The true value of the Genron NPO is questioned because the world's challenges are becoming more complex (Rintaro Tamaki, International Financial Information Center ...
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It becomes a nation rather than an exclusionary nature against other countries and international cooperation, and the conflict between the United States and China overlaps there.
Participated as a panelist in the "Tokyo-Beijing Forum" held by the Genron NPO and the Genron Forum ... → Continue reading
The Genron NPO
Genron NPO is a private-sector-led, neutral and independent think tank that crosses national borders and collaborates with many knowledgeable people around the world. Since its founding in 2001, it has continued to provide a "stage of speech" that confronts Japan's democracy and future challenges by connecting people who are active on the front lines of various fields in Japan.And, in collaboration with the world's major think tanks and many knowledge groups, we are creating a new flow to confront various difficulties in the world and Asia.
Wikipedia related words
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International cooperation(Kokusaikyoryoku) is conducted between governments, between other countries, or in the private sector.国境It is an aid / cooperation activity that goes beyond.Origin is19st centuryAlthough it is required for the Red Cross activities in Japan, it was the one that was implemented in earnest internationally.the 1960sBecause.Japan, this means a the 1980sIt has been actively developed since then.
The origin of cross-border aid activities isRed Cross International CommitteeThe predecessor of "Five-member committee" (1863Can be requested from the establishment).World War IAfter1919ToSave the Children(英国) Was born,Second World WarBefore and afterOxfam(UK,1942),CARE(米 国,1945), (Italy,1950) Etc. have been established.These are being developed as private activities and are currently international cooperationNGOThe roots of.
The origin of international cooperation between nations1944It starts with.put it hereInternational Monetary Fund(IMF) andInternational Reconstruction and Development Bank(World Bank) Was established.United States1948Reconstruction was delayed due to the war damageEuropeReconstruction assistance plan (Marshall Plan) Is carried out.This is the origin of economic assistance between nations.Also, in 1950, the British led the "mainly targeting the former British colonies.Colombo PlanWas carried out.International cooperation between governments and through international organizations was described in the 1960s.10 years of UN development(United Nations Development Decade) ”.
North-South problem / developing countries
1959, United KingdomHeadMetOliver FranksIt is,ideologyAnd the military conflictEast-West problemLocated on the north side of the earth as an important issue comparable toIndustrialized countriesLocated on the south side of (Industrial Countries)Developing countriesLarge economic disparity with (developing countries)North-South problemPointed out as.The North-South problem achieved political independence one after another after the warAsia,AfricaEmerging countriesColonyThis is due to the fact that economic independence could not be achieved immediately due to the subordinate economic relationships of the times.
There is no clear classification standard for industrialized and developing countries.Generally, the income level per capita is low and the industrial structure isPrimary industryCountries that are biased toward developing countries are called developing countries.United Nations, World Bank,OECDInternational organizations such as these use different definitions. OECDDevelopment Assistance CommitteeDoes not define developing countries, but lists the countries covered by ODA (called the DAC list).
Until the 1960s, developing countries were sometimes called underdeveloped countries, underdeveloped countries, etc., but they were unified into developing countries because those terms were discriminatory.However, it subsequently developed economically from developing countries.New industrial economy(NIES) or conversely left behindLate developing countriesWith the advent of (LLDC) and others, questions have been raised about the validity and validity of the term developing countries. Common names such as "south" countries are sometimes used.
Trends in international development
"development ofIt was not until after World War II that the ambiguous term "" became widely used as an international effort to correct global economic and social disparities.In particular, the United Nations General Assembly called the 1960s10 years of UN development(United Nations Development Decade) ”has been widely used internationally.The decade of UN development has been revised every decade since then.Initially, governments and UN agencies were responsible for international development, but in the latter half of the 10s, NGOs, which are private organizations, emerged as important players for international development. Since NGOs have achieved results with a development approach centered on residents, in the 10s, NGOs began to be advocated and adopted by UN agencies.
Also, instead of the development centered on economic development until then,Social developmentThe approach that emphasizes and is drawing attention,United Nations Development Program(UNDP) has been publishing the Human Development Report every year since 1990.The idea of social development was adopted as a central idea in 1994 and has become one of the important ideas in international development.
2000Toニ ュ ー ヨ ー クWas held at, and as an issue to be achieved by the international community by 2015,Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) ”has been set. The MDGs have the following eight goals.Eighteen specific targets have been set based on the following goals.
- ExtremepovertyとhungerEradication of
- UniversalPrimary EducationAchievement
- genderEquality and empowerment of women
- Infant mortalityReduction of
- Improving the health of pregnant women
- HIV/AIDS,malaria,OtherdiseasePrevention of the spread of
- Promoting global partnerships for development
Japan's international cooperation
JapaneseOfficial development assistanceOriginally after the warcompensationStarting in the form of1954ToBurmaHas signed the first compensation agreement with.As for international cooperationColombo PlanAs part of1958ToIndiaThe first thing that was done to.Japan, exhausted by the war damage,1954から1966Was funded by the United States and the World Bank.This period was a "donated country".Full-scale international cooperation by the Japanese government will begin1977It is after the "Official Development Assistance 3-Year Double Plan".Also, Japanese private cooperation1979It became active after peaking at.
Official Development Assistance (ODA)
According to the OECD Development Assistance Committee, the following three conditions are met:Official development assistance(ODA, Official Development Assistance).
- It shall be provided to developing countries and international organizations by the public sector, including central and local governments, or its executing agency.
- Its main purpose is to contribute to the improvement of economic development and welfare in developing countries.
- The conditions of donation are particularly relaxed (the grant element, which is an indicator of the looseness of the conditions of assistance, is 25% or more).
Official development assistance includes bilateral assistance and multilateral assistance.For multilateral assistanceUnited Nations Children's Fund,United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,World BankIs provided to. Bilateral aid is a direct exchange between countries and is further classified into gifts and intergovernmental loans.Gifts include grant aid and technical cooperation.
In Japan, as an ODA implementing agencyJapan International Cooperation Agency(JICA).So far, we have mainly provided technical cooperation, dispatching experts, dispatching volunteers, and accepting trainees.Japan Overseas Cooperation VolunteersBusiness is also part of this.It also provides some services for grant aid. Since 2003, JICA has been collaborating with NGOs in the region.Development educationWe have started to carry out various businesses in the field of.
NGO (Private International Cooperation Organization)
NGOThe term (Non-Governmental Organizations) was originally defined by the United Nations as a partnership with non-governmental private organizations.United Nations CharterIt was used in Article 71 and is also translated as "non-governmental organization" or "private international cooperation organization".
United Nations Economic and Social Council"UN NGO" with consultative status is a social welfare organization,Union, Peace groups, women's groups, youth groups, employers' groups,Religious groupIt is a broad concept that includes such things.In Japan, from that background, development issues, human rights issues, regardless of whether or not they are qualified for consultation with the United Nations.Environment issues, Voluntarily led by citizens from a "non-governmental" and "non-profit" standpoint to solve global issues such as peace issuesgrassrootsOften refers to private organizations engaged in international cooperation activities.
To synonymsNPO(Non-Profit Organization). NPOs are broadly definedDedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,hospital, Association,Foundation,graduate School, Volunteer organizations, etc., not limited to international cooperation, but refers to a wide range of private non-profit organizations.On the other hand, in a narrow sense, "Non-profit activity promotion law(NPO Law) ”may refer to a private non-profit organization that has been granted legal personality.
Stages of international cooperation
Charitable development / charitable assistance
When a person in need or a vulnerable person is in front of him, it is the manifestation of his natural feelings as a human being that he wants to help him.If that happens across national borders, it will be an international aid.For exampledisasterIt is the provision of supplies and funds to the victims of the disaster.It is also about participating in aid activities as a volunteer.
This kind of charitable assistance is an activity that can be said to be the starting point in the world of international cooperation.However, there are various criticisms of this type of aid.For example, the local needs are not fully investigated, the independence of the residents may be hindered, the negative impact of "aid" is not taken into consideration, the aid starts accidentally and lacks planning, etc. For some reason.
In the early days, there are many cases where international cooperation by NGOs is also a charitable development project.Based on the above criticisms and reflections, when we better understand the needs of residents and carry out international cooperation activities more systematically, we will change our approach to technology transfer type development and resident participation type development. I will go.
Technology transfer development
Generally, "technology transfer" in the field of development means poverty,InfrastructureUndeveloped, lowProductivityIn order to solve the problems faced by developing countries, it means that the organizations of developed countries with technology transmit the technology to the organizations of developing countries through education and training, and aim to establish and disseminate them there.
While philanthropic development begins accidentally to solve the dire situation at hand and proceeds without much planning, technology transfer type grasps the needs of beneficiaries from the beginning and plans more. This is a development approach that can be advanced in a professional and professional manner.Ultimately, the beneficiaries are aiming for independence through some kind of technology transfer.In that sense, most of the development projects currently underway, both public and private, are classified as technology transfer type.
In the case of technology transfer type, although the opinions of beneficiaries may be grasped, the final decision-making authority for the project lies with the project-maker.Participatory development encourages the participation of the beneficiary residents from the beginning, in contrast to the participation of the residents in the planning, operation and evaluation process of the development project itself.
In conventional development projects (charitable development and technology transfer development), the project tends to be planned and executed beyond the opinions and intentions of the local residents who are the beneficiaries of the project.However, such projects have problems such as lack of effectiveness because the needs of the residents cannot be fully grasped, and lack of sustainability due to the lack of awareness of the residents themselves.Is a new development approach that has been advocated since the late 1980s to overcome these problems.
The OECD Development Assistance Committee announced "Development Cooperation in the 1989s" in 1990, and advocated "Participatory Development" as a philosophy to lead future development cooperation.Participatory development involves the beneficiaries of development themselves participating in the development decision-making process and benefiting from it more equitably.This is also a concept that guarantees the establishment of a democratic system and fair distribution.Therefore, the participation in this case is not the participation of the strong but the participation of the "weak".Vulnerable people include rural residents for urban elites, women for men, children for adults, and ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples for dominant ethnic groups.
In participatory development, the residents themselvesEmpowermentIs important, and methods called PRA and PLA have been proposed and implemented as methods and approaches for residents to empower.
PRA / PLA (Participatory Rural Survey Method / Participatory Learning Behavior Method)
PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal) was developed as a rural survey method based on the RRA (Rapid Rural Survey Method) method developed for rural surveys in the latter half of the 1970s, with the perspective of residents' own participation. Is. Has contributed to the theorizing and popularization of PRARobert ChambersDescribes the PRA as "a set of approaches and methods that enable local residents to share, enhance, analyze, plan, act, monitor and evaluate their own knowledge and circumstances of their lives." doing.
PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) is a series of approaches and methods from the viewpoint of the method of rural survey, to the residents themselves discovering the problems and solving the problems.In reality, both PRA and PLA are almost the same in their content and are often used synonymously.Their contents areMapMake,Chronological TableThere are making, seasonal calendar, social relations chart, ranking (ranking), etc., but there is no fixed series of packages, and various methods are developed and applied daily according to the site.
- Haruhiko Tanaka "North-South Problem and Development Education-To Live as a Global Citizen" Aki Shobo, 1994.
- Haruhiko Tanaka "International Cooperation and Development Education-Exploring the Near Future of" Aid "" Akashi bookstore, 2008.
- Hiroshi Sato, "Introduction to Aid Research-Interdisciplinary Approach to Aid Phenomena" Asian Economic Research Institute, 1996.
- Hiroshi Sato, "Reexamination of Participatory Development," Institute of Developing Economies, 2003.
- Shinichi Shigetomi, "Comparative Study of Asian Countries and NGOs-15 Countries," Akashi Shoten, 2001.
- Robert Chambers, Translated by Naoto Noda and Kiyoshi Shiratori, Participatory Development and International Cooperation-We Will Change, Akashi Shoten, 2000.
- Somash Kumar (Author), Haruhiko Tanaka (Translation) "Methods of Community Development through Participatory Development-PRA Practice Handbook" Akashi Shoten, 2008