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🏛 | Mentioning Economic Security Sanae Takaichi, Chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party, gives a lecture in Miyazaki City


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Mentioning Economic Security Sanae Takaichi, Chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party, gives a lecture in Miyazaki City

 
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In the field of food security as well, Mr. Takaichi said that it is necessary to promote technological innovation and secure human resources in the primary industry in anticipation of future food crises and climate change.
 

Sanae Takaichi, chairman of the Liberal Democratic Party's political affairs investigation, visited Miyazaki on the 28th and gave a lecture at the Liberal Democratic Party Prefectural Federation's political and economic seminar. On the 29th ... → Continue reading

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Food security

Food securityWhat is (Shokuryo Anzen Hosho)?foodRegarding the availability and method ofCountryIt is a matter of level.

If there is a discussion about food security, in JapanMinistry of AgricultureAccording to the definition byEconomic securityTreated as part of the United States Department of Agriculture and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States internationallyAchieving compound interest in humansOften treated as part of.

Regarding the notation,Food securityIn some cases.At this time, there are cases where food and food are synonymous with each other, and where "food" is used as food in general and "food" is used as staple food cereals.Like the example of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries at the beginning of the article,Government of JapanThen, "food security" is often used.

Definition

In some cases, there are differences in the definition of this term, as in the following example.

In case the food supply is affected by unforeseen factors, consider measures to secure the food supply and how to activate it flexibly, and prepare on a daily basis in case of emergency. To keep it. — JapanMinistry of Agriculture[† 1]
Food security for the family means that all members of the family always have enough food to lead an active and healthy life.Food security includes at least adequate nutritional value, immediate access to safe food, and the solid ability to obtain food that is acceptable by socially acceptable methods (it is urgent). It does not depend on traditional food supply or means such as grabbing or stealing garbage). — United States Department of Agriculture[† 2]
It can be said that food security is realized when "everyone can obtain the necessary, sufficient, safe and nutritious food necessary for living an active and healthy life at all times." — United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization[† 3]

Overview

Family members are hungryhungerIt is believed that other members of the family will secure food if there is a risk of.According to the World Resources Institute, per capita food produced worldwide has increased over the last few decades.[1]2006 years,MSNBCThe number of overweight people in the world is 10 billion,malnutritionIt is reported that there are more than 8 million people suffering from. [2]2004 yearswith the BBCAccording to the article, it has the largest population in the worldChugokuThen.obesityIt is said that many people are worried about.[3]

8 million people worldwide are extremepovertyIt is constantly dying because of, and 20 billion people are intermittently unable to obtain food due to various degrees of poverty. (Source: FAO, 2003) Late 2007,Bio fuelIncreased use of[4],oilThe price has exceeded $ 1 per barrel,[5]World populationincrease of,[6]Climate change,[7]Loss of agricultural land due to housing and industrial development[8][9]China andIndiaIncreased consumer demand[10] The穀物Pushed up the price.[11][12]In recent years, food riots have occurred all over the world..[13][14][15]

Oil peakIt is becoming more and more difficult to secure stable food due to peak phenomena such as water peaks, grain peaks, and seafood peaks. As of November 2007, more than half of the world's population, 11 billion people, live in urban areas.A crop supply collapse may cause an unprecedented urban food crisis in a relatively short period of time.[16]Late XNUMXsGlobal financial crisisIs also affecting agricultural credit, despite rising grain prices.[17]Food security is a complex issue and stands on many challenges.

From 2009, materials on food security, which summarize food production and its availability from scientific, sociological, and economic perspectives, have been published.[18]In developing countries, more than 70% of people live in rural areas.In that context, the development of agricultural technology for smallholders gives landless people the opportunity to stay in the communities in which they live.In many parts of the world, land cannot be owned, and thus people seeking land for farming for livelihoods rarely get incentives to improve it.

米 国Has about 1 million farmers, which is less than 200% of the population.With food consumptionpovertyHave a deep relationship.Farmers who can afford to escape from extreme poverty rarely suffer from hunger, but poor farmers not only suffer from hunger, but also suffer from food shortages andfamineBelongs to the most dangerous hierarchy when

There are various stages of a food emergency, from a state of food availability to a large-scale famine. "Famine and hunger result from food emergencies. Both food emergencies can be categorized as chronic or temporary. Chronic food emergencies are more likely to cause famine and hunger. It is expected that food will be available to escape hunger. (Chronic) hunger is not famine. It is similar to malnutrition and is associated with poverty and exists primarily in poor countries. "[19]

Food security in the United States

Community food security

What is Community food security (CFS)? Through a sustainable food system that maximizes community independence and social justice, all residents of the community have sufficient food to lead a safe and cultural life. It is in a state where it can be obtained.

The Community Food Security Union defines the six basic principles of community food security as follows:

  • Low-income food demand Like the hunger eradication campaign, CFS focuses on addressing food needs in low-income communities, reducing hunger, and personal health.
  • Wide range of goals The goals of CFS are increasing poverty and hunger, loss of arable land and loss of family farming,supermarket OfRed liningIt is about solving a wide range of problems that affect the food system and community development, and the environment, such as the collapse of local communities, the exhaustion of urban suburbs, and the pollution of air and water due to unsustainable food production and distribution trends.
  • Emphasis on community The CFS approach aims to be self-sufficient in the food resources needed by the community.These resources can include supermarkets, farmers markets, vegetable gardens, transportation, community-based food processing ventures and urban agriculture, to name a few.
  • Self-dependence /Empowerment The Community Food Security Program emphasizes the formation of the ability of individuals to self-sufficient food.Community food security seeks to build assets rather than focus on the lack of community and individual capacity.Community food security seeks to strengthen the collaboration of community residents at all stages of planning, implementation and evaluation.
  • Community-based agriculture A stable agricultural base is the key to the community food supply system.Farmers need more market users, better pay for their labor, and plans to protect their land from suburban urban development.By building a strong bond between farmers and consumers, consumers can gain more knowledge and appreciation for their food resources.
  • Based on the system CFS plans are generally internal normative, transcending many boundaries and embodying collaboration with numerous institutions.

Food emergency

A food emergency is "a state in which a person cannot obtain basic food with the energy and nutritional value necessary to lead a productive life." (Hanger Task Force) In 2005, 2270 million Americans, including 1240 million adults and 3510 million children living in their families, were unable to obtain the food they needed for the year.[20] Families who are unlikely to get more foodPoverty lineThey are single-mother families who live on the following incomes, and they live in both urban and rural areas.[21]From 2003 to 2005, the top three states where many families were unable to obtain the food they needed.New mexico(16.8%),Mississippi(16.5%),Texas(16.0%).[21]

The USDA report raises the following questions: "How often are people hungry in a family that cannot get food?"Approximately 4% of people are reported to be hungry at least once a year, and it is estimated that 1% to 1% are fed nothing during the day.[22]

August 2009, 3,Associated PressIntroduced examples of many children on the verge of hunger in the United States.The article talked about all the mothers of the child, but never mentioned the father.Some mothers also said they were feeding their children junk foods such as potato chips and hot dogs rather than nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables and milk.[23]

Dysgenesis and chronic malnutrition

Many countries have constant food shortages and distribution problems.A huge number of people are suffering from chronic and frequent hunger.Due to chronic hunger and malnutrition, more and more people are suffering from a stunting illness known in medical terms as dysgenesis.This process begins in the womb when the mother remains in that condition for more than one-third of the year.It has a high probability of killing a child, but has a lower mortality rate than famine.When dysgenesis occurs, the damage cannot be recovered even if the nutritional status is improved later.Dysgenesis itself is a mechanism that determines body size by the available calories.Due to the low energy (calories), limited body size has three negative effects on health:

  • Early organ failure after adulthood For example, dysgenesis occurs at age 50 due to structural defects in the early developmental stages of the heart.heart failureThere is a risk of death.
  • People who are stunted are much more likely to get sick than those who are not.
  • Severe malnutrition at an early age often leads to defects in the developmental stages of cognitive ability.

"Analysis is ...MalthusHe points out the essential fallacy of the concept of survival used by, and states that it is still widely recognized.Survival is not determined by nutritional limitsDemographicsDetermined by the catastrophe above.There are multiple stages of survival, not just one, and in that sense population and food supply can be balanced, but it is uncertain whether they are sustainable.However, the number of people who can survive at one stage is small, and it is possible to record a higher case fatality rate than at other stages. "[24]

Global water crisis

Water shortageHas already spurred an increase in grain imports in small countries,[25]Powers like China and India may follow suit.[26]Groundwater levels are declining around the world, including northern China, the United States, and India, due to over-collection of groundwater using powerful diesel and power pumps.Pakistan,アフガニスタン,(I.e.Is affected by that.This will eventually lead to water depletion and reduced grain yields.China continues to be in a grain shortage even with such over-collection of groundwater.[27]If that happens, grain prices are certain to rise.By the middle of this century, it is estimated that 30 billion people worldwide will be born in countries that are already short of water.Afghanistan, next to China and IndiaEgypt,Iran,MexicoAnd small countries such as Pakistan are suffering from large water shortages.Most of the grain is already dependent on imports in these countries except Pakistan.However, with Pakistan's annual population growth of 1 million, it looks like it won't be long before we seek grain from the global market.[28][29]

Soil deterioration

Incentives for agriculture often lead to a vicious cycle of soil exhaustion and reduced agricultural land.[30]Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is in severe soil degradation.[31]United Nations University OfガーナAccording to the African Institute for Natural Resources, based in Africa, if the current trend of soil degradation continues in Africa,2025/May only be able to supply 25% of the population.[32]

Land acquisition

Rich country governments and businesses have millions of hectares to secure long-term foodDeveloping countriesAgricultural land is being acquired.United Nations Food and Agriculture OrganizationJack Diuf, Executive Secretary, warns that the acquisition of such land creates the problem of "new colonialism" in which poor countries produce food for the rich at the expense of their hungry people. .. South Korea TheDaewooLogisticsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euFor biofuelscornAgricultural land for cultivating(I.e. TheウクライナSecuring 25 hectares of land, ChinaSoutheast AsiaA survey was started to secure land in Japan.[33]Arab oil millionaire investors, including fundsスーダン,エチオピア, Ukraine,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Pakistan,Cambodia,Kingdom of ThailandIs investigating.[34]

Climate change

Agriculture:

According to the United Nations Climate ReportGanges River,Indus River,Brahmaputra River,Yangtze River,Mekong River,Salwin river,Yellow RiverIt is the water source of the big river in AsiaHimalaya OfGlacierMay disappear due to rising temperatures by 2035.[35]Approximately 24 billion people live in the basins of rivers that have Himalayan glaciers as their water source.[36]India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan,バングラデシュ,ネ パ ー ル,MyanmarCan be hit by floods and severe droughts in the coming decades.[37]In India, the Ganges is used as drinking water and agricultural water for more than 5 million people.[38][39]Rocky mountains,Sierra Nevada MountainsThe west coast of North America, whose water source is glaciers in the mountains such as, is also affected.[40]Glacier disappearance is not just a problem in developing countries, sea levels are also reported to be rising due to climate change, and less land is available for agriculture.[41]

According to the World Food Trade Model, climate change is expected to have a significant impact on grain yields in other parts of the world, especially in low latitudes where many developing countries are located. There is.Since the recent rise in grain prices, developing countries have been focusing on growing grains.As a result, prices for all grains have risen by 2-2.5% and the number of people in starvation has increased by 1%.[42] Decreased yields are just one of the problems faced by farmers in low latitudes and tropics.According to the Department of Agriculture, the timing of crop planting by farmers and the length of the growing season are expected to change dramatically due to unexplained soil temperatures and changes in water vapor conditions.[43]

children

On April 2008, 4, the world's poorest and most vulnerable children reported that they were the most affected by climate change. The report, entitled "Our Climate, Our Children, Our Responsibility. The Impact of Climate Change on Children Around the World," provides clean water and food, especially in Africa and Asia. He said things would get harder and harder.[44]

Wheat stalk rust

Currently by Ug99wheatStem rust has spread from Africa to Asia and is of concern.This highly toxic wheat disease has killed the world's major varieties of wheat and has driven millions to starvation. Ug99 has spread from Africa to Iran and may have already spread to Pakistan.[45][46][47]

Wheat crops of wild relativesGenetic diversityIs used to improve to modern varieties with rust resistance.Rust-tolerant varieties survive rust at the heart of the origin of wild wheat varieties, and their genetic information is analyzed to finally transfer resistant genes from wild to modern varieties. Was mated by modern breeding methods.[48]

Dictatorship and theft politics

Nobel PrizeIs an award-winning economistAmartya Sen"It is impossible that food problems have nothing to do with politics," as he admits.droughtAnd other natural phenomena are conditions for famine to occur, but government actions or omissions determine the extent to which famine often occurs. In the 20th century, there are many examples of national governments deliberately harming food security.

Government-forced or unfair and closed meanselectionWhen seized power by, their support base is often limited, with peers andpatronTo patronize.In such situations, "domestic food distribution is a political issue. Most countries often prioritize urban areas with the most influential and powerful families and businesses. Governments in general. Often ignores the survival of farmers and rural areas. Farther underdeveloped areas that require government support are further neglected. Many agricultural policies, especially those on crop prices, discriminate against rural areas. Governments often keep basic grain prices artificially low, thus effectively avoiding precarious situations. "[49]

In addition, dictators and military leaders use food as a weapon and do not give it to areas that oppose their rule, while rewarding their supporters.Under such circumstances, food iscurrencyUsed as, thereby acquiring support,famineIs used as an effective weapon against conflicting things.

Governments with a strong tendency to steal politics threaten food security even during a good harvest.When the government monopolizes trade, farmers may be free to make cash crops for export, but they are not allowed to sell at prices below the world market price.The government then sells the grain at global market prices and puts the difference in its pocket.This creates an artificial "poverty trap" that motivated farmers cannot escape even if they work hard.

Rule of lawIn the absence of, or in the absence of private property systems, farmers have little incentive to improve productivity.If one farmland is significantly more productive than the next farmland, it can be an individual goal that affects government.Farmers may be content with the mediocre safety given, rather than taking the expected risk of losing land.

As William Bernstein once pointed out in his book The Birth of'Affluence', "Individuals without property are prone to starvation and to submit to the will of the state because of fear and hunger. If (farmers') property is arbitrarily invaded by the state, those in power will inevitably hire people to threaten them in order to divide those with different political and religious opinions. "

Economic approach

In developing countries, various economic approaches are taken to improve food security.Here are three typical examples.The first is typical of what is advocated by governments and international institutions in most countries, and the other two are more universal to non-governmental organizations.

Western perspective

The idea of ​​maximizing universal farmer interests in a westernized nation is the surest way to maximize agricultural production.

Providing farmers with the maximum and highest quality means possible (meaning here means improving production techniques, improving seeds, securing land ownership, accurate weather forecasts, etc.) ).However, which method to choose depends on the individual farmers' own knowledge and local circumstances.

Like other businesses, the rate of return is usually reinvested in sectors where production is expected to increase, thus increasing future profits.Usually most of the profitsDrip irrigationInfrastructure development and agricultural education, etc.温室It is spent on the technology development department that improves productivity.The increased profits will also attract and increase farmers' double cropping, soil improvement plans and incentives for expanding arable land.

Food justice

A common approach is taken from an alternative perspective to achieve food security.It points out that there is enough food on earth to free all people in the world from the fear of hunger and hunger.It aims to ensure that no one lives without adequate food due to economic constraints and social inequality.

This approach is often referred to as food justice and sees food security as a fundamental human right.It advocates fair distribution of food, especially grains, as a means of eliminating chronic hunger and malnutrition.At the heart of the food justice movement is the belief that it is not food that is lacking, but the political will to distribute it fairly regardless of the economic circumstances of what it receives.

Food sovereignty

The third approach is known as food sovereignty.It overlaps with food justice in some ways, but not exactly the same.It sees the activities of multinational corporations as a new colonialism.It insists that it has the financial resources to buy poor countries, especially tropical agricultural resources.They sell these resources to developed countries other than the tropicsCommodity cropHas a political influence to produce monopoly, and in the process drives the poor out of more productive lands.From this point of view, farmers who practice sustainable agriculture have only cultivable farmland left, and there is little productivity in terms of productivity, and there is no interest in multinational corporations.

It bans the cultivation of commercial crops and advocates devoting local farmers to the cultivation of sustainable crops.It also opposes allowing developed countries to give less subsidies to developing countries as so-called "import dumping."

Summit, etc.

World Food Summit

The World Food Summit was held in 1996 with the aim of renewing the sense of responsibility for fighting hunger.RomeIt was held in.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the World has called for a summit in response to an increase in undernourished people and growing concerns about whether agricultural productivity can meet future food demand.Two key documents have been adopted: the Roman Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Action Plan.

The Rome Declaration called on UN member states to cut the number of people on the planet suffering from chronic malnutrition in half by 2015.The Action Plan is to achieve food security at the individual, family, national, regional and global levels.政府,Nongovernmental organizationI set a numerical target for.

World Food Security Summit

The World Food Security Summit will be held from 2009th to 11th November 16.ItalyWas held in Rome.The convocation of the summit was decided at the Board of Directors of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in June 2009 at the suggestion of Dr. Jack Diuf, Secretary-General.The summit will be held at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is expected to bring together representatives of national and governmental governments.

APEC Food Security Ministers' Meeting

2010 year 10 month,NiigataOpened in1st APEC Food Security Ministers' MeetingSo, worldwidePopulation growth,Abnormal weatherIn the backgroundFood shortageIn response to strong concerns aboutAgricultural products"We said that we would cooperate to strengthen the stable supply ofNiigata DeclarationWas adopted.

July 2012th and 5th, 30KazanMade in2st APEC Food Security Ministers' MeetingThen, while reconfirming that we will continue to work on the "Niigata Declaration", as an effort to ensure food security, discussions were held on expanding agricultural production while coexisting with diverse agriculture, and "APEC's" Regarding food securityKazan DeclarationWas adopted[50].

Toward the realization of food security

"The number of people who do not always have enough food remains high at 8 million and has not declined significantly. 60% of the world's malnourished people live in Asia, a quarter. Lives in Africa, but the proportion of people who are hungry is higher in Africa (4%) than in Asia (1%). According to the latest FAO data, 33 of the 16 countries in Africa. More than 22% of people are malnourished. "[51]

In the 2003 World Food Emergency Nation, FAO states:[52]

"In general, in countries that have succeeded in reducing the number of people suffering from hunger, it is rapid.economic growthIt was characterized that it was able to achieve, especially the growth of the agricultural sector was remarkable.Also, low population growth rate, lowHIVNumber of infected people is highHuman development indexWas also seen. "

According to FAO, solving the problems of agriculture and population growth is essential to achieving food security.Other institutions or individuals (egPeter singer) Also came to this conclusion, advocating agricultural improvement and population control.[53]

United States Agency for International Development[54]Suggests several steps to increase agricultural productivity that are key to increasing rural income and reducing the risk of food emergencies.They include the following:

  • Agricultural scienceAnd improve the technology.Current crop yields are inadequate for an ever-growing population.In particular, improving agricultural productivity will accelerate economic growth.
  • Ownership protection and financial guarantee.
  • EducationAnd through improving healthHuman capitalImprovement.
  • Mechanisms of Prevention and Resolution of Conflicts Based on Responsibility Principles and Transparency and Rule of Law in Public Institutions Democracy and governance are the basis for reducing vulnerable members of society.

United NationsMillennium Development GoalsIs one of the initiatives aimed at achieving food security in the world.In its list of goals, the United Nations "eradicates extreme hunger and poverty" in its first Millennium Development Goals, "agricultural productivity will be key to achieving it on time." It is stated.

"Of the eight Millennium Development Goals, agriculture is the most important to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty." (The Millennium Development Goals call for halving hunger and poverty compared to 8 by 2015).

Collecting wild plants for food, especially in tropical countries, is likely to be an effective alternative to survival and may play a role in poverty reduction.[55]

The link between agriculture, hunger and poverty

To eradicate hunger and poverty, it is necessary to understand the link between these two injustices.Hunger and its associated malnutrition impede the learning and work of the poor, their health and their family's health, and prevent them from escaping poverty.People are in a food emergency when food is not physically available, when they are not socially and economically successful enough to get enough food, or when food is underutilized. Present when malnourished.People who are in a state of food emergency are not enough, and those who show physical symptoms that the body cannot digest food effectively due to infectious diseases and illnesses caused by lack of energy and nutrients due to an unbalanced diet. Individuals who do not have the minimum required energy.It is also possible to define the concept of food contingency from another perspective by considering the physiological use of food in the body within the area of ​​nutrition and health and by mentioning only the inability to ingest sufficient nutritious food.Malnutrition can also be detrimental to one's health, which makes it impossible for the person to feed the family.If left unresolved, hunger can lead to a series of malnourished people, reducing the workforce of adults and the chances of having healthy children, children's learning ability and a productive, healthy and happy life. It will take away the opportunity to send.This truncation of human development gradually undermines the economic growth potential of the next generation of nations.

There is a strong, direct link between agricultural productivity, hunger and poverty.Three-quarters of the world's poor live in rural areas, and they make a living from agriculture.Hunger and malnutrition in children are more common in these areas than in urban areas.Not only that, the higher the proportion of the rural population that earns income solely from self-sufficient agriculture (without the benefit of using advanced technology and markets), the higher the incidence of malnutrition.Therefore, the improvement of agricultural productivity for small-scale farmers is aimed at first benefiting the poor in rural areas.

Increased agricultural productivity allows farmers to produce more food, which leads to better diets and increased incomes for farmers under market conditions given equal competitiveness. ..Farmers are likely to produce more diverse and value-added crops with more money, contributing not only to them but to the economy as a whole. [56]

(Sub) Biotechnology for microfarmers in the tropics

Developing countriesThe expansion of the region where GM crops are cultivated in Japan is catching up with that in developed countries.According to the International Agribio Corporation (ISAAA), the number of farmers cultivating genetically modified crops has increased from 2004 million in 17 countries in 825 to about 2005 million in 21 countries in 850. Brazil has the largest increase in the number of GM crops grown in the world in 2005, estimated to increase from 2004 km² in 50,000 to 2005 km² and 94,000 km² in 44,000.India's growth rate is much higher than in other countries, from 2004 km² in 5,000 to about three times to 2005 km² in 3.[57]

The current variety of high adjustment costs produced by more modern methods has hampered the development of GM crops by modern genetic techniques suitable for farmers in developing countries.But once new seeds are developed, the new seeds bring an improvement in comprehensive distribution methods that are favorable to farmers.

Currently, some research institutes and research groups are, in principle, with people from countries that are non-profit and underdeveloped.BiotechnologyHave a plan to share.These laboratories utilize high-cost biotechnology methods such as germ plasm and plant protection that are inexpensive to research and register.

Food security risks

Dependence on fossil fuels

Green revolutionAs the production of agricultural products continues to increase as a result of the above, the use of energy in the process (because the production of crops requires the consumption of energy) also shows a dramatic increase rate, and the ratio of the effect of energy required for the production of crops. Has decreased.The technology of the Green Revolution is alsoChemical fertilizerとInsecticideとHerbicideRemarkably dependent on, some of whichFossil fuelMust be developed from, resulting in a reliance on agricultural petroleum products.

From 1950 to 1984, the Green Revolution changed the world's agriculture, increasing world grain production to 250%.The energy for the Green Revolution is chemical fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (petroleum), andhydrocarbonbyIrrigationPowered by.[58]

Cornell UniversityでEnvironmental studiesとAgricultureProfessor David Pimentel, who teaches, and Mario Jampietro, a senior researcher at the National Institute of Food and Nutrition, can support a sustainable economy in a study entitled Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy. He points out that the population of the United States is 2 million.To maintain a sustainable economy and prevent catastrophes, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and the world's population by two-thirds, the study said.[59]

The authors of this study believe that the agricultural crisis mentioned is only the beginning of the blow to humankind after 2020 and will not be critical by 2050. There is.The upcoming global oil production peak (and subsequent decline) and in North AmericaNatural gasIt is expected that a peak in production will much accelerate the arrival of this agricultural crisis.[10] Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer has experienced a never-ending rise in food prices and a massive scale in the coming decades.hungerClaims to be seen on a global scale.[60]

However, one thing to point out is (the numbers areThe World Fact BookBangladesh, which is much more densely populated than the United States, achieved full food self-sufficiency in 2002. (U.S. population density is 30km2Bangladesh is 1000km, compared to 1 people per person2There are 1000 people per person, which is more than 30 times higher).It also depends on very little oil, gas and electricity compared to what the United States uses.In addition, China's micro-farmers and landscaping houses before the Industrial Revolution are 1km.2He was developing agricultural technology that could support a population of more than 1000 per person (see FH King's 1911 report, Permanent Agriculture in East Asia XNUMX Years).

Pricing

April 2008, 4, Thailand prices for ricecartelAnnounced plans to create a potential that could lead to.[61][62]

Treat food like any other international trade product

August 2008, 10,Associated PressReported as follows.

"Bill ClintonThe former president said at the United Nations on Thursday:The global food crisis "has hit us all, including me," by treating food "like a color television" rather than having to treat it like the poor in the world.Clinton received support from the United States, especially for fertilizers, breeding seeds, and other Africans who were no longer able to receive the government grants needed to continue farming.World Bank,International Monetary FundCriticized policymaking by other groups over the last few decades.Africa's food self-sufficiency has declined and food exports have increased.International grain prices have now skyrocketed, doubling on average between 2006 and early 2008, driving many in poverty-stricken countries into further poverty. "[63][2008 10, 16]

Food is not the same as any other product.weFood self-sufficiencyWe must return to a policy that maximizes the number of people.It is ridiculous to think that countries around the world can continue to develop without increasing food self-sufficiency.[64] — Bill ClintonFormer US President,United NationsWorld food dayIn a speech at, October 2008, 10

Citations / footnotes

Citation

footnote

  1. ^ Agriculture and Food urine gricultural Production Indices: Food production per capita index, World Resources Institute
  2. ^ Nearly 1 in 5 Chinese overweight or obese, MSNBC, August 18, 2006
  3. ^ Chinese concern at obesity surge, BBC, October 12, 2004
  4. ^ 2008: The year of global food crisis
  5. ^ The global grain bubble
  6. ^ Food crisis will take hold before climate change, warns chief scientist
  7. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite
  8. ^ Experts: Global Food Shortages Could'Continue for Decades'
  9. ^ Has Urbanization Caused a Loss to Agricultural Land?
  10. ^ a b The World's Growing Food-Price Crisis
  11. ^ The cost of food: Facts and figures
  12. ^ Food Price Unrest Around the World, September 2007-April 2008
  13. ^ Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring
  14. ^ Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?
  15. ^ Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits
  16. ^ Mathew Maavak–WE ARE IN A BAD FIX
  17. ^ Amid strong farm economy, some worry about increased debt, Associated Press, April 20, 2008
  18. ^ New ISPP Journal. Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food
  19. ^ Melaku Ayalew–What is Food Security and Famine and Hunger?
  20. ^ America's Second Harvest --Hunger and Poverty Statistics
  21. ^ a b ibid
  22. ^ http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err11/err11.pdf
  23. ^ Pictures of hunger: Photo project captures the life of those in need, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 1, 2009
  24. ^ Robert Fogel, The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death: 1700-2100; Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  25. ^ Water Scarcity Crossing National Borders
  26. ^ Asia Times Online :: South Asia news --India grows a grain crisis
  27. ^ Outgrowing the Earth
  28. ^ The Food Bubble Economy
  29. ^ Global Water Shortages May Lead to Food Shortages-Aquifer Depletion
  30. ^ The Earth Is Shrinking: Advancing Deserts and Rising Seas Squeezing Civilization
  31. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land
  32. ^ Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025
  33. ^ Rich countries launch great land grab to safeguard food supply, The Guardian, November 22, 2008
  34. ^ Arable Land, the new gold rush: African and poor countries cautioned
  35. ^ Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion
  36. ^ Big melt threatens millions, says UN
  37. ^ Glaciers melting at alarming speed
  38. ^ Ganges, Indus may not survive: climatologists
  39. ^ Himalaya glaciers melt unnoticed
  40. ^ Glaciers Are Melting Faster Than Expected, UN Reports
  41. ^ Issues In Food Security
  42. ^ Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security
  43. ^ Issues In Climate Change
  44. ^ UNICEF UK News :: News item :: The tragic consequences of climate change for the world's children :: 29 April 2008 00:00
  45. ^ Millions face famine as crop disease rages
  46. ^ “Billions at risk from wheat super-blight”. New Scientist Magazine (issue 2598): 6–7. (2007-04-03). http://environment.newscientist.com/channel/earth/mg19425983.700-billions-at-risk-from-wheat-superblight.html 2007/4/19Browse.. 
  47. ^ IRAN: Killer fungus threatens wheat production in western areas
  48. ^ Hanan Sela, University of Haifa, Israel See DIVERSEEDS short video
  49. ^ Fred Cuny窶擢 amine, Conflict, and Response: a Basic Guide; Kumarian Press, 1999.
  50. ^ Summary of Results of "2nd APEC Food Security Ministers' Meeting"Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Press Release June 2012, 6
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  53. ^ Peter Singer advocating population control
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  56. ^ http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/books/ar2003/ar2003_essayall.htm Agriculture, Food Security, Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals 2003-2004 IFPRI Annual Report Essay Joachim von Braun, MS Swaminathan, and Mark W. Rosegrant
  57. ^ http://www.isaaa.org/ ISAAA Briefs 34-2005: Global Status of Commercialized Biotech / GM Crops: 2005
  58. ^ http://www.energybulletin.net/281.html, Eating Fossil Fuels. EnergyBulletin.net
  59. ^ http://www.soilassociation.org/peakoil, Peak Oil: the threat to our food security
  60. ^ http://europe.theoildrum.com/node/2225,Agriculture Meets Peak Oil
  61. ^ Australia | April 30, 2008 | Mekong nations to form rice price-fixing cartel
  62. ^ Post | May 1, 2008 | PM floats idea of ​​five-nation rice cartel
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  64. ^ http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/10/23/international/i142025D32.DTL

References/Materials

  • References
  • Document
    • Cox, PG, S. Mak, GC Jahn, and S. Mot. 2001. Impact of technologies on food security and poverty alleviation in Cambodia: designing research processes. Pp. 677–684 In S. Peng and B. Hardy [eds. ] “Rice Research for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation.” Proceeding the International Rice Research Conference, 31 March–3 April 2000, Los Baños, Philippines. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 692 p.
    • Singer, HW (1997). A global view of food security. Agriculture + Rural Development, 4: 3-6. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CTA).
    • von Braun, Joachim; Swaminathan, MS; Rosegrant, Mark W. 2004. Agriculture, food security, nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals (Annual Report Essay) Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

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