is it affected by successive interruptions of purchases by electric power companies?". New Sphere(July 2014, 10). http://newsphere.jp/politics/20141003-2/ 2014/10/4Browse. 
  124. ^ “Large-scale solar power generation, HEPCO's capacity is only one-quarter”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2013, 4). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNZO54093670X10C13A4L41000/ 2014/10/4Browse. 
  125. ^ Announcement of support for solar power generation connection on the main island of Okinawa, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, December 25, 12
  126. ^ Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announces that the limit of the connection capacity of solar power generation on the main island of Okinawa is 57 MWp.Also showed countermeasures such as electricity storage
  127. ^ “Renewable energy: Kyushu Electric Power purchase suspended, rapid increase due to fixed price system”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 9). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20140925k0000m020072000c.html 2014/10/4Browse. 
  128. ^ “Okinawa Electric Power, solar power generation connection pending fear of supply instability”. Okinawa Times(July 2014, 7). https://www.okinawatimes.co.jp/articles/-/42266 2014/10/4Browse. 
  129. ^ “Holding solar power purchase Okinawa Electric Power should be accountable”. Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2014, 7). http://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/storyid-229115-storytopic-11.html 2014/10/4Browse. 
  130. ^ "Kyuden accepts purchase of renewable energy from remote islands and suspends for one year". Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2014, 7). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNZO74763330V20C14A7LX0000/ 2014/10/4Browse. 
  131. ^ “Purchase pending 3485 cases in the prefecture Suspended contract from Kyuden 25th”. Saga newspaper(July 2014, 9). http://www.saga-s.co.jp/news/saga/10101/107783/ 2014/10/4Browse. 
  132. ^ “Renewable energy power: Stop accepting, expand to 5 companies to review Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 9). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20141001k0000m020080000c.html 2014/10/4Browse. 
  133. ^ "Raging venue turmoil, renewable energy briefing session". Yahoo! JAPAN(July 2014, 10). http://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20141003-00010000-qbiz-bus_all 2014/11/1Browse. 
  134. ^ "Review of purchase of renewable energy" Nowadays "Business operator puzzled briefing session, angry at Kyushu Electric Power executives". Sankei Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.sankei.com/politics/news/141016/plt1410160017-n1.html 2014/11/1Browse. 
  135. ^ "Problem of suspension of acceptance of renewable energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry considers countermeasures at WG". Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASGBB4Q9VGBBULFA01L.html 2014/10/14Browse. 
  136. ^ a b “Large-scale solar power: Freezing entry, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry study, limiting power consumption”. Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 10). http://mainichi.jp/feature/news/20141011k0000e020222000c.html 2014/12/19Browse. 
  137. ^ “Examination of bidding system for renewable energy Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, flexible purchase price”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXLASDF15H05_V11C14A0MM0000/ 2014/10/21Browse. 
  138. ^ a b New Energy Subcommittee System Working Group (1st), Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  139. ^ “Review of renewable energy purchase / price reduction / reduction of burden on the people / Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, conclusion within 2014”. Nikkan Kensetsu Tsushin Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.kensetsunews.com/?p=39103 2014/10/21Browse. 
  140. ^ "System Working Group" will be held, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
  141. ^ “Freezing the entry of solar power generation, not allowing the expansion of large-scale facilities, and considering a significant reduction in the purchase price”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.nikkei.com/article/DGKDASDF10H1K_Q4A011C1MM8000/ 2014/11/1Browse. 
  142. ^ "Sanix plummeted, disgusted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's report on the freeze on entry into solar power generation". Yahoo! JAPAN(July 2014, 10). http://news.finance.yahoo.co.jp/detail/20141014-00935012-fisf-stocks 2014/12/19Browse. 
  143. ^ "Kyushu Electric Power: Recycled energy, partial purchase procedure resumed". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 10). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20141022k0000m020062000c.html 2014/11/1Browse. 
  144. ^ "Sunlight, price cuts every six months ... Proposal by a meeting of experts". Yoritsu Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/economy/20141029-OYT1T50024.html 2014/11/1Browse. 
  145. ^ “Renewable energy purchase system will be reviewed at the beginning of the year”. Yoritsu Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20141001-OYT1T50000.html 2014/10/4Browse. 
  146. ^ "Purchase renewable energy, prioritize geothermal energy ... Review the emphasis on solar power". Yoritsu Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/economy/20141011-OYT1T50132.html?from=hochi 2014/10/15Browse. 
  147. ^ “Preferential treatment for geothermal power and small and medium-sized hydropower Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has a policy of purchasing system”. Asahi Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASGBY6WSKGBYULFA02W.html 2014/11/1Browse. 
  148. ^ "Recycled energy: Examination of purchase veto right ... Promote power generation in a certain period". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 11). http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20141106k0000m020113000c.html 2014/11/7Browse. 
  149. ^ [4]
  150. ^ "The feed-in tariff system will change from April 29, 4.”(May 2016, 5). 2017/5/12Browse.
  151. ^ About system revision by revised FIT lawMarch 29 Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
  152. ^ "Amendment FIT Law that can be understood in 9 minutes | Procedures and obligations to avoid revocation of solar certification [Updated from time to time]”. Solar Support Center (March 2017, 3). 2017/10/15Browse.
  153. ^ "Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Residential Solar Deemed Certification Deadline Extended to End of December”. ASKLAST CO., LTD (July 2017, 7). 2017/10/15Browse.
  154. ^ “Solar power generation, widespread turmoil, transition to new purchase system September 2017, 09”. Kumamoto Nichi-Nichi Shimbun(July 2017, 9). http://kumanichi.com/news/local/main/20170925002.xhtml 2017/10/15Browse. 
  155. ^ XNUMX million kW / XNUMX of FIT certified projects have expired due to the transition to the new systemDenki Shimbun February 2018, 2
  156. ^ "Following the "August 8st FIT revision", what are the ways to further improve solar power?". Nikkei BP (September 2017, 9). 2017/10/15Browse.
  157. ^ "Kyuden to suspend solar power generation to prevent large-scale power outages". Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 10). https://www.sankei.com/economy/news/181011/ecn1810110040-n1.html 2018/10/12Browse. 
  158. ^ "Kyuden suspends solar power generation for the first time to avoid power outages" (Japanese). Nikkei newspaper electronic version(July 2018, 10). https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO36461050T11C18A0MM0000/ 2018/10/13Browse. 
  159. ^ "Kyushu Electric Power Today Solar Power Control XNUMX Prefectures XNUMX kW Power Generation Stopped" (Japanese). Mainichi Newspapers(July 2018, 10). https://mainichi.jp/articles/20181013/ddm/008/020/025000c 2018/10/13Browse. 
  160. ^ “Exclude vendors who neglect to purchase renewable energy power generation” Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry proposal. Tokyo Newspaper(July 2014, 11). http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/feature/scheduledstop/list/CK2014110502100013.html 2014/12/19Browse. 
  161. ^ "Renewable energy contribution, 9048 yen per year". Qnew news(July 2018, 3). https://qnew-news.net/news/2018-3/2018032407.html 2018/7/10Browse. 
  162. ^ "Yamanashi Prefecture's 100% renewable energy local production for local consumption strategy, may be reviewed depending on FIT trends". Environmental Business Online(July 2014, 10). http://www.kankyo-business.jp/news/008979.php 2014/12/19Browse. 
  163. ^ "River flooding, flooding in Miyazaki Prefecture Heavy rain in Miyazaki Prefecture". Miyazaki Daily News(July 2014, 6). http://www.the-miyanichi.co.jp/kennai/_6140.html 2014/12/19Browse. 
  164. ^ "Background of foreign mega solar such as Shanghai Electric Power entering Japan one after another ... High purchase price Delicious business, local troubles due to concerns about landscape and destruction of nature". Sankei Shimbun(July 2014, 10). http://www.sankei.com/west/news/140921/wst1409210007-n1.html 2014/11/21Browse. 
  165. ^ Shinya Takagi; Haruki Abe (May 2014, 5). “Foreign-owned mega solar power purchase system, boost”. Asahi Shimbun digital. http://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S11148397.html 2015/1/5Browse. 
  166. ^ Kenji Kaneko (May 2016, 5). "German Photobolt, Ukushima 430 MW, Tono City 600 MW, Yokohama Town 500 MW approved for interconnection". Nikkei BP Mega Solar Business. http://techon.nikkeibp.co.jp/atcl/news/16/050101924/?ST=msb 2016/6/15Browse. 
  167. ^ Japan's Parties, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Canada Renewable Energy Power Generation Measures (DS412))
  168. ^ About wind power generation, geothermal power generation, and small and medium-sized hydropower generation35th Procurement Price Calculation Committee Material 2 January 2018 Agency for Natural Resources and Energy

外部 リンク

electric bill

electric bill(Denkiryokin) is the charge (price) of electric energy.

Overview

What is "electricity charge"?electricityIt is a price attached to (electrical energy), and the system differs from country to country, and it usually consists of various price ranges.

In countries where multiple utilities compete in the same regionprice competitionTends to occur and lower electricity prices.

As for the situation in Far East Asia, Japan's electricity bill is two to three times higher than South Korea's.As a result, factories in Japan will move overseas (Hollowing out of industry), Which produces the result.If the electricity price is high, the product price will be high as a result, and the competitiveness of the product will decrease. Since it is advantageous from the viewpoint of manufacturing cost to produce in a place where electricity charges are low (especially in production that uses a large amount of electricity), we will try to move to a cheap place avoiding Japan where electricity charges are high. is there.

EU and Eurozone electricity prices

Overview

Electricity prices in Europe are from the EUEurostatAggregates and analyzes and publishes monthly[1][2]..Data are regularly aggregated and analyzed as in "Statistical White Paper Archive Vol.2012-Agriculture, Environment, Energy, Transport" published in May 5.[3].

2011 OfEuropean Union(27 countries) The average electricity rate isEurostatAccording to the announcement of, it is as follows.

  • Home customers are 17.8 ct/ kWh (tax, levy, surcharge included)
  • 11.0 for industrial customers ct/ kWh (tax, levy, surcharge included)

This price includes all costs incurred, namely the electricity supply price (power generation / transmission and distribution), as well as surcharges, levies and taxes.In other words, it is a fee that belongs to the customer and is not exempted or refunded.[3]For individual customers, it refers to all surcharges, levies and taxes, including VAT, and for corporate customers, it includes only VAT.Because these spending is usuallyVorsteuerabzug | DeductionThis is because it is subject to the above and may be refunded.Furthermore, in EU countries, the surcharges and levies paid are different from those in Germany.[3].

Eurostat TheEuro areaThe average electricity rate for (17 countries) is also calculated.Euro areaThe price level ofEUIt is slightly higher than the average.2011The average electricity prices in the euro area are as follows.

  • Home customers are 19.3 ct/ kWh
    (Including tax, levy and surcharge)[1]
  • Industrial customers are 11.8 ct/ kWh
    (Excluding taxes, levies, and surcharges that cannot be passed on)[2]
2011 OfEuro areaElectricity prices in 17 countries(Ct / kWh)
Strompreis EA 2011 HH-2.PNGStrompreis EA 2011 Industrie-02.PNG
Average electricity bill for home customers(Including tax, levy and surcharge)
SourceEurostat[1]
Average electricity rates for industrial customers(Excluding taxes, levies, and surcharges that cannot be passed on)
Source: Eurostat[2]
Value-added tax, Charge, Re-energy levy, Power generation / transmission and distribution costs, business feesCharge, Power generation / transmission and distribution costs, business fees

Aggregation method and concept

According to Eurostat, private consumers, who are household customers, are recorded with annual electricity usage of 500-5,000kWh / a.In order to incorporate the fluctuation range of the tariff system and the difference in annual consumption, the survey conducted five household divisions. EU averages are statistical, based on country-specific electricity consumption in the private sector (5 standard)(English editionCalculated by[3]..Companies that are corporate customers are recorded with annual power consumption of 50 to 200 million kWh / a.Investigation is coordinated in connection with a resolution of the EU Commission (2007/394 / EG)[4]..The various tariffs and fluctuations in consumption are divided into seven groups in this area. EU average forecasts are aggregated by a country-specific consumption weighting function in the industrial sector as well as in household customers.

Details

For home customers2011In the euro area, Germany (25,3 ct / kWh), Cyprus (24,1 ct / kWh) and Belgium (24,1 ct / kWh) are extremely high, while Greece (12,4 ct / kWh). , Estonia (10,4 ct / kWh) is extremely low, and the price difference is about double.The average levy, surcharge and tax ratio in the euro area is 2%, Germany is about 32% and Malta is about 45%.[1].

For industrial customers2011のユーロ圏では、キプロス(24,1 ct/kWh)とイタリア(19,1 ct/kWh)が極めて高いのに対して、フィンランド(9,7 ct/kWh)とエストニア(9,1 ct/kWh)は極めて低く、その価格差はおよそ2倍である。ドイツでは産業顧客の電気料金は、ユーロ圏加盟国のなかでは平均水準に留まっている。賦課金・課徴金・税金の割合(転嫁できない税を除く)は、平均20%であり、ドイツは30%、イタリアは28%、アイルランドは2.6%、マルタは0%である[2].

Electricity charges in Germany

Average price of electricity

The average household electricity bill in Germany is 25.7 ct/ kWh (as of May 2012).Of this, 5% is electricity supply costs (54.4% is power generation, 34.4% is power transmission and distribution), 20% is surcharge (Abgaben) and levy (Umlagen), and 21.6% is tax.[5].

Germany's industrial electricity prices are set lower than at home.(German versionAccording to (Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft; BDEW), electricity charges for customers using 100kW to 4,000kW of electricity are2011At the time, the average is 13.58 ct/ kWh[5]..Even if the amount of electricity purchased is large, when connecting to a medium voltage level, the wire cost will be cheaper and VAT will be deducted (for details, see(German versionIt may be offset by (see).

For electricity prices in EuropeEurostatHowever, it is calculated based on the declarations and investigations from the member countries.According to it, the electricity bill for households in Germany is2011On average 25.4 ct/ kWh (tax included), this number is(German version(German versionIt also matches that of.Also, Germany's industrial electricity prices are2011Average 11.3 without VAT and surcharges ctConfirmed to be / kWh (details#Aggregation method and conceptSee).Companies that are industrial customers are said to use 50 to 200 million kWh / a of electricity annually.[3].

Breakdown of electricity charges

Power generation cost

Electricity charges as an electric business(German versionAnd Leipzig(German versionIt is widely decided in the electricity wholesale market such as.Power generation costs include power generation costsEU Emissions TradingNot only the cost of the power generation companyProfitIs also included.The average power generation price is 8.9 for home use. ct/ kWh[5].

Prices in the wholesale electricity market are (in the electricity market)(German versionCaused by a trading mechanism (called).Starting with those with low marginal costs (nuclear power plants and lignite-fired power plants), those with high marginal costs (coal and gas power generation) are added until they meet demand, and the final price sold is the electricity rate. (Market Clearing Price).In other words, electricity prices are determined by the power plant that had the highest price when the electricity demand was met.Cheap power plants have a difference between the actual cost and the market price (Producer surplus) Not only makes a profit, but also benefits consumers by shutting out expensive power plants ()Consumer surplus).

The European Energy Exchange certainly sells only a quarter of the electricity traded in Germany in a short period of time.However, the price there isOff-market tradingIt is also used as a reference when setting the price at.Spot market (Spot marketIn), the next day's demand is traded by frame (Blockprodukte), and load management is performed by contracts for base load, peak load, and hourly.Derivatives market (futures) Has a long-term supply contract (up to several years).

Power transmission and distribution costs

Power transmission and distribution(German versionAnd by region(German versionIs doing, and the remuneration required for it is the national(German versionIt is defined in.The legal basis is(German versionIs.This law is before 2005(German versionIt has replaced.afterwards,2007On May 11(German versionWas enforced.

According to the Federal Network Agency (Bundesnetzagentur), wire usage fees for household customers are2010In total 6 ctIt was / kWh, accounting for 25% of the electricity bill.This price is2006Since then, it has fallen by more than 20%[6]..For corporate customers using high voltages, the percentage of wire usage fees is even lower.

Surcharge / levy

There are currently four types of state-mandated electricity surcharges and levies in Germany.These costs account for 4% of electricity bills for households.

  • (German versionWas introduced by local governments as a cleaning cost under the Road Traffic Act.This ordinance is1935 Of(German versionIt has been revised many times since then, but it remains.The income is an important source of revenue for local governments.
  • (German versionIt is,(German versionIntroduced in 2000 by.This levy eases the barriers to entry into renewable energy, and the amount is calculated from the difference between expenditure (cost for renewable energy storage devices) and income (sale of renewable energy). Has been done.[7]
  • (German versionIt is,(German versionBy2002Introduced in.This law is for combined heat and power (Cogeneration) The purpose is to promote power generation from equipment.
  • (German versionArticle 19 Paragraph 2 levy is2005It was introduced to make up for the cheap wire usage fees of power-intensive companies.

These levies and surcharges are2011 Of(German versionAccording to the announcement, the operating license fee is € 21.3 billion, the renewable energy levy is € 96 billion and the combined heat and power levy is € 1.3 million (although the announcement includes household customers). Absent)[5].

Electricity-intensive companies pay little or no renewable energy levy[8]..The Federal Network Agency has accused the exception of being extreme.According to the report, hundreds of companies use about 18% of electricity, but the renewable energy levy pays only 0.3% of the total, and this cost is borne by consumers.[9].

Tax

Germany has the following electricity supply taxes.

  • (German version((German version): Promotion of resolution of environmental problems, reduction and stabilization of pension contribution rate (approximately 2011 billion euros were allocated in 62)[5].
  • (German version: Electricity supply, specific surcharges / levies, and renewable energy levies are also taxed.From the sale of electricity2011Revenue of sales tax reached 124 billion euros.For ordinary households, these two taxes are about 2% of the electricity bill.[5].

More than that, for example(German versionAlso for the use of primary energy resources such as2011~2016Taxes will be levied if new nuclear fuel is introduced into the city.

Average annual electricity rate

Ratio of electricity charges to household consumption expenditure (2011)
Per household[10]Per inhabitant[11]
Annual power consumption[12]3465 kWh1713 kWh
Monthly consumption expenditure[13]3067 €1516 €
electric bill
(Average unit price in 2011:
25.23 ct/ kWh)
72,90 €36,00 €
Percentage of consumer spending2,4%

The average electricity bill for ordinary households is2012As of October, 10 ctIt was / kWh.2011Electricity costs account for 2.4% of household expenditures (see the figure on the right).1998~2011In the meantime, electricity prices are rising, though.(German versionAccording to the announcement, the situation of an average three-person family is as shown in the table below.This table assumes an average household annual power consumption of 3kWh.According to it, the average household electricity bill is1998~2012Of which, 1 per 17.1kWh ct~25.9 ctIt is increasing by 51.5%, and it is increasing by 3.7% every year.

This table shows power generation costs, transmission and distribution costs, business fees, and various other taxes that are included in electricity prices.Power generation costs, power transmission and distribution costs, and business fees have fallen once around 2000 as a result of market liberalization, but have risen again.The cost excess when generating electricity from cogeneration equipment and renewable energy is covered by the combined heat and power levy and renewable energy levy, and Article 19 levy covers the cost caused by the exemption from the electric wire usage fee.[14]..In this regard, these levy costs could also be added to the costs of power generation, transmission and distribution, and business compensation.

Changes in electricity prices (average when a three-person household consumes 3 kWh of electricity annuallyct/ kWh)[15]
AnnualPower generation[*1]・ Power transmission and distribution costs, business fees(German version(German version[*2](German version(German version[*3][*4]Article 19 levy[*5](German versionTotal electricity rateSince 1998InflationTotal removed[16]Percentage of taxes, surcharges and levies[*6] [%]
199812,911,790,000,000,080,002,3317,1117,1124,5%
199911,591,790,000,770,100,002,2816,5316,5029,9%
20008,621,790,131,280,200,001,9213,9413,7338,1%
20018,601,790,201,530,230,001,9714,3213,8039,9%
20029,711,790,251,790,350,002,2216,1115,3239,7%
200310,231,790,332,050,420,002,3717,1916,1540,5%
200410,821,790,312,050,510,002,4817,9616,7039,7%
200511,221,790,342,050,690,002,5718,6616,9739,9%
200611,751,790,312,050,880,002,6819,4617,3339,6%
200712,191,790,292,051,030,003,2920,6418,1340,9%
200813,011,790,192,051,160,003,4621,6518,4439,9%
200914,121,790,242,051,310,003,7123,2119,5639,2%
201013,891,790,132,052,050,003,7823,6919,8041,3%
201113,801,790,032,053,530,004,0325,2320,7045,3%
2012[*7]14,171,790,0022,053,5920,154,1325,8945,3%
  1. ^ Not the total power generation cost.Power generation cost excluding the cost of combined re-energy and combined heat and power levy for the year.
  2. ^ The cost of electricity settled by the combined heat and power method.
  3. ^ Costs settled by renewable energy levy
  4. ^ 2000Until December(German versionPayment by.
  5. ^ The cost of Article 19, Paragraph 2 of the Electricity Transmission Remuneration Ordinance.Power distribution system operators are obliged to compensate for losses of downstream distribution operators close to consumers and must mutually compensate for revenues and losses from wire usage fees.In other words, this levy is part of the transmission cost.[14]
  6. ^ Includes combined heat and power levy, renewable energy levy, Article 19 levy costs
  7. ^ As of August 2012

1998If there was no inflation after that2011Electricity charges are 20.7 ctIt means that it was / kWh,1998That's a 21% increase from.

Average electricity rate (ct / kWh) for a three-person household using 3,500 kWh of electricity annually in Germany
Strompreise PrivatHH 2012 Index 1998.PNGStrompreis PrivatHH 2012.PNG
1998~2011Electricity charges
Totally since 1998InflationIf did not occur
Created from the above chart.Article 19 The levy is 2011 until 0.
1998~2012Nominal electricity rate
Created from the above chart.Article 19 Excluding levy
Sales tax, Electric tax, Re-energy levy, Combined heat and power levy, Business license fee, Power generation / transmission and distribution costs, business fees

What influences the transition of electricity prices in Germany is20057 month 13 day(German versionIs[17]..With legislative changes, legislative bodies have decided to establish regulators at both the federal and state levels.In the future, all wire usage fees will have to be licensed by the Federal Network Authority or state regulators.In addition, access to the grid is indiscriminately regulated, giving end users the freedom to choose their generators.With these measures to promote market competition, politics has promised to lower electricity prices.[18]..Federal court2011In June, some of the regulations were declared invalid, which allowed net operators to raise wire usage fees in 6.[19].

Electricity rate menu

How electricity charges work

The tariff system for households and small businesses consists of electricity tariffs according to consumption (kWh used) and basic tariffs that are not related to consumption.For large customers, an output charge will be added according to the maximum electricity demand during the accounting period.This basic system allows electricity providers to offer a variety of tariffs depending on electricity demand and consumption.

Basic supply

Electricity providers must present a tariff that everyone has the right to receive electricity.This tariff has been referred to in the past as the so-called "Allgemeine Tarife", which requires state authority approval until mid-2007 in accordance with the Federal Electricity Tariff Regulations (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizität). , The electricity supplier had to apply for it.(German versionSince the revisionArticle 39Based on, it came to be displayed as "General Price List" (Allgemeine Preise).If you order electricity, a supply contract will be automatically established based on the "general price list".

Home contract

A household electricity supply contract usually consists of an energy charge and a basic charge.In the view of the electricity supplier, this two-part tariff system is easier for consumers to understand than multiple tariff contracts and special contracts.There is also a rate menu with only pay-as-you-go rates.

  • Electric energy charge: Euro per 1kWh of electricity used (or ctIt is charged in units of conversion).
  • Basic charge (preparation fee + commission): The preparation fee is given to the cost required to prepare the electricity supply.Fees (Verrechnungspreis) include measuring instruments (meters and accessories), power meters, invoicing, and collection costs (Verrechnungspreis).collection) Is used.Payment is monthly or yearly.
  • Pay-as-you-go:2011FromElectric utilityIs legally required to provide a pay-as-you-go systemEnergy Business Law, Article 40, Paragraph 5.. DigitalMeter(So-calledSmart meterIs built in2010Since then, new and refurbished buildings have been required) to constantly visualize electricity usage.Evolved device controllers will allow us to better understand usage, which will enable us to reduce electricity usage and electricity charges.Various (research) projects have begun for that purpose.

Utilities are offering more menus of electricity prices, while also responding to legal demands and customer needs.Not only the variety of payment methods (relationship between electricity charges and basic charges), but also various types of electricity (relationship between electricity charges and basic charges)Thermal power generation, Renewable energy, or a mixture of both) can also be selected.The cost of promoting renewable energyExternalityIn terms of costs incurred in(German versionProvides information on electricity charges for households[20].

Office charges

Business charges are also usually composed of electricity charges and basic charges, and at that time, the basic charges may be divided into commissions and fixed electricity charges.Fees include measuring equipment, power meters, invoicing and collection fees, and fixed fees refer to preparation fees.

Special contract

Personally coordinated special contracts have been signed for business and industrial electricity consumers, usually for a contract period of one year or longer.Special contract electricity charges are not state authorities,(German versionDepends on the competition.The price structure is large compared to homes and businesses.Maximum power consumption will vary further depending on the size of payment.Furthermore, for electricity consumers of 10 kWh or more per year, there(German versionIncludes high electricity demand during the accounting period.

The price structure of special contracts for business establishments and industrial customers is as follows.

Policy debate over electricity prices

In the debate over electricity prices, the sharp rise in electricity prices in recent years occupies most of the central position.The cause is often(German versionIs believed to be in the promotion of renewable energy.Renewable energy levy currently accounts for 14.2% of electricity charges.The recent rise in tariffs has been caused by power generation and transmission and distribution costs, corporate profits, as well as electricity and sales taxes (see chart "Average electricity tariffs for three-person households in Germany").On the other hand,再生 可能 エネルギーHas also resulted in a decrease in price due to the so-called merit order effect in the electricity trading market.[21].(German versionAccording to a study by, electricity from renewable energy will be around 2010 at trading market prices in 5. ctPrice restraint of / kWh has occurred.This is equivalent to a total reduction of 28 billion euros.The industrial sector that uses electricity(German versionI haven't paid much, but it will be profitable if the price in the trading market drops, so(German versionGetting financial benefits from[22]..Electricity prices in the industrial sector fell to the same level as four years ago in 2011.[23][24].

In this discussion, various opinions such as the following can be seen.

  • In the first place, electricity prices have not risen so much.
    The Federal Monitoring Post Expert Committee2012We have confirmed the following. "The rise in electricity prices by 2011 was not as dramatic as is often said in the world, from the point of view of the collection. The proportion of electricity bills used for nominal gross domestic product was 2011. Is 2.5%, which is the same level as in 1991. "[25].
  • The rise in tariffs is not due to the promotion of renewable energy, but to policies, trading market structures and current renewable energy laws.
    (German versionAccording to the report, most of the costs raised by the promotion of renewable energy were not directly caused by the promotion of renewable energy, but by widening exceptions to industry and lower trading market prices (in the trading market). The moment the price of renewable energy goes down, the renewable energy levy automatically rises because the gap between the expenditure required for renewable energy and the income generated by the sale of renewable energy must be closed. Is due), as well as the market's new premium price (option price) and liquid reserve[26][27]..Representatives of the renewable energy sector point out the price-suppressing effect of renewable energy in the trading market, while arguing that renewable energy will not raise electricity prices significantly, especially for industrial use. ing[28]..The net industry sector has been significantly mitigated by the merit order effect and the exceptions to promoting renewable energy.[29]..In addition, the power-intensive industry2011Going back to the beginning of, you are exempt from wire usage fees, thereby2013Will have to be paid by other consumers for about 8 million euros[30].
  • The rise in prices is due to the large electric power companies pushing household consumers.
    Alliance 90 / The Greens PartyThe unification parliamentary group has criticized the rise in the price of electricity Concern as an unreasonable income generated by imposing a burden on customers who cannot accurately follow the cost of power generation and the cost of promoting renewable energy.OtherAlliance 90 / The Greens PartyGives expert judgment[31]..The Greens have criticized it for imposing a burden on consumers,(German versionIs requesting amendment[32].
  • It is the state (taxes and levies) that raises electricity prices, not the power companies.
    (German versionAccording to the explanation, electric power companies are exposed to fierce competition for customer acquisition and "cannot charge too high a fee without permission."(German versionCalls for policies that take responsibility for the growing burden on the state towards renewable energy[33].. BDEW claims2013At the beginning of the year, the ratio of taxes and levies / surcharges included in household electricity charges will increase by 50%.The rationale is that the renewable energy levy will rise, and that the wire usage fee will increase at the national decision.[34]
  • Will industrial hollowing out occur or not?
    Think tank(German versionIs concerned about the "hollowing out of Germany's industry," pointing out that power-intensive sectors, especially the aluminum and paper industries, may move abroad.[35].. Of NGOs(German versionHas pointed out that it will conduct a counter-campaign to take into account the huge exceptions of industrial companies and the decline in electricity prices in the trading market.[36][37]..For example, from an aluminum manufacturerNorsk HydroAnnounced that it will triple production due to low power generation costs in Germany[38].
  • It is an exaggeration to say that the price increase due to renewable energy.
    (German versionA study conducted in the spring of 2012 (DIW) found that the warning that electricity prices are rising due to energy conversion is exaggerated because there are various factors that raise and lower prices.[39].
  • Many households are in trouble due to rising electricity prices.
    (German versionCriticizes that it is always poor families that are exposed to rising electricity prices.2010More than 300 million people were urged to pay. 34 households were about to be turned off, and 6 customers were really turned off.An average 2% rise in electricity and gas prices "makes energy an unpaid product" for many homes[40].
  • Market prices are falling, but actual electricity prices are rising.
    German Minister of the EnvironmentPeter AltmaierIt is,2012He criticized Germany's planned price increase of around 11% in November for some unjustified points. "Many electricity suppliers are clearly raising rates more than the rise in renewable energy levies. [...] This rise will be difficult to understand, because prices in the trading market since last year. Is declining over a wide area. "[41].

Electricity charges in the United States

Electricity charges in Japan

Average price of electricity

For home useMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAccording to a household survey2011The average household electricity bill in Japan is 8,188 yen a month, and the average total consumption expenditure is 247,223 yen a month. Therefore, the ratio of the electricity bill to the pre-monthly consumption expenditure is 3.3%.[42]

For industrial useAgency for Natural Resources and Energyaccording to,2011During the period from January to March, the survey results of 1 yen / kWh for extra high voltage and 3 yen / kWh for high voltage have been announced (excluding tax).[43].

Breakdown of electricity charges

Power generation cost

National Strategy Office Cost Verification Committee2011On December 12, a report on power generation costs was released.according to it,2010の時点で、電源ごとの発電費用は、原子力8.9円/kWh、LNG火力10.7~11.1円/kWh、石油火力36~37.6円/kWh、風力(陸上)9.9~17.3円/kWh、地熱8.3~10.4円/kWh、太陽光30.1~45.8円/kWhとなっている[44].

Transmission costs

10 electric power companies2012On June 6, we submitted a notification of changes to the power grid usage conditions and connection charges to the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry.According to it, in the case of Kansai Electric Power, the standard transmission cost in the case of high voltage power is 20 yen / kWh, and in the case of extra high voltage, it is 2.63 yen / kWh, and in addition to this, the power supplied to the client company is insufficient. In that case, the "power fluctuation response power" charge will be added in the range of 1.23 yen to 10.27 yen / kWh.[45].

Re-energy levy

2012From December 7Re-energy special measures lawBased on renewable energyFixed price purchase systemHas started.In addition to the basic charge and electricity charge, a new renewable energy promotion surcharge will be added.[46].

As a renewable energy surcharge, from July 2012 to March 7, the national average is about 2013 yen / kWh.[47]Will be charged anew.After that, it continued to rise, reaching 2016 yen / kWh from May 28 and 5 yen / kWh from May 2.25.[48][49]..After that, it will continue to rise and will reach 2022 yen / kWh from May 4 (Reiwa 5).[50].

tax

Electricity charges include consumption tax and "power development promotion tax" used to promote the maintenance of nuclear power plants.[51]..These taxes are not stated directly on the statement.

Electricity rate menu

Home contract

At ten Japanese electric power companies, the household electricity rate menu is organized as follows.[52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

  • Metered lamp contract (basic charge + electricity charge)
  • Light contract by time zone (basic charge + electricity charge)
    Electricity charges are high during the daytime when consumption is high, and cheaper at night when consumption is low.

Household electricity rates include:[62].

  • Basic charge
  • Electric energy charge unit price x electric energy used
  • Fuel cost adjustment unit price x power consumption
  • Renewable energy promotion surcharge (solar power generation promotion surcharge)

Business / industrial sector contract

Contract power contract power, which is the basis for calculating the basic charge, is the actual amount system (demand, maximum demand power) and the consultation system (determined by consultation).[63][64].

  • It is the largest value of the maximum power demand of each month in the past year including that month.
  • However, the contracted power for each month from the start of electricity use is the largest value among the maximum power demand from the month when electricity is used to that month.

For example, if a corporation that had a contract with 75kW exceeded the contracted power for the first time in July of a certain year, 7kW, 80kW in August, 8kW in September as a result of power saving measures, and 90kW after October. The contract for August will be 9kW, the contract for September will be 74kW, and it will drop to 10kW in October of the following year.If the contracted value is exceeded even once, the contracted power will be renewed to the maximum value from the next month, and the basic charge will not decrease for one year while remaining high.

For the maximum power demand, use the largest value in a month among the average power consumption in 30-minute units.

Policy debate over electricity prices

Problems with electricity prices

When raising the electricity rate, there are cases where there is a problem because the amount of money other than the cost directly related to electricity is included.For example, Kansai Electric Power2012I applied for an increase in the electricity rate, but at that time, the electricity rateCompany housing,DormitoryInclude maintenance costs for vacant rooms, etc. in the cost of electricity rate calculationMinistry of Economy, Trade and IndustryWhat I was looking for in20136Turned out to.The ministry decided to reduce the cost of properties with a occupancy rate of less than 9% and then add them to the cost price, but some of the properties the company tried to include in the cost price were abolished.SaltedThe remains of the company housing in a state were also included.At the companyBoard MemberIt has also become clear that the reward was included in the electricity tariff, and many criticisms have been heard that "land should be sold before the tariff increase".[65][66].

Related item

外部 リンク

References

  • Lukas Emele: Entwicklung der Strompreise im Verhältnis zur Kaufkraft und Abhängigke it der Strompreise von den Primärenergie kosten im Untersuchungszeitraum 1950 bis heuteRottenburg am Neckar Juni 2009 (Projektarbeit an der HFR Rottenburg in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Wirtschaftsarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Online as PDF, 2,7 MB, Reference: August 2012, 8).
  • Forum Ökologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft: Studie "Was Strom wirklich kostet"

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d Statistisches Amt der Europäischen Union, Eurostat: Strompreise für private Haushalte, Luxemburg, see: September 2012, 9
  2. ^ a b c d Statistisches Amt der Europäischen Union, Eurostat: Strompreise für industrielle Verbraucher, Reference: September 2012, 9
  3. ^ a b c d e Statistisches Amt der Europäischen Union, Eurostat: Statistics Explained Archive Vol. 4—Agriculture, environment, energy and transport statistics, Luxemburg, 2012, see September 2012, 9
  4. ^ EU-Commission: 2007/394 / EG Beschluss der Kommission vom 7. Juni 2007 zur Änderung der Richtlinie 90/377 / EWG des Rates zur Einführung eines gemeinschaftlichen Verfahrens zur Gewährleistung der Transparenz der vom industriellen Endverbraucher zu zah, Brüssel 2007, see: September 2012, 9
  5. ^ a b c d e f Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (BDEW): Durch den Staat verursachte Belastungen aller Stromkunden in Deutschland (ohne MW St für Haushaltskunden), Berlin 2012, see: September 2012, 9
  6. ^ Bnetz A, Netzentgelte 2006 – 2010, Reference: September 2012, 11
  7. ^ Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU): Informationen zur Kalkulation der EEG-Umlage für das Jahr 2012 Berlin 2012, see: September 2012, 9
  8. ^ Renews Kompakt Industriestrompreise, April 2012
  9. ^ Spiegel-Bericht, Netzagentur kritisiert Vergünstigungen für stromintensive Unternehmen, Mai 2012
  10. ^ 4,400 million households (2011) (from Statistisches Bundesamt (DESTATIS)): [1], Reference: September 2012, 10
  11. ^ 8,175.2 (from Wikipedia): Demography of Germany
  12. ^ 1400 billion kWh / Jahr (household total) Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft (BDEW):  Entwicklung des Netto-Stromverbrauchs in Deutschland 1998 bis 2011 nach Verbrauchergruppen in Mrd. kWh “, Reference: September 2012, 8
  13. ^ Statistisches Bundesamt (DESTATIS):  Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnungen, Private Konsumausgaben und Verfügbares Einkommen, Reihe 1.1, Jahr 2011 ”, See October 2012, 10
  14. ^ a b 50Hertz Transmission, Amprion, TransnetBW, TenneT TSO, Umlage nach § 19 Abs. 2 StromNEV für 2012, In: EEG / KWK-G Informationsplattform der deutschen Übertragungsnetzbetreiber, see: August 2012, 8
  15. ^ BDEW, BDEW-Strompreisanalyse Oktober 2012, October 2012, 10, Reference: November 26, 2012
  16. ^ Eurostat --Harmonisierter Verbraucherpreisindex (HICP)
  17. ^ EnWG
  18. ^ Strompreisentwicklung
  19. ^ Frankfurter Rundschau – Geschenk an die Stromkonzerne, See October 2011, 10
  20. ^ Ihre Stromrechnung unter der Lupe
  21. ^ Funktionsweise des Merit order Effekts, Broschüre
  22. ^ Pressemitteilung: Erneuerbare Energien sind keine Preistreiber für Industriestrom Agency for Renewable Energies, October 2011, 11, Reference: November 18, 2012
  23. ^ Daten des Statistischen Bundesamts
  24. ^ Ökostrom dämpft Börsenpreis, PM
  25. ^ Expertenkommission zum Monitoring-Prozess "Energy der Zukunft", Stellungnahme zum ersten Monitoring-Bericht der Bundesregierung für das Berichtsjahr 2011, Berlin · Mannheim · Stuttgart, Dezember 2012, S. Z-8
  26. ^ BEE: Hintergrundpapier EEG-Umlage 2012
  27. ^ Haushaltsstrompreise und Erneuerbare Energien, Hintergrundpapier
  28. ^ Agentur für Erneuerbare Energien: Erneuerbare Energien sind keine Preistreiber für Industriestrom
  29. ^ Hintergrundpapier bei der Agentur für Erneuerbare Energie
  30. ^ Industrie drückt sich vor Stromnetz kosten, In: Der Spiegel, October 2012, 10, see: October 23, 2012.
  31. ^ Strompreisstudie PDF, 14 Seiten
  32. ^ Bundesregierung zerstört Akzeptanz der Energiewende, Homepage der Grünen
  33. ^ BDEW zu aktueller Auftrags-Studie zu Strompreisen
  34. ^ Stromtipp.de 15. Oktober 2012: Strompreis: Anteil von Steuern und Abgaben steigt auf 50 Prozent
  35. ^ Kampagnen-Homepage der INSM
  36. ^ Kampagnen-Homepage von Campact
  37. ^ Klima-Lügen detektor zur INSM-Kampagne
  38. ^ Ökoenergie macht's möglich. Stromfresser herein!, In: TAZ, September 2012, 9, October 5, 2012
  39. ^ DIW unterstützt Röttgens Kritik Handelsblatt am 17. März 2012, zuletzt abgerufen am 7. April 2012
  40. ^ Wachsende Energiearmut, Verbraucherzentrale NRW vom 21. Februar 2012, zuletzt abgefragt am 27. März 2012
  41. ^ ZEIT Online: "Altmaier nennt geplante Strompreiser höhungen überzogen"
  42. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 2011 Household Survey Household Income and Expenditure, Reference: September 2013, 1
  43. ^ Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, Electricity demand survey, Reference: September 2013, 1
  44. ^ Cost Verification Committee, Cost verification committee report, December 2011, 12, see January 19, 2013
  45. ^ Smart Japan, Electricity supply service: Liberalization of electricity takes a step forward, and conditions for using the power grid are relaxed, December 2012, 06, see January 21, 2013
  46. ^ Government Public Relations Online, The feed-in tariff system for renewable energy has started.We need your cooperation in the mechanism to grow Japanese renewable energy in society as a whole., October 2012, 8, Reference: November 6, 2012
  47. ^ Smart Japan, Electricity supply service: An average of 0.3 yen will be added to the electricity bill, and the burden on renewable energy users will increase from July., October 2012, 6, Reference: November 18, 2013
  48. ^ Natoku!Renewable energy feed-in tariff system --Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
  49. ^ About levy etc. --Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc.
  50. ^ Determine the purchase price, levy unit price, etc. after 2022 in the FIT system and FIP system of renewable energy, October 2022, 3, Reference: November 25, 2022
  51. ^ Tokyo Shimbun, Consumption tax increase In addition to the nuclear power plant promotion tax, electricity charges are passed on to the user, December 2012, 8, see January 16, 2013
  52. ^ Hokuden, Menu for customers such as general households and shops, Reference: September 2013, 1
  53. ^ Tohoku Electric Power, Contract menu
  54. ^ TEPCO, Electricity rate menu, Reference: September 2013, 1
  55. ^ Hokuriku Electric Power, Electricity rate unit price list, Reference: September 2013, 1
  56. ^ Chubu Electric Power, Household charge menu: Basic menu (light contract), Reference: September 2013, 1
  57. ^ Kansai Electric Power, Main electricity rate menu, Reference: September 2013, 1
  58. ^ Chugoku Electric Power, List of electricity rate menu, Reference: September 2013, 1
  59. ^ Shikoku Electric Power, Home rate menu, Reference: September 2013, 1
  60. ^ Kyushu Electric Power, Main rate unit price list, Reference: September 2013, 1
  61. ^ Okinawa Electric Power, Home electricity rate menu, Reference: September 2013, 1
  62. ^ Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan, How electricity charges work, Reference: September 2013, 1
  63. ^ How to determine contract power (actual amount system) TEPCO Energy Partner
  64. ^ Instrumentation knowledge | What is power demand? MST MST Day
  65. ^ Kansai Electric Power: For electricity charges for maintaining vacant rooms in company housing Mainichi Newspaper March 2013, 6
  66. ^ Kansai Electric Power: Passing on company housing costs Ghost property Why not sell Kusabobo, anger of residents Mainichi Newspaper March 2013, 6

 

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