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🏛 | New Corona Infected More than XNUMX people for XNUMX consecutive days Governor Yuzaki "Extremely critical situation"


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More than XNUMX people infected with new corona for XNUMX consecutive days Governor Yuzaki "Extremely critical situation"

 
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On the other hand, reservations for PCR tests at all offices in Hiroshima and Fukuyama, which the prefecture is focusing on, are currently suspended.
 

(Governor Yuzaki) "The number of newly infected people is expected to exceed XNUMX today. Extremely critical situation already ... → Continue reading

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Fukuyama City

Fukuyama City(Fukuyama) isHiroshimaEastern part ofBingoA city in the area.1998(10)ChushikokuSecond in the regionCore citySpecified in.

Overview

ChugokuThen.Hiroshima city,Okayama City,KurashikiNext to the non-prefectural office locationMetropolitan areaThe fifth largest in JapanFukuyama metropolitan areaCentral city of.The world's largest single business establishment with cumulative crude iron production of 4 million tonsPig iron integrated steel mill(JFE Steel) Is a heavy industrial city[1]..Has an annual production capacity of 1300 million tons in the cityCrude steelJapan's largest production[2].. In addition, steel-related industries, shipbuilding, machinery industries, etc. will be concentrated. The industrial output in the city is 2 trillion yen and the number of industrial establishments is 1200.San'in districtBeyondKochiBoasting four times the size of Japan[3][4]..The city centerAshida River OfDelta zoneFukuyama DomainSpread over the reclamation plain based on the development of Nitta[5].. Municipal system enforcementOnomichi(Meiji 31),Kure(Meiji 35) Be late5th year of TaishoBefore the war, it was just a small city, but after the war,Bingo Industrial Development Special AreaThe economic scale has expanded rapidly with industrialization.Seto Inland SeaBecame one of the major cities of.One of the trends in urban formation is the development of commercial areas from around stations.This is because Fukuyama Station was built through Fukuyama Castle, which was once the center of the city, and the commercial center of the early modern period was transformed into the modern commercial center.For this reasonFukuyama CastleMost of the moat and most of the stone walls of Sannomaru have disappeared due to urbanization or are buried underground except for Honmaru and Ninomaru.[Source required]In Hiroshima prefectureHiroshima cityHas a population of about 2, second only toCore city[6]After the Hiroshima and Okayama metropolitan areas, the population of the metropolitan area is about 90.Fukuyama metropolitan areaCentral city of.The Fukuyama metropolitan area straddles the prefectural border and is closely related geographically and historically.OkayamaSpreading to the Igasa region, Okayama metropolitan area,Takamatsu metropolitan areaTogether withEast Seto Economic AreaIt may be recognized as.The city areaChugoku Mountains(Kamiishi Plateau)・Fukuyama Plain-Geiyo Islands(Bigo Islands) etc.Sanyo Shinkansen-Sanyo Expressway-National Route 2-Sanyo Main LineAnd an important trunk line in western Japan traverses the city and is an international portFukuyama PortIt has become a key point of transportation such as[6].Fukuyama stationIs someHopeIn addition to stoppingFukushio LineIs the starting point ofLong-distance over 10 routes, which is very common as a local city where non-prefectural offices are locatedExpress BusIt is the gateway from the eastern part of Hiroshima prefecture to the western part of Okayama prefecture.[Source required]

It is said that it has a unique temperament that is different from Hiroshima City and Okayama Prefecture due to historical background.[7]. ThatMetropolitan areaAlthough it is not the prefectural capital due to its scale,Land Transport OfficeInstallation, telephone number area code 084, zip code 720, etc.[7]..It has many large companies including listed companies for its urban population, including world-class steel and shipbuilding companies, and has a concentration of R & D bases for small and medium-sized companies and large companies.[7]..It used to boast a large commercial agglomeration in the city, but it never went into the black and in a very short period of time.Fukuyama SogoWithdraw[8],The remarkable decline of the city center has become a problem.

Geography

Fukuyama CitySeto Inland SeaLocated at the southeastern end of Hiroshima Prefecture in the central part of.

MiharaNorthernYamato TownSourceAshida RiverBuilt by reclamation projects since the Edo period and the delta area that extends to the mouth of the riverFukuyama PlainThere is a city center in. The southern tip of the citySeto Inland SeaFacing the northern mountainous area, the altitude is about 400-500 meters.Kibi plateauThe popular name at the southwest end "Kamiishi PlateauIt is formed from the southern end. This is Okayama PrefectureKurashikiPour intoTakahashi RiverTributaryOdagawaIt is a basin.

The city area is roughly divided into the former Fukuyama city, the eastern part (Zao, Kasuga) area, the southern part (Tomo, Numakuma) area, the Matsunaga (former Matsunaga city) area, and the northern part (Kannabe, Ekiya, Kamo) area. It depends on the situation. The former Fukuyama City incorporated the surrounding local governments one after another, but the eastern part was blocked by the prefectural border and the southern part was blocked by the sea, so the city area expanded to the northern and western parts. As a result, the center of Fukuyama City is biased to the southeast of the city area. On the other hand from the centerOkayamaIbara,KasaokaThe distance to is smaller than the western and northern ends of Fukuyama City. AlsoFukuyama metropolitan areaSpreadIbara,KasaokaIn the meantime, the continuity of the urban area is high, and cooperation across prefectural borders is widely seen in the political, economic and private sectors.

Geography

  • Fukuyama CitySeto Inland SeaIt belongs to the ceremony climate, and even in Hiroshima prefecturePrecipitation amountLess (about 1200mm per year)RiverThe feature is that the flow rate of is small. For this reason, river pollution is remarkable, especially in urbanized areas.SewerIn many places, although some areas have been improved by businessWater pollutionIs a problem. Small amount of running waterEstuary weirFlows north and south due to the disappearance of brackish water due toAshida RiverIs heavily polluted in the middle and downstream,Water quality TheChugoku OfFirst-class riverHas been recording worst 24 for 38 consecutive years until 1[9].
  • The northern half of the city and west of the Ashida RiverChugoku MountainsIt has become a mountainous area.Vegetation The平野The closer to the departmentRed pineMany tend to be monotonous. Mountain rangeweathering-ErosionSusceptible tograniteBecause there are manyups and downsHowever, many valleys are formed mainly along the river. The highest peak in the cityKibi plateauKyonokamiyama at the southern end is 611m above sea level, the second place is Jakuenzan in the northern part of Ekiyamachi, 2m, and the third place is Kasakiyama in the northern part of Kamocho, 546m. There is also partly limestone geology in the northern part of Yamanomachi, especiallyTakahashi RiverTributaryOdagawaThere is the Sararu Gorge that makes up the valley, and there are also nearby scenic spots related to limestone, such as "Yagawa's Klippe" and "Ueharadani Limestone Giant Pebble", a natural monument of the prefecture. Next to each otherIbaraLimestone quarry (Yoshii mining plant) Is also available.
  • South sideSeto Inland Sea(Bingo Nada) Spreads and many islands are scattered, but few islands belong to Fukuyama City.Off the coast of Fukuyama City, it is located almost in the center of the Seto Inland Sea, and the difference in full-tide is very large, exceeding 2 m on average, and the speed of the ocean current is partially very fast.The waves are calm and the wave height is usually less than 50 cm, and even if it is rough, it is about 2 m.(I.e.There are no records damaged by. However, 17th year of Meiji (1884The high waves caused by the typhoon caused severe damage. The largest island in the city is Tajima and the mainland (Numakuma Peninsula) Is a bridge. The seabed is not undulating, and the water depth is about 30 m at the deepest. Once off the coast of Fukuyama City, there were many tidal flats and was blessed with abundant nature, but most of them were reclaimed from the Edo period and the Japan Steel Pipe Fukuyama WorksJFE Steel) It has disappeared due to land reclamation of construction. Currently due to the effects of household and industrial wastewater, etc.Fukuyama PortThe surrounding area is very polluted, and the seawater may turn brown or milky white, especially in summer.But,TomonouraMost of the area along the coast is not very transparent, but it is very beautiful (for the Seto Inland Sea) if it goes off about 5km offshore.
  • There are few earthquakes, and no record has been found in history that caused significant damage. For this reason, until recentlyEarthquake blank areaIt was said that in 2000Tottori-ken Seibu EarthquakeWith a seismic intensity of less than 5, 2001Geiyo EarthquakeBut I recorded a seismic intensity of less than 5. However, there is no human injury in either case. Active faults have not been confirmed until recently, but in 2002 it became clear that there was a "Chajahara Fault" with a class B activity from the Kamo/Miyuki district in the north to the Matsunaga district in the west.[10], Traces of activity since at least the 3rd century have been found.

climate

Fukuyama City is typical due to the influence of topography and location.Seto Inland Sea climate[11]Is. The summer monsoon is blocked by the Shikoku Mountains, and the winter monsoon is blocked by the Chugoku Mountains. For this reason, the weather and humidity are stable throughout the year, and the months of precipitation are bimodal: May, June, and July (during rainy season) and September (during autumn rain and typhoon). The amount of precipitation in the moon (midsummer) is extremely low, and it greatly dents on the rain temperature chart.

Winter:からSpring:OverMainland ChinaFlows in fromYellow sandIs often observed. Also in winterBelow freezingThere are days when it goes down.Pacific highCovered insummerIs unique to the Seto Inland Sea coastcalmOccurs during the daytemperatureExceeds 35°CIntense heat-Extreme heatThere are days when[12].. There is little snowfall, and snowfall on flat areas is rare.

Climate of Fukuyama Special Area Meteorological Observatory (Matsunaga-cho, Fukuyama City, altitude 2m)
Month123456789101112Years
Highest temperature record ° C (° F17.4
(63.3)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
28.6
(83.5)
32.4
(90.3)
34.3
(93.7)
38.2
(100.8)
38.5
(101.3)
36.7
(98.1)
32.2
(90)
26.2
(79.2)
21.4
(70.5)
38.3
(100.9)
Average maximum temperature ° C (° F9.8
(49.6)
10.5
(50.9)
13.9
(57)
19.2
(66.6)
24.0
(75.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.9
(87.6)
32.8
(91)
28.8
(83.8)
23.3
(73.9)
17.5
(63.5)
12.1
(53.8)
20.8
(69.4)
Average daily temperature ° C (° F4.6
(40.3)
5.2
(41.4)
8.5
(47.3)
13.7
(56.7)
18.7
(65.7)
22.5
(72.5)
26.6
(79.9)
27.9
(82.2)
24.0
(75.2)
18.0
(64.4)
12.0
(53.6)
6.8
(44.2)
15.7
(60.3)
Average minimum temperature ° C (° F0.0
(32)
0.4
(32.7)
3.2
(37.8)
8.1
(46.6)
13.3
(55.9)
18.5
(65.3)
22.9
(73.2)
23.9
(75)
19.9
(67.8)
13.3
(55.9)
7.1
(44.8)
2.1
(35.8)
11.1
(52)
Minimum temperature record ° C (° F−8.1
(17.4)
−9.2
(15.4)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.8
(37)
8.0
(46.4)
13.2
(55.8)
15.8
(60.4)
8.0
(46.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
−6.7
(19.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
Precipitation amount mm (inch)38.5
(1.516)
47.0
(1.85)
83.7
(3.295)
91.6
(3.606)
117.7
(4.634)
174.5
(6.87)
198.0
(7.795)
95.2
(3.748)
136.0
(5.354)
91.1
(3.587)
55.1
(2.169)
43.3
(1.705)
1,171.7
(46.13)
Average days of precipitation (≥0.5 mm)5.77.610.39.99.611.610.77.29.37.86.56.5102.8
(I.e.69686766687576737372737271
Average monthlyDaylight hours139.8138.6174.8191.4211.5162.4193.5221.8165.6174.3150.7145.62,069.8
Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency (Average value: 1991-2020, extreme value: 1942-present)[13][14]

Adjacent municipalities

population

Than beforeChugoku / Shikoku regionThen.Hiroshima city-Okayama City-Matsuyama City-KurashikiIt is the fifth largest population size after.Great Heisei mergerAdjacent toBed townAs a result of the transfer of 4 towns, the population is about 46 (Estimated population) Became.

Total fertility rateIs very high for a city of this size. In 2012, it was 1742 with 208th place out of all 1.71 municipalities. 30 as a prefecture with a population of 1.63 or moreNahaAichi prefecture岡 崎 市Is significantly higher than the number one.

Population distribution of Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Japan.svg
Fukuyama City and Population Distribution by Age in Japan (2005)Fukuyama City Age and Gender Population Distribution (2005)
Purple-Fukuyama City
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Fukuyama City (equivalent area) population changes
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan


Region / dialect

City emblem

City badgeBatIs a mountain design. Also, the city emblem is drawn in yellow on black. This is a famous architect from Fukuyama when the municipal system came into effect in 1917.Takeda GoichiHe was involved in the request. About originFukuyama CastleThe area with the mosque was once called the bat mountain, and the bat was originally an auspicious animal due to the influence of Chinese thought. It was chosen as a motif because of its origin theory. In fact, in the early Meiji eraHakodate WarSometimes participated as a new government armyFukuyama DomainTroops are participating in the war with the flag of this bat.

There are roses (established in 1985) and chrysanthemums (established in 2003) as "city flowers". In the 2000s, a mark imitating roses was drawn in publications in the city, or due to roses in the city's facilities. Sometimes the name was used, and the rose was treated according to the “city emblem”,2013From then on, the symbol of the roses will be used differently depending on the purpose, centering on the official emblem of Mt.

Infrastructure development environment

  • Water supplyIs supplied to almost the entire city. It was built by Katsunari Mizuno in the Edo period.Fukuyama Old Water SupplyIt is used until the war and modern water supply was established in the Taisho era and continues to the present day. Sawa, a part of these old waterworks and the first modern water purification plant constructedSawashiroyama ParkIt is preserved as a cultural property. Today's major water purification plants are in Senda, Nakatsuhara, and Minoshima. And especially in the Kannabe areagroundwaterRich in.
  • SewerHas a penetration rate of 65.5%[15](Population rate before the merger of Kannabe town area) Most of the urban areas can be discharged to public sewers.MajorSewage treatment plantIs the Ashida River Purification Center (Minooki Town), Shinhama Treatment Plant, and Matsunaga Treatment Plant.
  • Power isChina Electric PowerSupply at. In the city as a supply sourceSetouchi joint thermal power Fukuyama Kyodo Power Station and FukuyamaRDFThere is a thermal power plant. It will also be the first in the Chugoku region in December 2011.Mega solar, Fukuyama solar power plant started operation off the coast of Minoh.
  • City Gas TheFukuyama gasAvailable in most of the old city.

List of town names

Major mountains, rivers and islands

dialect

  • Fukuyama dialectWas called in this areaBingo valveA dialect based on.Okayama dialectLike the dialect of the Higashi Sanyo regionContinuous vowelThere is a strong tendency for fusion, for example, red (akai) is pronounced as [akæː] (akai).On the other handMikawa dialectCommon expressionThe feature is that is used, and it is possible to draw a clear line with the Okayama dialect.Even within Okayama Prefecture, the areas that used to be the former Fukuyama domain, such as Ibara City and Kasaoka City, are almost the same as the Fukuyama dialect.Dialects of the Aki region such as Hiroshima city from the prefecture name (Hiroshima dialect), ButHiroshimaOnce in the westAkiOwned the regionHiroshima DomainAnd dominated the Bingo region in the eastFukuyama DomainBecause it was divided into two, there is a large difference in dialects within the prefecture.
  • Tomonoura, which has prospered by shipping since ancient times in the cityAboveSome areas are influenced by dialects.

Gangster

Although there is no designated gang headquarters in Fukuyama city, it is the fifth generation in eastern KasaokaAsano group, The third generation in Nishi OnomichiKyodo-kaiHeadquarters.The city is headquartered by the second generation Nakaoka group, a secondary organization of the Asano group, and the third generation Shimomori group (Shimorigumi), a secondary organization of the third generation Kyodokai.

Incident/accident

Politics

Past Fukuyama mayors
Total algebraNameInaugurationRetirement date
First generation191610192612
Second generationNakano Arimitsu19279193812
Three generations19381219448
Fourth generationKoji Mitani1944919463
Five generationsKazuichi Kobayashi1946May 31947May 3
Six generationsMasao Fujii1947419554
Seven generationsTokunaga Yutaka1955May 51970May 5
YatsushiroSadao Tateishi1970May 51979May 7
Nine generationsHiroshi Nakagawa1979May 81983May 8
Ten generationsMakimoto Mikio1983May 81991May 8
Eleventh generationMiyoshi Akira1991May 82004May 8
TwelveAkane Haneda2004May 92016May 9
ThirteenNaoki Edahiro2016May 9Incumbent

Mayor / Deputy Mayor

  • Mayor Naoki Edahiro(Thirteenth generation) 1st term ・September 2016, 9- [16]
  • vice-mayor
  • vice-mayor

City council

  • Chair Masakazu Ogawa[17]
  • Vice Chairman Yusuke Ota
  • Parliamentary group (as of December 2021)
    • Wednesday party 14 people
    • Komeito 7
    • Seiyukai 6 people
    • Civic Union 4
    • 3 members of Fukuyama City Council of the Japanese Communist Party
    • Shinsei Club 3 people
    • 1 independent
  • 38 city council members[18]

Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly (Fukuyama City Election District)

  • Constant number: 10 people
  • Term:2019(ReiwaFirst year) May 5-2023(5nd year of Reiwa) May 5
Representative nameParliamentary nameRemarks
Uda ShinLDPHiroshima Prefectural Assembly
Kiyoshi InabaHiroshima Prefectural Assembly Democratic Prefectural GovernmentNo party membership
Masahiro IshizuKomeitoHiroshima Prefectural Assembly
Eiji MurakamiHiroshima ReiwaIndependent
Ryoichi OgumaKomeito Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly
Ryoji MiyoshiLiberal Democratic Party Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly
Masahara DeharaLiberal Democratic Party Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly
Yutaka MatobaHiroshima Prefectural Assembly Democratic Prefectural GovernmentNo party membership
Tsuneo TsujiJapan Communist Party
Hiromichi MatsuokaLiberal Democratic Party Hiroshima Prefectural Assembly

House of Representatives

ConstituencyRepresentative nameParty nameNumber of winsRemarks
Hiroshima Prefecture 7st Ward(Fukuyama City)Fumiaki KobayashiLDP3Constituency

Administration/out-office organization

National agency

Independent administrative agency

Hiroshima Prefecture Organization

  • HiroshimaFukuyama Government Building (Miyoshi Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefecture Fukuyama Passport Center (Higashisakura Town)
  • Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecturechild consultation center(Seto Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefecture Fukuyama Education Office (Miyoshi Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefecture Eastern Driver's License Center(Tsunogo Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Cultural Center (Higashisakura Town, nickname: Est Park)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Eastern Industrial Technology Center (Higashi Fukatsu Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Fukuyama Higher Technical College (Yamate Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Fukuyama Shonen Nature House (Kanee Town)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Museum of History(Marunouchi)
  • Hiroshima Prefectural Fukuyama Industry Exchange Center (Miyuki Town, nickname: Big Rose)

Fukuyama City Organization

Major organizations --As of May 2021, 3 (Reiwa 5)[19]

  • Mayor's office
  • Planning and Finance Bureau
  • General Affairs Bureau
  • Economic Environment Bureau
  • Health and Welfare Bureau
  • Civic Affairs Bureau
  • Fukuyama Municipal Hospital
  • Construction Bureau
  • Accounting manager
  • Water and Sewerage Bureau
  • Congress Secretariat
  • Election Commission Secretariat
  • Audit office
  • Agricultural Committee Secretariat
  • Fukuyama district firefighting association
  • Board of education

Initiatives for the city environment


History

Ancient times

Almost the entire center of the present-day Fukuyama city was the tidal flat and the sea. Until recent yearsKannabe PlainIt was said that the sea was also called the "sea of ​​holes", but this is now denied from the survey of the distribution of the ruins and the strata. If this name was given, it is highly likely that it was the present Fukuyama city that was reclaimed and landed in the Edo period. The center of the Bingo region in ancient timesBingo countryKokufuThe present location ofFuchu-shiIt was a whole area. Old to thisSanyo roadWas an important highway in the Chugoku region. It shows that the remnant was literally the station house (Yado station) of Sanyo Expressway in the place name of Ekiya town in the northern part of the city. The Sanyo Expressway included in the current Fukuyama city area was passed across the Kannabe Plain, and Fukatsu City, which was established as an outer port, was busy, and this area was the most prosperous area in Setouchi. (Near the current Fukuyama East IC)Yamato kingshipKibiIt is the forefront of the power battle withYamato kingshipIt was also an important base of. Large-scale like the "Futakozuka Tumulus"Front and rear circleAlso, it has a horizontal mouth stone gall that is rare except in Kinai.Old tombIs the leading one in the rest of the countryOld tombIt is an accumulation area. In the south of Bingo located in the central part of SetouchiHarborThere are many. Fukatsu, Tsunogo, Yoshitsu, Naratsu, Imazu, and other place names that mean ports are left today. And above all,Tomonoura TheManyoshuIt had been waiting for the wind, and it had a unique position since ancient times as a tide waiting port.

中 世

Many years in the Middle AgesAshida RiverThe present Fukuyama city gradually changed into land due to the sedimentation of the islands, and the manor gardens such as Honjo and Kinosho were formed.KusadoThe port city, called However, it is believed that the use of port facilities in this town became difficult due to the sedimentation of the Ashida River (the ruins disappeared due to the dredging of the Ashida River). On the other hand, the area of ​​Fuktsu Island called Fukatsu Highland, which has been developed today, has developed into a financial base in Setouchi and has made a great contribution to the subsequent establishment of the Fukuyama domain. In the Heian periodTomoToClearestBy Sekanji Temple,KukaiIt became a base of mission for each of Western Japan, such as the construction of Iouji Temple byNorthern and Northern DynastiesThere were several battles between the North and South dynasties, and valuable cultural assets such as the Five-Storied Pagoda of Jingan Temple were lost. In the Warring States period, the Bingo regionMr. MouriMomentumAmakoIt became a place of base battle with the groupGinzan Castle,Kannabe CastleMany castles were built.

The early modern period

Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodWhen it comes toMr. MouriIn the Tomo, under the protection of Mr. Mohri,Muromachi Shogunate15nd shogunYoshiaki AshikagaStayed (Bingo countrychecking).Battle of SekigaharaAfter thatFukushima,KannabeTomoA branch was set up in.1619Mr. FukushimaReformByTokugawa IeyasuIs a cousin ofMizuno KatsunariAs a wedge of the shogunate towards the leading foreigners of Western JapanBingo countrySoutheastChinaGiven 10 stones in the southwest,Fukuyama DomainIs established. Katsunari is a new castle in Fukatsu Village and Nogami Village in Fukatsu County, which was a tidal flat at the time (Fukuyama Castle)Whencastle townTo build this townFukuyamaI named it. Therefore, the history of Fukuyama to this day isGenwa8 years(1622). In addition, the initial constituent territory isBingo country OfFukatsu-gun,Anna-gun,Numakuma-gun Kamiishi District Shinji Ashida-gun,China OfOda District,Gogetsu-gunWas the majority of each. Mr. Mizuno is from EdoKanda JosuiThe second largest water supply network (Fukuyama Old Water Supply) Was maintained, the canal was pulled from the Seto Inland Sea to the castle, and a large convoy was organized and moored under the castle. Giving land free of charge in industrial developmentJikoTo promote the castle by exemptingKanei7 years(1630) Is said to be the first in JapanClanIssued. Also,RushThe tatami mats produced by the Fukuyama Domain, which controls the production ofBingo tableIt was called and was known as the finest product all over the country.In this way, the foundation of modern Fukuyama development was laid during the Mizuno period.afterwards,1698In the 5th lordMizuno KatsuyoshiAt the death ofUnboxedAnd temporarily the entire Fukuyama domainHeavenAlthough it is said to be under the direct control of the Shogunate,1699ToTadamasa MatsudairaWill be transposed. But,Tadamasa MatsudairaOnly 10 years later1710ToIse countryKuwana DomainAnd transfer it to1710ToMasakuni AbeWas transferred to Fukuyama. After that, Mr. Abe will continue until the Meiji RestorationBingo Fukuyama Domainchecking).

In Kannabe Town, Fukuyama CityBingo Kokubunji TempleHas been discovered[20].Kokufu TheKokubunjiBecause it is placed nearBingo KokufuIt may have been there, and excavation continues, but it has not been confirmed.[21].

Modern

1871,Meiji Restoration OfAbandoned DomainByBingo countryFormer Fukuyama domainKamiishi District,Kofu DistrictHalf of theChinaOda District,Gogetsu-gunHave the majority ofFukuyama PrefectureWas established byFukuyama TownStipulated in. However, from now on, the administrative division will change rapidly,1871ToFukuyama Prefecture TheFukatsuWas renamed to1872)FukatsuKurashiki PrefectureIs integratedOdaWas established by the prefectural office in Oda-gunKasaokaMoved to town. And1875ToOda OkayamaWas transferred to the next year (1876)OkayamaFrom the old Bingo countryNumakuma,Fukatsu,Anna,Cure,Ashida, 6 counties of god stoneHiroshimaWill be transferred to (Fukuyama Town is included in Fukatsu-gun). Under these circumstances,1891,May 9ToSanyo RailwayKasaoka-FukuyamaOpened in the same year, the same yearMay 11Fukuyama-OnomichiFukuyama-cho transformed into an industrial city when was opened.1898May 10, Ashida-Shinji-gun and Fukatsu-Anna-gun are integrated respectively,Ashina-gun,Fuk'an CountyIs established. afterwards,1908In the army41rd RegimentWas established in Fukuyama Town (Fuk'an County), the economy of the town developed and1913May 4Fukuyama-cho incorporated Nogami and Miyoshi villages on December 12,Tomo Light Railway(Fukuyama-Tomo) opened the following year (1914May 7ToRyobi Light Railway(Ryobi Fukuyama (1935Abolished)-Fuchu-cho) opened and transportation facilities were improved,1916Fukuyama Town was abolished,Fukuyama CityWas born.

After municipal enforcement

Fukuyama CityTaisho5 years(1916) It was born on July 7st as the 1rd city in Japan and after Hiroshima, Onomichi and Kure in Hiroshima prefecture.It is said that the population was 73 in the area centered on the old castle town when the city system came into effect.However, the road after its inauguration was not flat.Taisho 32,356 (Taisho 7) shortly after the city system came into effect1918)Rice riotSpread to the city, and from August 8th to 15th of the same year, there were more than 16 participants in the protest rally, and there was an event in which police and military were dispatched to disband.[22]..In addition, the following year, Taisho 8 (Taisho XNUMX)1919) Was hit by a great flood, and at the end of the Taisho era, a plan was raised to abolish the 41st Army Regiment due to the effects of disarmament. The abolition of the 41 regiment could have led to the city's financial collapse, which was avoided by the city's petition.After that, Fukuyama City became the central city of the eastern part of Hiroshima Prefecture in place of Onomichi City, which has few plains and no room for development, due to the steady development and absorption and merger of surrounding villages to expand the city area. ..However, in 20 (1945)ofFukuyama air raidThe city was devastated by this.

Most of the city has been burned down, and due to factors such as population growth due to the return of the repatriated people after the war, Fukuyama City, which has suffered financial difficulties due to the withdrawal of the Army, will enter a period of great turmoil.A black market was opened around Fukuyama Station, which became a burnt field, and the deterioration of public security became serious.Numakuma-gunNumakuma TownThen, the first mayor Hideo Kanbara launched a "town-wide migration" and aggressively South AmericaパラグアイBecame the main force of postwar immigrants as it promoted immigration to[23].. 1960年代に入るとIn the XNUMXsHigh economic growthReconstruction by riding the wave of the world, especially the largest scale in the world at that timeNippon Steel Fukuyama WorksAs a company town, the development of the castle town progressed rapidly and the population increased.In the latter half of the Showa era, the population peaked at about 37 due to the end of the era of high economic growth and the steel recession, but by this time the town of the steelworks had moved to the center of the eastern part of the prefecture.AndGreat Heisei mergerAs a result, the city area expanded further, becoming an area that was almost the former Fukuyama domain and reaching a population of approximately 45, but the actual population growth rate in recent years has only slightly increased.

Chronological Table

Search for a merger with Yue prefecture

1963(Showa38 years)OkayamaKasaokaWas incorporated into the former Mohei village (1889Jomi Village was established together with 2 other villages) and separated from the city, and transferred to Fukuyama City (Yue prefecture merger) The uproar that sought.

Background of the uproar

The former Mohei Village district at the southwestern tip of Okayama Prefecture has been geographically (adjacent to the district) and socially (many relatives of residents live in Fukuyama City and many of them are from Fukuyama City) since that time. It was an area with strong ties to Fukuyama City.1963Okayama OfNissa TownFukuura's strong resident movementHyogoAko CityResidents who were inspired by the merger started a large-scale merger movement (there were several merger proposals before). at that timeHiroshimaMember of parliamentHiroshi Nakagawa(Then later became the mayor of Fukuyama.) With the approval, the approval of several members of the Fukuyama city council is also obtained. In addition, the old district, which has the same circumstances as the former Mohei village district in Jomi Village, agreed to the merger with Fukuyama City and started a joint campaign. After that, the former Mohei village district, together with the former Yonoe village district, submitted a petition for merger to Fukuyama city.

End of the uproar

When the petition for merger is submitted to Fukuyama City, opposition movements from the Okayama Prefectural Assembly and the Kasaoka City Assembly occur. Also, next year (1964) The local governor of Okayama PrefectureTakenori KatoWhen he took office, the governor also opposed the merger movement and the turmoil ended.

Sister cities/partner cities

Overseas

Domestic

Partner city
  • Flag of Okazaki, Aichi.svg岡 崎 市(Aichi
    • Born in okazakiTokugawa IeyasuAnd the first lord of FukuyamaMizuno KatsunariIs related to his cousin. In addition, the municipal organization enforcement date is also the same. November 1972, 11 Goodwill city tie-up signed.
  • Flag of Bunkyo, Tokyo.svgBunkyo ku(Tokyo
    • After the middle of the Edo periodBingo Fukuyama Domain In the Nishikata district of the ward where there was the Abe family's mansion, on the site of the Seinokan, a clan school established for the purpose of training the clan of the Edo clan's residence, the Seinosha, which was the predecessor of the current Seino Elementary School in Bunkyo Ward, was established. In the same way, using the site of the clan residence as one of the best luxury residential areas in Bunkyo Ward, and in March 2018, based on the relationship that built a foundation on which many literary people who shaped the image of Bunkyo Ward lived, Conclude an agreement on mutual cooperation such as culture, tourism and disaster prevention. There is also a slope named Fukuyama Slope in the Nishikata area.[24]
More

More

Areas with deep exchanges but no formal friendship ties
  • Hiroshima prefecture flag HiroshimaFuchu-shi-Onomichi-Kamiishi Kogen Town(Collaboration with neighboring municipalities and fire and emergency departments)
  • Okayama prefecture flag OkayamaIbara-Kasaoka(Wide range of cooperation such as firefighting emergency, city planning, administrative services in neighboring local governments and the same metropolitan area)
  • Ibaraki prefecture flag IbarakiYuki(This is because the founder of Fukuyama, the first lord of the Fukuyama lord, Mizunoya, was established in the fifth generation after the severance. The Yuki Castle Ruins have the Satoshi Shrine dedicated to Katsunari Mizuno.)
  • Ibaraki prefecture flag IbarakiMito(The deep relationship of friendship between Masahiro Abe, the XNUMXth lord of the Abe family, and Masaaki Tokugawa, the lord of Mito)

In particularIbara-KasaokaAre bordered by the prefectural borders, and are closer to the center of Fukuyama than the northern and western ends of Fukuyama. Although both cities cross prefectures, they are very closely related, and there are many opportunities to be treated as one in terms of city planning.

AdministrationCountries that have deep exchanges at the private level, although they do not have a friendship city tie-up
  • Bulgarian flag (Bulgaria Stara Zagora) Friendly relations through "roses" between the administrative and private organizations such as the Bulgarian government centering on Kazanlak City and the local NPO "Fukuyama Bulgarian Association".
  • Brazilian flag Federal Republic of Brazil(Rim where many Japanese Brazilians live in the western part of the city)

Transportation

空港

The route is HiroshimaMiharaIt is inHiroshima AirportFrom Fukuyama station squareAirport limousine busAbout 65 minutes,Okayama AirportIt is less than an hour and a half by car. There used to be a limousine bus service from Fukuyama Station to Okayama Airport, but it has been abolished because there were few users. Also larger via the ShinkansenOsaka International Airport,KIX,Fukuoka AirportIt takes about 120 minutes for each and it is used depending on the route and price.

Train

West Japan Railway Company

Sanyo ShinkansenStops 4-5 trains per hour during the day for Shin-Osaka and Tokyo, and 4-6 trains for Hakata.Mizuho,HopeThen, the shortest 15 minutes to Okayama, the shortest 23 minutes to Hiroshima,Shin-Osaka58 minutes toHakataFrom reaching to in 86 minutesSanyo regionMajor cities andKansai area,KyusyuEasy access to the north,Tokyo StationIt takes 210 minutes at the fastest by Nozomi.

Ihara Railway

JR West JapanAbout the central stationFukuyama stationFromSanyo LineTo the Okayama area, in addition to 4 trains per hour at each station on the conventional line during the daytime,Sun liner) Runs only in the evening and later. The time required at high speedKasaoka StationUntil 13 minutes,Shin Kurashiki StationUntil 25 minutes,Kurashiki StationTo about 33 minutes,Okayama stationUp to 45 minutes. During the daytime, there are about 3-4 trains running to Hiroshima every hour.Onomichi StationUntil 18 minutes,Mihara StationUntil 33 minutes,Saijo StationUntil 69 minutes,Hiroshima StationIt takes 100 minutes to get there. There are no high-quality trains on the conventional line to Hiroshima, and all trains to HiroshimaItozaki StationorMihara StationUp to theHongo StationAll trains to the west need to change trains at Itozaki or Mihara (before the March 19 revision, there were direct trains).Starting from Fukuyama Station, inlandFuchu-shi,Miyoshi CityTieFukushio LineAndIbara,General corporationConnect withIhara RailwayIhara LineAlso only 3 per dayKannabe StationIt goes directly to Fukuyama station via.

Incidentally,Tomo RailwayOperated byTomo Railway LineAlso existed from 1913 to 1954. Fukuyama on the JR Fukushio Line-FuchuRyobi RailwayWas the predecessor, but during the Ryobi Railway era, it was partly different from the current Fukushio Line.

Expressway/national road

Sanyo Expressway,National Highway 2The main transportation network such as is running east and west in the city,Hiroshima metropolitan area,Okayama metropolitan areaIt is tied up with. In addition, two Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridges connecting Shikoku (Seto Chuo Expressway-Setouchi Shimanami KaidoBecause it is located in the middle of the starting point on the Honshu side,Kagawa-Ehime such asShikokuGood access to the north. See also EhimeImabariExpress bus that runs 16 round trips a dayShimanami LinerNishi-Seto Expressway(Shimanami Kaido) Travel time is over 1 hour.

Transit Bus

City/suburbs

Unusually on the scale of the city, three private bus companies operate in the city center. The north swing bus and Onomichi bus have routes in the city, but there is no access to the city center.

Igasa Bus CompanyOkayamaHeadquartered in Fukuyama City, however, due to historical reasons, its main service area is. Is the company's largest terminal. As a result, the company is a route bus company with multiple Yue County routes, which is rare in Japan.

Intercity high-speed line

Lines outside the prefecture

Although Fukuyama City is a non-prefectural office, it has more than 10 routes outside the prefecture. On the other hand, the Chinese bus, which operates most of the high-speed buses, suffers from a difficult business environment as a result of excessive expansion of routes in search of profits, and behaviors such as forcing crew members to operate unreasonably are often exposed, and instructions are given by the authorities. I've been Chinese buses, whose profitability declined due to excessive competition for high-speed buses, could not eliminate the cumulative deficit that accumulated and entered business failure in the 2000s.Ryobi GroupWas transferred to.

Prefecture lines

Due to competition with the Shinkansen, the Rose Liner operates as frequently as 1 round trips a day.

Port

Routes to/from Fukuyama City

The following 4 routes exist. Formerly Fukuyama Port- KagawaTadotsu Town間 にFukuyama/Tadotsu FerryWas in service, but was abolished as of August 2008, 8.

public service

Policemen

Hiroshima Prefectural Police

Fire and emergency

(Organized in 2 cities and 1 town of Fukuyama City, Fuchu City and Kamiishi Kogen Town, and operating fire and emergency services.) 8 stations, 1 minute station, 6 branch offices

  • Headquarters (5th Okinokami-cho, Fukuyama City)
  • Minami Fire Department (5th Okinokamicho, Fukuyama City), Tomo Branch Office (Tomocho Tomo, Seki Town, Fukuyama City), Seto Branch Office (Seto Town, Fukuyama City)
  • Kita Fire Station (2, Narazu-cho, Fukuyama-shi), Station House Branch (Enoke-machi, Fukuyama-shi Mannokura)
  • Higashi Fire Station (4th Hikino-cho Kita, Fukuyama City)
  • West Fire Station (3rd, Matsunagacho, Fukuyama City), Imazu Branch Office (under Imazu Town, Imazu Town, Fukuyama City), Numakuma Inland Sea Branch Office (Tsuneishi, Numakuma Town, Fukuyama City)
  • Minakami Fire Station (Minooki Town, Fukuyama City)
  • Ashina Fire Department (Shinichimachi Tote, Fukuyama City)
  • Fuk'an Fire Department (Kawabe, Kannabe-cho, Fukuyama City), Yasuda Branch Office (Yasuda, Kamiishikogen-cho)
  • Fuchu Fire Department (Fuchu-cho, Fuchu-shi), Kozuka Branch Office (Senjokotsuka, Fuchu-shi)

Main hospitals in the city

Mass media

tv set

    • Previously, NHK Fukuyama Broadcasting Station existed in the city (currentlyNHK Fukuyama Branch).

radio

PreviouslyHiroshima FM BroadcastAlso had a branch office, but it was abolished due to rationalization.

News (Chinese)

Regional paper

  • Economic report (the number of subscribers is the highest in the region's top economic magazine)
  • China Business Information
  • Bingo Economic Report (Headquarters is Onomichi City)
  • Wink (Town Information Magazine)
  • Fukuyama Living Newspaper (free magazine)
  • Press seed (free magazine)
  • Town Information Fukuyama (Town Information Magazine) *Canceled in October 2006 issue.

Economy

Industrial

Fukuyama City's manufactured product shipment value is approximately 1 billion yen[26]It is the second largest in the Chugoku-Shikoku region after Kurashiki City.Especially completed in 2 (Showa 1961)JFE Steel West Japan WorksThe Fukuyama district (formerly Nippon Kokan Fukuyama Steel Works) is not only the company's largest manufacturing base but also the world's largest steel mill, and has several large factories in the shipbuilding and machinery industries.

In the local industry, it is a major manufacturing base for textiles, electronic equipment, pumps, cranes, machine inspection equipment, food trays, rubber manufacturing industries, etc.

In addition, the number of listed companies and only one companies in that industry is very large compared to the ratio of city size,Shizuoka浜 松It is the region with the largest number of listed and top-share companies next to the district.[Source required]

Core industry/Listed company

Transportation equipment
Food
  • Toraya Honpo(Manufacturing and sales of Japanese and Western confectionery, head office location)
  • (Manufacturing and sales of noodles, head office location)
  • (Manufacture and sale of pickles/head office location)
Service industry/real estate
  • Vessel(Hotel/condominium management, building maintenance/printing/restaurant), formerly Fukuyama Estate Co., Ltd. Head office location
  • Royal corporation(Driving school, crane school, small ship training school, headquarters location)
Clothing/fiber
Wholesale/Retail
  • Hallows(Food supermarket chain/Registered head office location)
  • Asseed(Vending machine, beverage, liquor manufacturing, head office location)
  • Sunflower sunflower(Drugstore/head office location)
Transportation/transportation industry
Other manufacturing industry
  • FP Corporation(Food tray manufacturing major/head office location) Largest in the tray manufacturing industry
  • Hocos(Machine manufacturing/head office location)
  • Sigiah Seiki Co., Ltd.(Machine manufacturing/head office location)
  • Teral(Machine manufacturing/head office location)
  • Manac(Chemical manufacturing major/head office location)
  • Japanese hoist(Hoist crane/multi-storey parking lot head office location)
  • Oh H Tea(Manufacturing of electronic board inspection equipment and head office location)
  • Nitto Net(The head office is in Tokyo, where the company was founded and the current actual head office is Fukuyama City)
  • Fukuyama gas(City gas supply company/head office location)
  • Lhotse(Transport device/head office location)
  • JFE SteelWest Japan Works Fukuyama area (Steel industry, one of the world's largest steelworks)
  • Mitsubishi ElectricFukuyama Works (electrical parts)
  • sharpElectronic Device Business Unit (CCD image sensor, LCD driver)
  • Ishii notation(Printed circuit board manufacturing equipment manufacturer/head office location)
  • Hirta Industry(Automobile parts manufacturingOkayamaKasaoka (Founded in Fukuyama City)
  • Oriental frame(Hanging scroll mounting/head office location)
  • Suzuki Engineering Shop(Construction industry, oldest design office in Hiroshima prefecture, headquarters location)

Mining

There used to be the following mines, but they are all closed.

  • Otani Mine-Otani Hongo Village. Calculated mainly for copper in the Edo period. Permanent mine. It produced 6 pieces in 14, but closed after that.[27].
  • Minami Copper Mine-Yamanami Village, Numakuma District. Produced 44 pieces of copper in 2180, but stopped operations in the Taisho era[27].
  • Otoyo Copper Mine-Otsune Tsuneishi, Millennial Village, Numakuma-gun. Produced 7 pieces in 8, but stopped operations by 7619[27].
  • Competition -There was a match in Akasakamura. Mining started in the same year. Shut down by 23. Operated intermittently until 28[27].
  • Copper mine in the trench (Dabo)-Copper mine on the hillside of Kumagamine in Numakuma town. Trial drilling started in May 11[27].
  • Hongo town coalfields -Coal field in the barn area of ​​Matsunaga Hongo Town[28].. Lignite was produced, but the operation period was short.

Commercial

Fukuyama station square (central city)

It is the area with the most commercial concentration in the city and is formed around the south exit of Fukuyama Station.

It was a little far from the station until the 30sMain streetThe old shopping streets such as Kasumi, Kasumi Ginza, and Daikokucho have been the center of retailing. In 1948 (23) shortly after the warTenmayaOpened in front of Fukuyama station and in the 40sDaieiNichii (later FukuyamaVIVRE,),Izumi(Later complex store buildingCASPAThe main axis of retailing has moved to the front of the station.

1984The Tenmaya Fukuyama store, which was rebuilt in the Motomachi urban redevelopment project in (59), has undergone a large floor space expansion, and the commercial area in front of the station is at its heyday. However, by the 1990s, the commercial center had shifted to suburban stores such as Zao and Kasuga (eastern part),1992In 4, the largest department store in the Chugoku region at that timeFukuyama SogoOpened in the site of the factory southwest of the station. Sales were sluggish due to the collapse of the bubble economy and the location slightly away from the station.2000It was closed in 12. Also, in the previous year, FukuyamaVIVREClosed due to poor sales,2005In 17, Daiei Fukuyama store was closed.

Fukuyama Sogo remains purchased by Fukuyama City2003In 15, the Tenmaya-affiliated complex specialty store building moved inFukuyama Lots", and after Tenmaya withdrew in 2013 (Heisei 25)Yamato Information ServiceSwitched to the operation of "RiM-fIn the former site of Fukuyama Vivre, hotels, rental offices, restaurants,Bedrock bathA multi-purpose building such as a facility opens, and the site of Daiei East Building2002From (14)Futaba booksGIGA moved in, but closed in 2009, and Tomotetsu Seven acquired it and rebuilt it as a specialty store building.The site of the Daiei West Building was demolished and a high-rise condominium was built.In 21, the dismantling of the Daiei East Building will begin, and the Daiei Roynet Hotel Fukuyama will be completed in 2018 on the site.In addition, the building at the site of Bibure was partially dismantled and rebuilt into a 2020-story hotel that houses "Hotels 1, 2, and 3".There is also a plan for a 14-story condominium on the site of the NHK Fukuyama Broadcasting Station, which is adjacent to the site.A redevelopment plan for the former Caspa site was announced in April 20, and a building centered on a 2019-story condominium with commercial facilities on the lower floors and a 4-story hotel is scheduled to be completed by 22.[29].

In order to stop the decline in the station area, Fukuyama City started the circulation bus route "Mawa Rose" in 2009 (21) following the purchase of Fukuyama Sogo traces, and in 2011 as a maintenance project around the station front Set up an underground pick-up area at the south exit of the station, and at the same time, set up a bicycle parking lot and road maintenance, and put forth various promotion measures. In the same year, a commercial/residential complex building was redeveloped by a private sector.Ines FukuyamaWas completed, but the tenant moved to Ines FukuyamaCaspaWill be closed in 2012. There was also a redevelopment plan centered on a complex building in Fushimi Town on the southeast side of the station, but it failed, and the redevelopment preparations association was dissolved in 2016.[30].

On the other hand, at the station Naka, “Fukuyama Sun Talk” has accumulated 7 stores, including the first 91 stores in the Chugoku and Shikoku regions.2007(Heisei19) Reopened on November 11st as "Sansute Fukuyama" (Sun Station Terrace Fukuyama). On July 1, 2008, the Municipal Library, which had been in Miyoshi-cho on the northeast side of the station until now, has progressed south from the center as Fukuyama City Lifelong Learning Plaza (nickname: Manabinokan Rosecom) in Chuo Park (Fukuyama Moved to the former site of the civic center.

In addition, Fukuyama station front as a living environment, construction of condominiums has advanced due to the return to the city from the latter half of the 2000s and the convenience of the Shinkansen stopping. In addition, the north exit of Fukuyama Station was relatively undeveloped, with lots of condominiums, rental hotels, business hotels, restaurants, retail stores, and other open spaces and parking lots. Recently, new business hotels and high-rise condominiums were constructed one after another,2008(Heisei20 years)Fukuyama UniversitySatellite school was established.

Matsuhama-cho, Irifune-cho, Minato-cho, Oji-cho (central town)

It is an area that extends about 1.5 km southeast of Fukuyama Station. Substantially controls the center of Fukuyama cityFukuyama East Police StationThere is a red light district in Matsuhama town and Irifune town, but it was at the intersection of the national highway No. 2 and the prefectural road in the city center.Nippon KayakuLarge-scale redevelopment centered on the site of the Fukuyama Factory (moved to Minookicho in the city)Ito-YokadoFukuyama store (closed in February 2019.Opened as Youme Town Fukuyama on June 2 of the same year)Tenmaya,Tenmaya Happy TownEquipped with a large-scale parking lotPort Plaza NikkaWas built.The city has also carried out a large-scale land readjustment around the area, and the Fukuyama Arts and Culture Hall (on the site of the factory in the adjacent Matsuhama Town)Leaden Rose) Is open.In the place where the inlet of the port town adjacent to Irifune-cho was reclaimedFukuyama City UniversityIs open.In addition, large-scale retailers such as Edion Fukuyama Main Store in Irifune-cho and K's Denki Fukuyama Store in Matsuhama-cho have entered the market.Many condominiums for sale and rental are located so as to surround the area.Ojimachi is headquartered here mainly along Route 2.Aoyama of clothesSuburban stores are concentrated around the main store.

Okinokami Town

There is a large concentration of large and medium-sized medical facilities centered around the former National Hospital (present-day National Fukuyama Medical Center) in the area spread about 2 km south of Fukuyama Station, and there are also many condominiums and rental apartments. There is some commercial accumulation, but lack of continuity with the station area. In the neighboring Midoricho, the suburban commercial facility Coco Rose and Midoricho Mall will open in the place where Midoricho Park, which is a large-scale urban park, and the Tenmaya Happy Town Midorimachi store and Sunpia were once located. Also in the Okinokami districtRoute in Spa Resort Hotel Grantia Fukuyama has a complex banquet hall, Arse.

Showa Town, Minami Town, Sumiyoshi Town, Matsuhama Town, Irifune Town, Teramachi, Asahi Town

There are many rental and condominium apartments in the area extending about 700 meters southeast of Fukuyama Station.

From Teramachi to Asahimachi, it was collected according to the castle town construction of Katsunari MizunoTempleAre accumulated.

Higashi Fukatsu, Minami Zao, Hikino, Myojin, Tejo, Kasuga (eastern part)

Fukuyama stationIt is an area with the next largest accumulation in front of Fukuyama Station, which extends about 3-5 km east from the front. Formerly a vast area of ​​reclaimed agricultural land, the plainsNational Route 182Installation of line bypass and 40'sLarge-scale land readjustmentThe mountainous area was maintained by Nippon Steel Pipe (currentlybecause of the ) Isegaoka Kasugadai was developed as a housing complex. Against this backdrop, the city formulated the Eastern Fukutoshin concept and started JRHigashifukuyama StationThe Fukuyama Municipal Hospital (Zao Town) Higashi Fukatsu Town will have infrastructure such as a pool donated by Nippon Kokan at the time and a memorial park with a small amusement park. And along the prefectural road that runs through the plains of the Zao and Kasuga districts from east to west, the "Izumi Zao store (currentYoume Town Zao)” opened and many suburban stores have been located in the surrounding area since around 60, and the geographical conditions of having large-scale residential areas such as Mt. Makuyama, Isegaoka, and Oyadai in the hinterland Airi has made great progress. In addition, in 63Sanyo Expressway OfFukuyama East ICHas opened to Zao-cho, and the convenience of transportation has further increased. Currently, high-rise condominiums, rental condominiums, detached houses, offices, and other locations are flourishing, forming a high-level agglomeration that is not just a suburban commercial area. .. Besides this, JRSanyo ShinkansenOf Myojin TownNational Route 2Along the lineYamada DenkiHome Appliances House YAMADA Fukuyama StoreNitori-Round one-Futaba books-Don QuixoteNew commercial clusters are being made, and in the Isegaoka area, a food supermarket using the former site of the JFE West Japan WorksHallowsAnd home improvementYou Ho,TSUTAYA-McDonald'sThere is a shopping mall whose core is.

Matsunaga (West)

Fukuyama stationIt is about 10 kilometers west from the front, and onceMatsunagaHowever, it was merged into Fukuyama City in 41. Under the direction of Shigemasa Honjo, a vassal of the Mizuno family in the Edo period, the salt industry has flourished since the reclamation of the shallow coastal terrain, and the use of that fuel as a fuel for the clogs of secondary geta flourished secondarily. can not see. After the abolition of salt fields under the national policy of 35, the former salt fields in the southern part of the station were gradually reclaimed and transformed into residential areas and commercial areas. (The Royal Driving School uses the former Shioda site as it is, and the ground surface is obviously lower than the surrounding area.) In the former Matsunaga City era, it flourished as a post town from the Middle Ages and in the Edo era the Imazu area where the main team was also located. JR to tieMatsunaga StationThe northern part was the central area, but the south side of the station was also concentrated around the suburban stores starting with the opening of the Youme Town Matsunaga store. There is also a red-light district at the south exit of the station, although it is small. Around the stationFukuyama UniversityWith the opening of the, many rental condominiums for students mainly in the middle and high rise started to line up. WestOnomichiTakanishi-cho, which is the border with the city, tells the story of the past, which was the same former Takasu-mura area before the merger of cities, towns and villages, due to the completion of the bridge connecting Minamimatsunaga and Takanishi-cho, land readjustment and the opening of the Yamada Denki Tech Land Fukuyama Nishi store. Continuous accumulation is possible.Safa Fukuyama, a suburban power center, is also located in the Tsunogo, Akasaka, and Seto districts, which are the midpoints between the center of Fukuyama City on the east side and the Matsunaga district.Life stage Taiyo Fukuyama storeEtc. are located.

Ekiya/Miyuki/Kannabe (North)

Fukuyama stationThe Ekiya district is an area that was transferred to Fukuyama City in the 6s and is located in the area from 7 to 50 km north from the front. JR for a long timeFukushio LineA small shopping street was only formed along the prefectural road on the north side of theSatyBut now it is withdrawing from the food supermarketHallowsIt is the main station house mall) opened and became the forerunner of suburban stores in this area. And, although commercial accumulation was completed around this, the commercial center wasNational Route 486I moved along the line.

The Miyuki district had only a small concentration along the prefectural road in the south, but the opening of National Route 486 in the north,Fukuyama Heisei UniversityAnd Chugoku Chuo Hospital, Hiroshima Prefectural Fukuyama Industrial Exchange Center (Big rose) Has become a core area of ​​the Kannabe plain, and now has a continuous commercial cluster along the national highway in the station area and the Kannabe area.

Kannabe districtNational Route 313Along the lineNational Route 182Kawaminami/Michigami district along the line, former Sanyo Expressway (Saigoku Highway) There was only a small commercial cluster along the line, but JRKannabe StationIn the vicinity of the 50s, a suburban commercial facility, Tenmaya Happy Town Kannabe store (currently withdrawn from a food supermarket)heartWill enter) and the Nichii Kannabe store (change clothes to Saty but withdraw and Yuho will open but move to an adjacent land) will open.However, the area around Kannabe Station is currently declining due to poor road conditions and the development of the Miyuki area.On the other hand, along National Route 486, there is a power center near the intersection with National Route 313 (inside the Yuno land readjustment project site).MrMax(CurrentlyFrespo Kannabe MallMoved to) and act Kannabe opened, and in the Heisei era, all the national highways 486 were connected and connected to national highway 182, which led to the formation of a continuous accumulation with the Ekiya and Miyuki districts. And in 17 (2005) Near the intersection of Routes 486 and 182 (inside the roadside land readjustment project site)Fuji Grand KannabeA large-scale commercial area centered on was completed.

Kawaguchi, Taji rice, new life, Akebono, one letter, water cup (south)

The area extends about 4-5 km south of Fukuyama Station, and Kawaguchi and Tajime were reclaimed in the early Edo period, and the new life (including Akebono and Ichimonji) was reclaimed at the end of the Edo period. Prior to the large-scale land readjustment project in the 1970s, it was a countryside with only a small commercial agglomeration along Bus Street. 47 (Showa XNUMX)1972The Irie Ohashi Bridge was erected on the canal that separates Tegi Town and the prefectural road 182 that connects the National Highway 380 and the Prefectural Road 6 was opened, and suburban commercial facilities began to be built around this street. However, due to the small surrounding population and the closed geographical environment surrounded by the sea, large-scale agglomeration has not yet occurred. XNUMX (1994), the road (Fukuyama Station Minooshima Line) that continues from Ekimae Odori was opened, and in 15 (2003The opening of the Ashida River bridge in) has connected to the water bank on the opposite bank of the Ashida River, and the traffic conditions have improved significantly. The commercial center has moved from the Kawaguchi district to the Shinsei district. In addition, the commercial concentration of Mizunomachi, which has crossed the Ashida River Bridge, is increasing as the land readjustment project is completed.

Have a big ball,BowlingAfter withdrawing from the AEON-affiliated shop malls adjacent to Billiards, comics stores, etc.2007) Since then, a large-scale comprehensive amusement facility (Corona World) has been built, a Ferris wheel has been installed, and a fireworks display, which is an annual event of the Fukuyama Summer Festival, has been held near the Ashidagawa Bridge. The population growth rate is second only to the area around the station.

At each place, a stone god called Jin-san is installed by the Daishin Life reclamation project carried out during the Edo period.

In this areaQuiThe production of (a kind of potato) is flourishing, and Fukuyama has the highest production in Japan (as of 1).

Minoshima/Off the Minoo (South)

Originally, Minoshima was a remote island floating in Fukuyama Bay, but it became a land continuation due to the reclamation of the great new life that took place from the Edo period to the early Meiji era. It is a region rich in crops. There is also an old burial mound in nearby Chayama.

Shinnoyo is a reclaimed land that extends a few kilometers from Minoshima, called Minooki, and is lined with China Electric Power's solar power plant, FP Corporation, Nippon Kayaku, various manufacturing companies, and port facilities.

New City (North)

Bingo Ichinomiya is also settled in an area that has prospered since ancient times in an area extending about 15 km northwest of Fukuyama Station. JR along the prefectural roadShinichi StationThere was a small commercial cluster nearbyNational Route 486There is a certain amount of continuous commercial accumulation near the boundary between Ekiyacho and Fuchu City. The textile industry is prosperous and it is also famous as the birthplace of Bingo Kasuri, one of the three major Kasuri patterns in Japan. It is a textile town where the head offices of major working companies such as Jishido and Koukos and major jeans companies such as Blueway and Kaihara are located.

Major large-scale retail stores

Main accommodation

  • Hotel 1-2-3 Fukuyama
  • Richmond Hotel Fukuyama Station
  • Fukuyama New Castle Hotel (Fukuyama's largest city hotel)
  • Hotel Area One Fukuyama
  • Fukuyama Terminal Hotel
  • Castle Inn Fukuyama
  • Sun Hotel Fukuyama
  • Fukuyama Oriental Hotel
  • Anchor Hotel Fukuyama
  • Marunouchi Hotels
  • Fukuyama Plaza Hotel
  • Fukuyama Rose Garden Hotel
  • Candeo Hotels Fukuyama
  • Vessel Hotel Fukuyama
  • Hotel Grantia Fukuyama SPA RESORT
  • Kageshokan Rentei
  • Tomo Seaside Hotel
  • Shrine Residence Tone Konne
  • Hotel Ogutei
  • An inn where a sense of life changes
  • Toyoko Inn Fukuyama Shinkansen station square
  • Tsuneishi Harbor Hotel
  • Daiwa Roynet Fukuyama station square (under construction)
  • Livemax Fukuyama station square

List of major major corporate branches

List of local financial institution branches with books and branches in the city

Local bank
  • Hiroshima BankFukuyama Sales Headquarters, Fukuyama Nishi, Fukuyama Hu Town, Fukuyama Tejo, Fukuyama Kasuga, Fukuyama Minami, Fukuyama Zao, Fukuyama Kawaguchi, Fukuyama Seto, Tomo, Matsunaga, Matsunaga Minami, Station House, Shinichi, Millennium, Kannabe, Kannabe Nishi Branches・Ito-Yokado Fukuyama branch office
  • Bank of ChinaFukuyama/Fukuyamahu-cho/Matsunaga/Tomo/ekiya/Kannabe/New City/Millennium/Fukuyama Kasuga/Fukuyama Nishi/Fukuyama East/Fukuyama Minami Branches
  • Yamaguchi BankFukuyama Branch
  • San-in Godo BankFukuyama Branch
  • Iyo BankFukuyama Branch
  • Hyakuju BankFukuyama Branch
  • West Japan City BankFukuyama Branch
Second regional bank
  • Momiji BankFukuyama District Headquarters, Matsunaga, Fukuyama Minami, Zao, Kannabe, Fukuyama Central, Fukuyama East, Fukuyama West Branches, Housing Center Fukuyama, Fukuyama Mifune, Kawaguchi, Tejo, Miyuki, Kasuga Branch Offices
  • Tomato bankFukuyama Branch
  • Kagawa BankFukuyama Branch
  • Ehime BankFukuyama Branch
Shinkin Bank/Credit Union
Regional securities company

Education

Since the 1970s, excessive interference of education by Dowa groups has become a problem in Hiroshima Prefecture. Fukuyama City is Fuchu CityAshina-gun,Sera-gunIt is a district where those problems were severe. It has been resolved after the Ministry of Education took corrective measures after it was regarded as a problem by the Diet.

The following is a list of educational institutions in Fukuyama city (excluding schools that are closed).

primary school

public
private

Junior high school

National
City
private

Compulsory education school

public

high school

National
Prefectural
City
private

University

public
private

Vocational school

private
  • Anabuki school
    • Anabuki Medical and Welfare College
    • Anabuki Information Design College
    • Anabuki Cooking Confectionery College
    • Anabuki Animal College
    • Anabuki Beauty College
  • Asahi Medical College Fukuyama School
  • Hiroshima Prefecture Beauty College
  • Fashion Business Academy Fukuyama
  • Fukuyama Medical Association Nursing College
  • Fukuyama Dental Association Fukuyama Dental Hygienist School
  • Fukuyama Welfare College
  • Fukuyama Pet Business College
  • FukuyamaYMCACampus
  • Fukuyama YMCA International Business College
  • Maitreya VillageInternational Culture Institute Japanese Language School

Other educational institutions

Prefectural

Facilities other than school education

Established an employment support organization for seniors, persons with disabilities and job seekers
Prefectural

Consolidation and abolition of educational institutions

Kindergarten

primary school

Junior high school

high school

Vocational school

Other educational institutions

Facilities other than school education

Famous places, historic sites, sightseeing spots, festivals, special events

Cultural property

National treasure

  • MeioinFive-storied pagoda (Kusato Town)
  • Meioin Main Hall (Kusato Town)
  • Tachi inscription Masatsune(Fukuyama City owned, Fukuyama Museum of Art storage)[Note 1]
  • Tachi inscription National religion(Fukuyama City owned, Fukuyama Museum of Art storage)
  • Tachi inscription Yoshifusa(Fukuyama City owned, Fukuyama Museum of Art storage)
  • Tachi Inoribo (owned by Fukuyama City and stored by the Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Tachi name Chikushu Sumiza (Eyuki left character) (Owned by Fukuyama City, stored at Fukuyama Art Museum)
  • Tanto name left / Sumi Chikushu (Taiko left character) (Owned by Fukuyama City, stored at Fukuyama Art Museum)
  • Tanto Inscription Kunimitsu (Specialty)Aizu Shintogo) (Owned by Fukuyama City, stored at Fukuyama Art Museum)

Important cultural property (designated by the country)

  • Fukuyama CastleFushimi Turret (KyotoFushimi CastleRelocated in the early Edo era along with Shintetsu Gomon, which will be described later, Marunouchi XNUMX-chome)
  • Fukuyama Castle Muscle Iron Gate (Marunouchi XNUMX-chome)
  • Swamp name shrineNoh stage(Tomo-cho/Numa name shrine grounds/KyotoFushimi CastleWhat was there)
  • TomonouraOta House/Ota House Asashotei(Tomo Town)
  • Tomo no UrabigoAnkoji TempleShakado (Tomo Town)
  • Eleven wooden statue of Kannon (Kusato-cho, Meioin)
  • Wooden Amitabha Nyorai and Ryowawaki Samurai Statue (Tomo-cho, Ankokujizo)
  • Wooden method lantern sitting statue (Tomomachi, Ankokujizo)
  • Bandai Temple Kannon(Numakuma Town)
  • BingoKibitsu ShrineMain hall (Shin-shi town)
  • Wooden guard dog (Shinichi-cho, Kibitsu Shrine)
  • Hairless type sword Goami Nagasaku product (Kinbitsu Shrine, Shinichi-machi)
  • Hairless type sword Goami Nagasaku product (Kinbitsu Shrine, Shinichi-machi)
  • Hairless type sword Masako product (Kinbitsu Shrine, Shinichimachi)
  • Hairless type sword Masako product (Kinbitsu Shrine, Shinichimachi)
  • Tachi Meikuni Kiyo (owned by Fukuyama City and stored by the Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Tachi Meibin Chobune Kanemitsu Nobunbun February XNUMX, XNUMXrd year (owned by Fukuyama City, stored in Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Tanto Meikotsu (owned by Fukuyama City and stored in Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Tachi Megumi Bizen Kunio Chosensenkei (owned by Fukuyama City, stored by Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Tanto Zhumei Sadamune (Famous Sekishu Sadamune) (owned by Fukuyama City and stored by Fukuyama Museum of Art)
  • Swordless Legendary Kunimitsu Hikari (owned by Fukuyama City, stored in Fukuyama Museum of Art)

Special historical site

Historic site (designated by country)

Scenic spot (country designated)

Natural monument (designated by the country)

Important tangible folk cultural assets (designated by the country)

  • Fukuyama City Matsunaga Footwear Museum (oldJapanese Kimono Museum,oldTake over materials from the Japan Folk Toy Museum)

Nationally registered tangible cultural property building

More

Sports Facilities

leisure

Sports

Boy scout

Tourism/Art

Museums and museum

Museum

library

  • Manabinokan Rosecom-Fukuyama city centerlibrary, Complex facilities such as Fukuyama City Lifelong Learning Plaza.2008May 7Opening. It is located in the center of Kasumi-cho XNUMX-chome Central Park.
  • Matsunaga Library (Matsunaga Town)
  • Northern library (ekiyacho)
  • Eastern Library (Iseoka)
  • Numakuma Library (Numakuma Town)
  • New City Library (New City Town)
  • Kannabe Library (Kannabe Town)
  • Water cup branch (water cup town)

More

Closed

Festival

Fukuyama City Specialty Products

Main celebrities from Fukuyama City

Public figures

Businessman

Cultural person

entertainer

athlete

Broadcast/Newspaper

Historical figure

Fukuyama City Honorary Citizen

Ambassador, etc.

  • Fukuyama Hometown Ambassador No. 1:Katsuya Kobayashi
  • Fukuyama City Tourism Ambassador No. 1:Hugh JackmanPlayed byWolverine'
  • Ambassador of Fukuyama, a town of 100 million roses:Teshima Aoi
  • PR Fukuyama PR Ambassador to Rose: Nikolai Bergman (Flower Artist)
  • Ambassador for Fukunoyama and Rose Goods: Fei Fei
  • Tourism Assistant Rose Fukuyama (formerly Miss Rose)
  • Miss Sanzo Inari
  • Fukuyama Future Making 100 People Committee
  • Fukuyama Future Making Support Group

Works in which Fukuyama City appears

The following includes locations

Miroku no Sato Set Village
It is a very large location set, but it is not publicly known because it is not open to the public. It is used for various dramas and movie locations, and is often taken in sets with Tomo-cho. The current set is a set that was renovated from a set that cost hundreds of millions of yen to film a movie in Zato City.[Source required].

More

Area code in Fukuyama city

Area codeAre classified as follows.

  1. Fukuyama MA [Fukuyama Special] 084 (910-929, 931, 932, 940-959, 961, 968-979, 981-985, 990-999) Old Town Area, etc.
  2. Fukuyama MA 084 (960, 962-967, 980, 986-989) Former Numakuma-cho, Utsumi-cho and Kannabe-cho districts and part of Onomichi Urasaki-cho
  3. Onomichi MA [Matsunaga Special] 084 (900-909, 930, 933-939) Former Matsunaga City Area
  4. Fuchu MA 0847 (40-69) Former New City Area
  5. Ihara MA 0866 (60-89) Part of Yamano Town (2 houses in Doya district)
  • Local charges apply for calls between 1 and 3 above, and no area code is required.
  • The above 1 and 2 calls do not require the area code for the same area.
  • Calls between 2 and 3 above are handled as adjacent areas, so area code 084 is required.
  • Area 3 above, Onomichi, Mihara "area code 0848 (20-89) area" area code is required, but the city charges apply.
  • Since the above 4 areas are treated the same as Fuchu City, other area calls must have the area code.

Collection and delivery of mail in Fukuyama city

The delivery of mail is as followspost officeIs going.

About car license plates

For cars, light vehicles, motorcycles, etc., there is the Fukuyama Motor Vehicle Inspection Registration Office of the China Transportation Bureau Hiroshima Transportation Branch Office and the Fukuyama Office of the Hiroshima Motor Vehicle Inspection Association, which is located in Takanishi Town, Fukuyama City.Fukuyama numberAre in charge. There is an anecdote that the branch office will be located at the middle point between the two city halls as a result of a fierce battle between Fukuyama City and Onomichi City. The Fukuyama number is the only number plate in the nine prefectures of Chugoku and Shikoku that has a place name other than the prefecture name (* Kurashiki number and Shimonoseki number have been added as local numbers since October 9. Land transportation office is not installed).

Great Heisei mergerDue to this, many areas will be transferred to the Hiroshima number area.Toyota-gun(Yasuura, Kawajiri, Toyohama, Yutaka, Akitsu) FormerKofu District(Kou/General) OldHiba-gun(Saijo, Tojo, Kuchiwa, Takano, Hiwa) was transferred to the Hiroshima number, and conversely the Hiroshima number was changed to the Fukuyama number.MiharaOf the oldKamo-gunOnly in the Yamato area.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The swords (7 national treasures, 6 important cultural properties) including this case are collected by Yasuhiro Komatsu, an honorary citizen of Fukuyama City. It was donated.[31]
  2. ^ The "720-25xx" area is under the jurisdiction of the former Hattori Post Office. Transferred to Ekiya Post Office in 2006 due to the elimination of collection and delivery stations at Hattori Post Office.
  3. ^ The "720-24xx" area is under the jurisdiction of the former Kamo Post Office. Transferred to Ekiya Post Office in 2006 due to the elimination of collection and delivery stations at Kamo Post Office. Transferred to Kannabe Post Office in 2021.
  4. ^ The "720-05xx" area is under the jurisdiction of the former Fujie Post Office, and the "729-02xx" area is under the jurisdiction of the former Bingo Hongo Post Office. In 2006, transferred to Matsunaga Post Office due to the non-collective delivery of Fujie Post Office and Bingo Hongo Post Office.
  5. ^ "720-12xx" area is under the jurisdiction of the former Ashida Post Office. In 2006, the Ashida Post Office was transferred to the Shinshi Post Office due to the non-collection delivery office.

Source

  1. ^ "JFE Steel Corporation”(Japanese). JFE Steel Corporation. 2020/8/12Browse.
  2. ^ "Crude Steel Production Details by Steel Works | Nikkan Steel Newspaper". www.japanmetaldaily.com. 2019/3/27Browse.
  3. ^ ""Japan's Industry Seen from Statistics" Industry by Prefecture | Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry". www.meti.go.jp. 2020/8/28Browse.
  4. ^ Fukuyama City (2018). “S-XNUMX Major Indicators by City”. Statistics Fukuyama 2017 (Heisei 29) version. 
  5. ^ a b About Fukuyama CityBingo Regional Local Industry Promotion Center, viewed September 2020, 9
  6. ^ a b Fukuyama City Comprehensive Strategy
  7. ^ a b c ・'Local creation2.0'' (Toyo Keizai Inc.,2016
  8. ^ Interview with President Sogo Fukuyama and President Mitsui Aiming for reconstruction with all employees (Hiroshima Prefecture) Chugoku Shimbun July 2000, 07 Chugoku Morning Edition East A Photographed (14 characters in total)
  9. ^ [About the water quality of Ashida River.-Water quality worst 1 update has been canceled! !! -]
  10. ^ Examination of fault displacement topography and latest activity time of the Chojagahara and Yoshii faults
  11. ^ "Fukuyama City Fisheries Promotion Vision Chapter 1 Overview of Fukuyama City”. Fukuyama City Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Division. 2020/9/24Browse.
  12. ^ "Statistics Fukuyama 2019 Edition A-12 Meteorological Extreme Value Table”. Fukuyama City Information Management Division. 2020/9/24Browse.
  13. ^ "Normal value download”. Japan Meteorological Agency. August, 2021Browse.
  14. ^ "Value of 1st to 10th in observation history (value throughout the year)”. Japan Meteorological Agency. August, 2021Browse.
  15. ^ "Public sewerage penetration rate”(May 2005, 3). 2021/5/14Browse.
  16. ^ "National Municipal Handbook, Reiwa 01 Edition" (First Law) p.337
  17. ^ "Chair and Vice Chair”. Fukuyama City. 2020/12/1Browse.
  18. ^ "○ Fukuyama City Council Member Number Ordinance”. Fukuyama City. 2020/12/1Browse.
  19. ^ "Search by department in charge-Fukuyama City homepage". 2021/5/15Browse.
  20. ^ "Cultural assets of Kannabe (other cultural assets)”. Fukuyama City Kannabe History and Folklore Museum. 2011/12/20Browse.
    "Bingo Kokubunji ruins”. Hiroshima Prefecture Tourism Homepage. 2011/12/20Browse.
  21. ^ "Bingo Kokufu Ruins”. Hiroshima Cultural Encyclopedia. 2011/12/20Browse.
  22. ^ Kenji Yoshida and Genjiro Komiya (2009). “New historical materials on rice riots in Hiroshima Prefecture-Five "stickers of disturbing characters" (PDF)". 2020/12/28Browse.
  23. ^ Makoto Tsuruki, "Migration Overseas as Postwar Social History: A Case Study of Numakuma Town, Hiroshima Prefecture," "The 1988th Anniversary of the Faculty of Law, Department of Political Science," Keio University Law Study Group, XNUMX.
  24. ^ Stronger historical relationship Mutual agreement with Bunkyo Ward and Hiroshima/Fukuyama CitySankei Shimbun Morning Edition March 2018, 3 (Tokyo)
  25. ^ "Intercity Declaration: Ryoma's Bonding Agreement, XNUMX cities and nations in Japan, to exchange through tourism and disaster prevention". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 11). http://mainichi.jp/area/kyoto/news/20141116ddlk26040311000c.html 
  26. ^ "FUKUYAMA NOW Fukuyama Industry 23 Edition Fukuyama Chamber of Commerce" (year 2011). 2021/5/14Browse.
  27. ^ a b c d e Numakuma-gun magazine 1923 p73-74 ISBN-978 4653012665
  28. ^ Hongo County Magazine
  29. ^ Former large-scale commercial facility "CASPA trace" complex facility Fukuyama City Nihon Keizai Shimbun April 2019, 4 25:18 Retrieved February 2019, 9
  30. ^ "Street street" Fukuyama station square lively Yomiuri Online October 2017, 10 Viewed on the same day[Broken link]
  31. ^ reference:"14 swords donated to Fukuyama City, collected by the late honorary citizen Yasuhiro Komatsu"(Chugoku Shimbun, December 2018, 12)
  32. ^ "Official Twitter account of Koi no Hana Theater (@ koibana05)”(May 2014, 6). 2020/2/29Browse.
  33. ^ "Film "Sea of ​​Stars" Fukuyama location release 100th anniversary commemorative appearance by Mr. Tamaki". Sanyo newspaper (Sanyo Shimbun). (November 2015, 5). http://www.sanyonews.jp/article/170611/1/ 2015/5/9Browse. 

References

  • "Fukuyama City History Early Modern Documents (1) Politics and Society"

Related item

外部 リンク

Administration

Tourism

Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction(Polymerase Rensa Hanno,English: polymerase chain reaction) IsDNAA reaction or technique that amplifies a specific region of a sample by millions to billions of times. Take the initials in EnglishPCR method, Or simplyPCRIt is also called "Polymerase Chain Reaction" in English.

DNA polymeraseと 呼 ば れ る酵素Utilizing the function of, any cycle through a series of temperature changesgeneArea orgenomeCopy spaceExponentialTarget (Mouse arithmeticThe objective is to amplify from a small sample of DNA to a sufficient amount to study its details.[1][2][3].Medical,Molecular biology,Forensic medicineIt is a useful technology that is widely used in fields such asCarrie MarisInvented by (Kary Mullis)[4][5],Nobel PrizeWas awarded.

Since the PCR method was established,Sequencing, Experiments such as gene mutation induction become possible,Molecular genetics,Physiology,TaxonomyIn addition to being utilized in research fields such as, analysis of ancient DNA samples,Forensic medicine,Paternity testUsed inDNA typingIdentification of infectious agentsInfectionTechnology development related to diagnosis (Nucleic acid amplification test), etc. have advanced dramatically. Also, from the PCR methodReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,Real-time PCR,DNA sequencingEtc. are derived and developed. Therefore, today the PCR methodBiology,Medical scienceIt is the basis of gene analysis in a wide range of fields including[6][7].

principle

The PCR method operates by a series of thermal cycles of raising and lowering the temperature of a DNA solution containing a mixture of reagents. In the repeated cycle of heating and cooling of this DNA sample, dissociation of double-stranded DNA, binding of primer,酵素Three reactions, DNA synthesis by reaction, proceed, and finally a large amount of DNA fragments in a specific region are replicated.

In the PCR method, in addition to the DNA sample to be amplified (template), a large amount ofPrimer(In the target DNA regionComplementaryShort single-stranded DNA with sequence (Oligonucleotide)) and free, a component of DNAnucleotideAndPolymeraseIs a type ofDNA synthase(DNA polymerase) ThreereagentTo use.

  1. The first step is to heat the double-stranded DNA of the DNA double helix at high temperature.DegenerationAnd physically separate into single-stranded DNA. The temperature at which denaturation occurs depends on the base composition and length (number of bases) of DNA, and generally longer DNA requires higher temperature.
  2. Next, the solution containing the single-stranded DNA is cooled, and the primer is bound to the complementary sequence site of the single-stranded DNA to partially form the double strand (annealing). When the cooling is rapid, it is difficult for long DNAs to recombine into double strands, but short DNA fragments (Oligonucleotide) Takes advantage of the fact that they can be easily combined. As a result, a primer is bound to a part of the target long single-stranded DNA. By keeping the primer overwhelmingly more than the DNA, the tendency of the DNA and the primer to bind becomes more predominant than the tendency of the DNA and the DNA to bind.
  3. Next, heat the solution slightly to remove this double-stranded DNA site.templateAsDNA polymeraseBy making the primer act as a starting point and releasenucleotideDNA that is complementary to the single-stranded part酵素Are synthesized. After the DNA is synthesized, the temperature is raised again to return to the first step, and this cycle is repeated from the first DNA denaturation to promote the amplification. As the PCR reaction progresses, the generated DNA itself is used as a template for replication, and the original DNA template isExponentialIs amplified toChain reactionAdvances.

As described above, the PCR method utilizes the difference in the rate of denaturation and annealing depending on the DNA chain length to repeat DNA synthesis simply by repeatedly raising and lowering the temperature of the reaction solution, and amplifying a partial region of any DNA. Is.

If the DNA polymerase used is heat-sensitive, the polymerase will denature along with the DNA at the high temperature of the denaturation step,DeactivationResulting in. Therefore, when the PCR method was first developed, DNA polymerase was added as an enzyme every time DNA was denatured, which was time-consuming and expensive.[8].. Currently,Thermus aquaticusTo sayThermophileIs a thermostable DNA polymerase derived fromTaq polymeraseBy using such as, it is possible to continuously proceed the reaction without adding an enzyme in the middle.

procedure

ready

The nucleotide sequences at both ends of the DNA region to be amplified are determined, and corresponding primers are artificially synthesized. At this time, the primer is a complementary sequence that binds to the 2'side of each strand of the double-stranded DNA to be amplified, and usually has about 3 bases. They are often custom made in the lab or can be purchased from a commercial biochemical supplier.

Reaction solution preparation

Amplification target DNA, primer, DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis material (Substrate)Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP), And a buffer solution to create an optimal salt concentration environment in which the enzyme works, and a PCR device (Thermal cycler). For the buffer solution included in the distributed PCR reagent kit,BivalentCationIs often included[9].NormallymagnesiumIon (Mg2+), but PCR-mediated DNA mutagenesis is highmanganeseIon (Mn2+) Can also be used to increase the error rate during DNA synthesis.[10].. For Taq DNA polymeraseAs a monovalent cationpotassiumIon (K+) May be included[11].. In some casesAmmonium sulfateMay be added.Ammonium ion(NH4+) Has the effect of destabilizing the weak hydrogen bond between the mismatched primer and the template base pair, and can increase the specificity.[11].

PCR cycle

  1. 94 reaction solution° CHeat to about 30 seconds to 1 minute to keep double-stranded DNA into single strands (Fig. 2).
  2. 60° CRapidly cool to a certain degree (slightly different depending on the primer) andPrimerAnneal (Fig. ②).
  3. No separation of primersDNA polymeraseReheat to the optimum temperature range for the activity of. Depending on the experimental purpose, its temperature is 60-72° CIt is set to a degree. This temperature is usually maintained for 1 to 2 minutes depending on the length of time required for DNA synthesis and the length of amplification (Fig. XNUMX).
  4. Up to this point is one cycle, and by repeating the steps from ① to ③, a specific DNA fragment is amplified.

When the PCR treatment is repeated n times, 1 double-stranded DNAn-Amplify 2n times.However, since it is usually performed for about 35 cycles at the maximum, the term of 2n is approximately negligible.If the number of cycles is further increased, the DNA polymerase loses its activity over time and reagents such as dNTPs and primers are consumed, so that the reaction is limited and the series of reactions is finally stopped.

Points to remember

The success or failure of this reaction depends on the base sequences of the DNA to be amplified and the primer, each set temperature and time during the cycle, and the like. If they are inappropriate, they may amplify irrelevant DNA sequences or may show no amplification. In addition, there is a possibility that mutation will occur during the synthesis process, so it is necessary to check the nucleotide sequence of the product depending on the purpose of use.

Application of PCR

Amplification and quantification of DNA

PCR is a technique for dramatically amplifying a region of target DNA, and even a very small amount of DNA sample may be analyzed by passing through PCR. This proves that only trace amounts of DNA are availableForensic medicineIt is especially important in such fields.Or, for example, tens of thousands of years agoAncient DNAPCR is also effective for analysis of[12].

Quantitative PCR(Also called real-time PCR, or simply qPCR.RT-PCRNote that the amount of a specific DNA sequence present in a sample can also be estimated by[13].. this is,Gene expressionIt is used for purposes such as quantitatively determining levels. In quantitative PCR, the abundance of the target DNA region that originally existed is quantified by measuring the concentration of the PCR product that is amplified during the PCR cycle in real time during the PCR cycle process. can do. There are two major methods, one is non-specifically retained between the duplexes.fluorescenceAnother method is to use a dye, and the other method is to use a probe to which a fluorescent label is added in advance and which encodes a specific sequence. In the latter method, fluorescence can be detected only when the probe and its complementary DNA are hybridized.

Combined real-time PCR and reverse transcriptionRT-qPCR(Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), the method calledRNAIt is possible to quantify. In this technique, mRNA is the firstcDNAAnd the cDNA is quantified by qPCR. This method is often used to detect genes related to genetic diseases such as cancer and to measure expression levels.[14].

Application to biological research

PCRMolecular biology,GeneticsIt has been applied to various research fields including.

  • PCR can be used to selectively amplify and isolate specific DNA regions in the genome. Such use of PCR isSouthern blotting,Northern blottingIs widely used for the production of such hybridization probes and for DNA cloning that requires a large amount of DNA fragments derived from a specific DNA region.
  • PCRDNA sequenceIs often important in doing.. By various PCR, for example, a gene sequence or a DNA region to be analyzed can be extracted from a completely unknown genome and amplified.
  • PCR is DNAClassic experiments such as cloningIt is often used in the process. For example, it is used when inserting a specific genomic region from a large genome into a vector. It can also be used to analyze or amplify DNA fragments already inserted in the vector. By partially changing the PCR protocol,mutationCan be artificially induced.
  • PCR is often used for research on ancient DNA. Most of such ancient DNA has been decomposed by ultraviolet rays and hydrolysis, and there is often only a trace amount of double-stranded DNA, so it is possible to analyze only by applying amplification by PCR. .. As an example of research that actually used PCR,NeanderthalsThe bone, 4 years oldMammothFrozen tissue ofEgypt OfmummyThere is a brain, etc.ロシアemperorAnd British KingRichard IIIIs being identified[12].. In some cases, it may be possible to restore the original DNA sequence to some extent by applying PCR amplification even to a DNA sample that has been considerably degraded.
  • Gene expressionPCR is also used to study the pattern. You can analyze body tissues and individual cells at various time-series stages to see which genes were activated/deactivated,Quantitative PCRCan also be used to quantify the actual expression level in detail.
  • PCRGenetic linkageIs also used for research. For example,Amplifies several loci from individual sperm simultaneously,MeiosisAfterChromosome crossoverStudies have been reported[15].. In this study, rare rare crossover events between very close loci were directly observed by analyzing thousands of sperm. Similarly, aberrant deletions, insertions, translocations, or inversions can be analyzed.
  • PCR can be used to induce site-directed mutagenesis of any gene or genomic region. By investigating these mutants, it is possible to elucidate, for example, the function of the protein, or to proceed with research for altering or improving the function of the protein.

Prenatal diagnosis

Whether a PCR is a carrier of a particular inheritance before the child is born, or actuallysickTest whether you are affected byPrenatal diagnosisCan be used for[16].Prenatal examinationDNA sample forAmniocentesisbyChorionic villus sampling, Or can be obtained by analysis of a very small amount of fetal cells circulating in the mother's bloodstream. PCR analysisPre-implantation diagnosisIs also essential and can test mutations in individual cells of the developing embryo.

Organ transplant tissue typing

PCROrgan transplantationEssential toOrganizational typingIt can also be used as a highly sensitive test.Blood TypeA proposal to replace the traditional antibody-based test with a PCR-based test against was also made in 2008[17].

Cancer genetic analysis

Many forms of cancer are associated with various types of cancer development.gene(Oncogene) ArrayWith variations, PCR technology could be used to analyze this mutation to tailor treatment strategies to patients. PCR alsoleukemia,LymphomaSuch asMalignantEnables early diagnosis of disease. It is being developed in the field of cancer research, and PCR is now routinely used. It has been reported that direct PCR assay of genomic DNA samples can detect translocation-specific malignant cells at least 10,000 times more sensitive than other methods[18].. PCR also allows the isolation and amplification of tumor suppressors. For example, it is possible to quantify single cells using quantitative PCR and analyze the abundance and combination of DNA, mRNA, and protein.[19].

Diagnosis of infectious disease

PCR aids in sensitive and rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses[20].. In PCR,Mycobacteria ,Anaerobic bacteria, ま た はTissue cultureAssayAnimal modelfromウ イ ル スIt is also possible to quickly identify microorganisms that cannot be cultured or microorganisms that grow slowly. In addition, PCR diagnosis can distinguish between non-pathogenic strains and pathogenic strains by not only detecting infectious pathogens but also determining whether the bacterium has a specific gene[20][21].. On the other hand, various defects have been reported (Later).

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Is a difficult target to discover and eradicate. The initial diagnosis of infection is the virus circulating in the bloodstream.antibodyHowever, the antibody does not appear until weeks after infection, the maternal antibody masks the infection of the newborn, and the amount of antibody does not change when treated with an HIV therapeutic agent. was there. Therefore, a high-sensitivity PCR method that can detect only one viral genome from over 50,000 cellular DNA samples was developed.[22].. This method enables early detection of infectious diseases, virus testing of donated blood, rapid infection testing of newborns, and quantification of antiviral treatment effects.
  • tuberculosis OfSome disease-causing microbes such as these are known to be difficult to sample from patients and grow slowly in the laboratory,cultureA lot of time and effort was spent in the base diagnosis. Tests by PCR can detect disease-causing microorganisms in samples, and from genetic analysisAntibiotic resistanceIt is possible to detect the presence or absence, etc., which may lead to the setting of an effective treatment policy and the evaluation of the treatment effect.
  • 家畜orwildThrough a group of animalsdiseaseBiology Diffusion and emergence of new toxic subtypes can be monitored by PCR testing.
  • By using a primer specific to the target sequence of viral DNA, viral DNA can be detected by PCR and also used for DNA sequencing. Due to the high sensitivity of PCR, virus detection may be possible immediately after infection and before the onset of disease[23].. Early detection may give the physician a significant lead time for treatment. The viral load contained within the patient can also be quantified by PCR-based DNA quantification techniques.
  • Social Services LizardIs caused by a bacterium called B. pertussis. This bacterium is characterized by a serious acute respiratory tract infection affecting a wide variety of animals and humans, leading to the death of many young children.Communicate and LizardBinds to cell receptors by two dimers and plays a role in cell immunityT lymphocyteIs a protein toxin that reacts with[24].. Since the sequence in the pertussis toxin gene can be detected by PCR, pertussis can be diagnosed very efficiently compared to the culture method.[25].

Application to forensics

PCR-basedDNA typing(Fingerprinting)Forensic medicineWidely applied in the field.

  • DNAType appraisal is世界It is a technology that can uniquely distinguish one person from the entire population inside.Applying this technology, a small amountDNAThe sampleCrime sceneIn some cases, suspects can be identified by collecting, analyzing, and comparing prisoners. A simpler method of use is to quickly exclude suspects during criminal investigations. Alternatively, test crime evidence decades ago to confirm the perpetration of convicted people, orImmunityIt also leads to doing.
  • Forensic DNA typing (forensic DNA typing) is an effective way to identify or exclude suspected crimes from the analysis of evidence found at crime scenes. The human genome has many repeat regions found within gene sequences or in noncoding regions of the genome. Specifically, up to 40% of human DNA is known to be repetitive[26].. There are two types of these repetitive non-coding regions in the genome, one called variable length tandem repeat (VNTR), which is 2-10 base pairs long, while the other is short tandem repeat (STR). It is called a repeat section of 100-2 base pairs. Then, PCR amplification can be performed using the primers flanking each repeat region. A statistically high probability of uniquely identifying each individual can be obtained by examining the size distribution of several STR fragments obtained from each individual.[26].. Furthermore, the complete sequence of the human genome has already been determined, and since this sequence information can be easily accessed from the NCBI website, various applications have been made. For example, the FBI has compiled a set of DNA marker sites used for identification, which are called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) DNA database.[26].. This database can be used to statistically determine the probability that a DNA sample will match. PCR is a very powerful and important analytical tool for forensic DNA typing because it requires very small amounts of target DNA for analysis. For example,Hair follicleHuman hair to which is attached contains enough DNA, if any, to perform the analysis. Similarly, severalspermA skin sample from under the fingernails, or a small amountbloodCan provide enough DNA for definitive analysis[26].
  • On the other hand, on the contrary, due to the format with low discriminationDNA fingerprintingIt is,Paternity testIs utilized for.. In this case, the subject, such as the body of an unidentified human, is compared to the DNA of the expected relatives, ie parents, siblings, children, etc. To identify the biological parents of the adopted (kidnapped) child,NewbornOf the actual biological father ofConfirm (Or excluded) is also used.
  • AmelogeninGene-based PCR enables real-time male and female sex determination from forensic bone samples. This allows you to determine the sex of ancient specimens and suspected criminals.[27].

PCR technical limitations

PCR has many advantages: the principle and the actual work are very simple, the results can be obtained quickly, and they are very sensitive.Quantitative PCR(qPCR, quantitative PCR) also has the advantage of being able to quantify the targeted DNA region.On the other hand, PCR is also known to have various technical restrictions and limitations.

One of the technical limitations of PCR is that it requires a priori knowledge of the sequence of the target region in order to generate primers that allow selective amplification.[28]..That is, the PCR practitioner usually needs to know the sequence information before and after the target DNA region in advance so that the primer and the template bind properly.Therefore, in principle, it is impossible to perform PCR on a target whose sequence information is completely unknown.Also, like any other enzyme, DNA polymerase itself is prone to errors during DNA synthesis and may mutate the sequence of the PCR amplification product produced.[29].. Furthermore, since PCR can amplify even a small amount of DNA, amplification may occur based on erroneously mixed DNA, resulting in ambiguous or erroneous results.

Many techniques and procedures have been developed to avoid these problems and optimize PCR conditions.[30][31].. For example, in order to minimize the possibility that the sample will be contaminated by the contamination of foreign DNA, by using separate rooms for each step of reagent preparation and PCR processing/analysis, they can be spatially separated. Separation is effective[32]..In addition, it is effective to always use disposable new tubes and pipette tips with filters to operate samples and reagents, thoroughly clean the workbench and equipment, and always work in a clean space.[33].. Reconsidering primer design and investigating the types of buffers and polymerase enzymes is also important in improving the yield of PCR products and avoiding the formation of spurious products. To the buffer systemFormamideAddition of reagents such as may increase PCR specificity and yield[34].. Computer simulation of theoretical PCR results (Electronic PCR) has also been developed to support primer design.[35].

Characteristics of PCR in diagnosis of infectious diseases

PCR is a very powerful and practical research tool, and indeed, in many infectious diseases, the etiology sequencing has been elucidated using PCR. This method is knownウ イ ル スIt also helps identify unknown viruses and contributes greatly to understanding the disease itself. If the procedure can be further simplified and a highly sensitive detection system can be developed, PCR will becomeClinical examinationIt is believed that it will take an important position in the room[36].. However, the use of PCR in the diagnosis of infectious diseases has been pointed out to have various disadvantages as well as advantages.

利 点

  • Human capital OfgenomeOnly specific DNA fragments (hundreds to thousands of base pairs) can be selectively amplified from a sample containing a long DNA molecule such as (30 billion base pairs).[1].
  • The purpose can be achieved with a very small amount of DNA.
  • Amplification reaction can be completed in a short time[2]..The time required for amplification is as short as 2 hours or less.
  • Testing is possible by using primers specific for each pathogen while keeping the equipment (PCR machine) used in common.[2].
  • Even if the pathogen is dead (even if it loses its infectivity), it can be amplified if the target nucleic acid is preserved, and even dangerous pathogens can be inactivated before testing.[2].
  • Sensitivity can be increased by using Nested PCR, real-time PCR, etc.[2].

Disadvantage

  • When biomaterials such as organs and tissues are used as samples, the detection rate differs depending on the sampling site and pretreatment of the material, and even if the result is negative, the presence of pathogens in the living body cannot always be denied.[2].
  • There is a limit to the amplification of nucleic acid due to the decrease in reaction efficiency due to generation of reaction inhibitors, etc., and the result will be negative if the nucleic acid cannot be amplified to a detectable amount. Cannot deny the existence of pathogens[2].
  • Testing of biomaterials such as blood and feces may be affected by the inhibitory substances in the test materials, so purification work is required, but it is not said to be complete.[2].. In addition, the storage condition of test materials, the number of freeze-thaw cycles, and the methods and conditions for nucleic acid purification can have a large impact on test efficiency and test results.[2].
  • Contamination from positive controls during testing, contamination from previous tests and experiments, and contamination of reagents with nucleic acids can lead to false positives (contamination)[2].

History and background

With Kjell KleppeHer Govind CoranaEt al. used an enzyme assay with primers and a short DNA template.vitroIn 1971Journal of Molecular BiologyFirst published in (Molecular Biology Journal)[37].. This was to explain the basic principle of PCR, but it did not receive much attention at that time, and the invention of the polymerase chain reaction was generally found in 1983.Carrie MarisIs considered to be due to[38].

When Maris developed the PCR in 1983, heCaliforniaEmeryvilleSo the firstBiotechnologyA company that is one of the companies (Cetus Corporation) Was working.Maris said, "One night,Pacific coast highwayWhile driving in the car, I came up with the idea of ​​PCR."[39].. When he was thinking about a new method to analyze changes (mutations) in DNA, he tried to amplify a partial region of nucleic acid by repeating the DNA synthesis reaction using the already known oligonucleotide and DNA polymerase at that time. Came up with[39].

Maris named this method "polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction".Nature,ScienceI submitted it as a paper to a famous scientific journal such as, but it was not published. On the other hand, the PCR method itself was made by a colleague of Cetus.Sickle cell diseaseIt was applied to a rapid diagnostic method for inherited diseases. It was reported as "Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia" in Science magazine, and it attracted the attention of scientists around the world before the original paper.[5].. Only in 1987, Maris's treatise Methods in Enzymology Published as "Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase-catalyzed chain reaction."[40]..Later MarisScientific Americanso,"PCR can start with a single molecule of genetic material DNA and produce 1,000 billion similar molecules in the afternoon. The reaction is easy to perform. It requires a test tube, some simple reagents, and a heat source. It is only"[41].. DNA fingerprinting in 1988Paternity testFirst used in[42].

In recognition of this achievement, Maris, along with a Cetus colleague, in 7, seven years after proving PCR technology.Nobel Prize in ChemistryWon[43].. In addition, “Enzymatic Amplification of β-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia” by RK Saiki and HA Erlich in 1985 (“Enzymatic amplification of β-globin genomic sequence for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia”). And restriction site analysis'')American Chemical SocietyReceived Chemistry Breakthrough Award in the History of Chemistry category[44][45]..However, there remains some controversy as to the contributions of other scientists to Maris' work and whether he was the only inventor of the PCR principle, as described below.

PCR was initiallyE. coli5'-3' exonuclease activity was removed by subtilisin treatment of DNA polymerase IKlenow FragmentMost of them used to cause a reaction. However, this enzymecopyThis enzyme had to be added manually after each thermal cycle because it could not withstand the high temperatures required to separate post-cycling DNA double helices and deactivate the DNA polymerase.[46].. As a result, the initial steps of DNA replication were very inefficient and time consuming, requiring large amounts of DNA polymerase and continuous treatment throughout the process. The Cetus research group lives in a high temperature environment (hot spring) of 50 to 80°C to solve this drawback.Thermophilic bacteriumIsThermus aquaticus[47]As a thermostable DNA polymeraseTaq polymeraseWas purified and the PCR method using this was published in Science magazine in 1976.[6].T. aquaticusDNA polymerase isolated from DNA is stable at temperatures above 90 ° C (194 ° F) and remains active after DNA denaturation.[48]Eliminates the need to add new DNA polymerase after each cycle[49].. This has opened the way to the simplification and automation of PCR reactions, and has led to the development of a widely applicable method.

In this way, the Cetus Group (including initially Maris) played a large role in the application and development of the PCR method.

However, it was Carey Maris who first conceived this method and showed direction, so MarisNobel Prize in ChemistryWas awarded in 1993. PCR technology by MarisPatentWas transferred to Cetus, which worked when Maris invented the technology in 1983.TaqThe polymerase enzyme is also patent protected.DuPontThere were several well-known proceedings related to this technology, including the unsuccessful proceedings filed by.Swiss pharmaceutical companyEf Hoffman La RochePurchased a patent right in 1992, but the patent right now expires[50].

PCR types and application methods

Conventional PCR
Normal PCR that repeats the reaction for 1 to 25 cycles with one set of primers[2].
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR,Real-time PCR
A method of drawing an amplification curve in real time by emitting light from a nucleic acid fragment and detecting it using a dedicated optical instrument.It is used when quantitative rather than qualitative is required.[2].
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR,Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
A method in which RNA is converted to cDNA by reverse transcriptase and then PCR is performed.[2].
Nested polymerase chain reaction(Nested PCR)
A method in which the PCR product amplified by PCR is used as a template for the next reaction and another PCR is repeated using another primer pair.[2].
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR,Multiplex PCR
A method to simultaneously perform PCR reactions for multiple target nucleic acids (DNA) in a single reaction tube[2].
Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP)
A method in which genomic DNA containing target nucleic acid (DNA) is cleaved with a restriction enzyme, a short double-stranded DNA (adapter) is bound to the cleaved end, and PCR is performed using its complementary primer.[2].
Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP method
A method based on a completely different principle from conventional PCR[2][51].

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  50. ^ US4683195[2]And others)
  51. ^ US6410278[3]

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