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🌐 | Local government introduces case with GPS to take out personal information data, evaluation is divided on the net


Local government introduces case with GPS to take out personal information data, evaluation is divided on the net

If you write the contents roughly
After the case arrives at the delivery address, the security code will be contacted by phone to unlock it.

On June 6, Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture, at a regular press conference, when taking out personal information data to the outside, a case with GPS ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


PIN(Recitation) orPersonal identification number(Kojinshikibetsubangou:British: personal identification number, PIN) Is a secret number shared between the system and the userPasswordIt is used to authenticate the user in the system.稀にRarelyPersonal authentication numberAlso called.


Generally, when a user uses the system, he / she is required to enter a public user identifier (ID, token) and a secret PIN.When a user ID and PIN are accepted, the PIN corresponding to the user ID is referenced and compared with the accepted PIN.Access is permitted only if the entered number matches the number stored in the system.

PINs are most often usedTMJAt the time of use,debit cardCredit cardIn the form ofPOS OfCredit inquiryHowever, its use is expanding.

EuropeThen, when using a credit cardsignatureInstead of the traditional way of doingCredit reference terminalIt is being replaced by the method of entering the PIN with.United KingdomIrelandThen,EMCTo sayPrepaid CardSince PIN was introduced along with the standard of, this method was adopted.Chip and PINCall it.

Excluding that世界PINs have been used in various places even before the introduction of EMV.金融In fields other thanGSMA mobile phone allows the user to enter a 4- to 8-digit PIN.このPINはThis PIN isSIM cardRecorded in.

In 2006, he is said to be the inventor of the PIN code. James Goodfellow It is,Order of the British Empire Awarded (OBE)[1].


The concept of PIN isTMJInventor ofJohn Shepherd-BaronGo back to. In 1967, he was thinking of an efficient way for customers to withdraw cash from their bank accounts.vending machineI came up with the model that was just right.AuthenticationShepherd-Baron first envisioned a six-digit number for this.This is because it was a digit that he could definitely remember.しかし彼の妻が6桁の方がよいと言ったため、それが最もよく使われる桁数になったBut his wife said that four digits was better, which made it the most commonly used digit.[2].. According to ISO 9564-1, the PIN is 4 to 12 digits.But at the same timeUsabilityConsidering that, the number of digits in the PIN should not exceed 6 digits. "[3].


Natural PIN
PANPIN created by encrypting. PIN生成鍵 (PGK) とWith PIN generation key (PGK)Triple DESuse.The generated ciphertext is represented by a decimal number and used as a PIN. The Natural PIN is per card and cannot be changed or changed by the user.
Offset PIN
A Natural PIN plus an offset value that can generate any PIN.For example, if the Natural PIN is 1111 and the user-specified PIN is 5555, store the difference (offset) of 4444. When you enter the PIN, subtract the offset to get the Natural PIN, which you can verify.


In financial affairs, PINs are often four-digit numbers, or 4 to 0000.That is, there can be 9999 kinds of numbers.しかし銀行によっては、同じ数字だけの番号(1、1111など)や連続する数字(2222、1234など)や利用者のHowever, depending on the bank, numbers with the same number (2345, XNUMX, etc.), consecutive numbers (XNUMX, XNUMX, etc.) and usersbirthdayOr numbers starting with 0 may not be allowed.When entering a PIN into the system, you can often try up to 3 times, and there is a 0.06% chance that you can enter the correct PIN and use it without blocking the stolen card.もちろんこれは全ての番号が同じ確率で、犯人が何の情報も持っていない場合であって、かつてのPIN運用方法ではそうはいかなかったOf course, this is the case when all numbers have the same probability and the criminal does not have any information, which was not the case with the old PIN operation method.[4].

2002 years,Cambridge UniversityGraduate students Piotr Zieliński and Mike BondIBMA security flaw was found in the PIN generation system at the ATM IBM 3624.This ATM method was adopted as it was in many of the subsequent devices.その方法はThe method is decimalization table attack If you have access to your bank's computer system, you can identify your card's PIN with an average of 15 guesses.[5][6].

If you mistype your mobile phone PIN three times, until you enter the service operator's (PUC)SIM cardIs blocked. If you mistype the PUC 10 times, the SIM card will be completely blocked and you will have to replace it with a new SIM card.

Named "PIN number"

PIN numberIs also often used.The term "PIN number" is often used in English as well.しかし、これらはBut these areRAS syndrome(Correctly PI number), which is the same as "ATM machine" and "RAS syndrome".

PIN hoax

In the WestChain mailRumor has it that if you enter your PIN in the reverse order at an ATM, you can withdraw money normally, but at the same time you will be immediately notified to the police.[7]..This is intended as a countermeasure when a robber robs a card and asks for a PIN, but in reality there is no ATM with such a function yet.


  1. ^ "Royal honor for inventor of Pin”. BBC (2006). April 2007, 11Browse.
  2. ^ "The Man Who Invented The CASH Machine”. BBC (2007). April 2007, 3Browse.
  3. ^ ISO 9564-1: 2002 Banking --Personal Identification Number (PIN) management and security --Part 1: Basic principles and requirements for online PIN handling in ATM and POS systems
  4. ^ Kuhn, Markus (July 1997) (PDF). Probability theory for pickpockets — ec-PIN guessing. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/ec-pin-prob.pdf April 2006, 11Browse.. 
  5. ^ Zieliński, P & Bond, M (February 2003) (PDF). Decimalization table attacks for PIN crackingUniversity of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/TechReports/UCAM-CL-TR-560.pdf April 2006, 11Browse.. 
  6. ^ "Media coverage”. University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. April 2006, 11Browse.
  7. ^ "Reverse PIN Panic Code". April 2007, 3Browse.

Related item


key(Key,鑰,A key is a lock (Lock, Lock,doorEquipment for opening and closing by unlocking operation)[1].lock(Jomae) is a general term for a set of a lock and a key that is paired with it.[1].

A typical key (shown on the right) consists of individually shaped blade parts that are inserted into the keyhole of the lock and a head that is used to rotate the blade by pinching it by hand without entering the keyhole.The blade section generally fits only one or a few specific locks.


TabletsIs the side of the fixing mechanism,keyIs a tool for opening and closing it.In addition to being used for doors of buildings and automobilesBicycle[2],safe,suitcase, On the deskし き 出 し,bagIt is installed in a wide range of places.In the past, most automobile engine start switches were also in the form of locks.

Key andlockBecause of the large number of shape patterns requiredCuttingDue to the heavy use of processing, it is also durable due to its workability, appropriate hardness, and corrosion resistance.brassIs often used.Most modern keys are nickel-plated, dull silver to increase durability, but the end faces of teeth that are old, worn, or machined are exposed to brass bullion.There is also a key made by stamping an iron plate, but it is inexpensive because the pattern is limited.(English editionIt is limited to those with low security such as.

The lock that closes and fixes the door consists of a tightening mechanism and a locking mechanism.[1]..What is a tightening mechanism?KannukiA mechanism that prevents the opening and closing of doors, etc., like the horizontal bar of[1]..The locking mechanism is a mechanism that determines whether a person who is qualified to open and close the door by operating the lock is operating it.[1]..Some locks are opened and closed by matching numbers, so the key and lock are integrated, and this is called a code lock.It has been put to practical use in mobile phones, etc.BiometricsTechnology can also be said to be the key in a broad sense.

Lock (or tighten) doors and windows with a key, etc.lockingTo say[1][3]..Also, unlock the doors and windows by a regular method such as a key (combined key).UnlockTo say[1][3]..The term "unlocking" is ambiguous, and means unlocking without using the original method (distinguishing from unlocking).[1], There are cases where unlocking and unlocking with a key are broadly referred to.[3].

Key as a metaphor

When a car is presented by the organizer at an event or TV program, a large panel that symbolically imitates the car key may be used.This treats the key as a symbol of car ownership, as the car will not move without it.Another example is the use of a "key", which refers to an important point when solving a problem.Of living thingsIdentificationUsed forKeyThe English name of is also key.



The history of the key is old, and the oldest key in the world is a wooden key called, which is said to have existed around 2000 BC.[4], Also depicted in the mural[5]..ItBeforeIs a complex stringknotIt was tied with and used as a substitute for the key.

In addition, Medieval cityThe key to the gate was a symbol of the city.As a remnant of that, even nowsister cityWhen you make a tie-up with, exchange the keys.

Louis XVIHis hobby was making keys and locks.

The United States of AmericaThen,Colonial eraThere was a view that the key was a symbol of power.William PennIn 1682DelawareA grand ceremony was held when he visited, where he was given the key to symbolize his task of defense.[6].

Flat metal keys have been widely used since the early 20th century, and with the advent of key duplicating machines, such keys became easy to duplicate.


JapanThe oldest key in1998To (OsakaHabikino) Excavated from7st centuryShrimp lock estimated to be in the middle[7].Asuka KyotoShrimp locks, which are believed to be from the latter half of the 7th century, have been excavated in the ruins pond.[8],ShosoinAlsoThe shrimp lock that seems to have been transmitted from is stored.Shrimp locks are also called "fish" in the old-fashioned way, but the locks were originally "gyoyaku".lock""""It was also written in one letter.Governing the regionKokufuThen,KokujiWith the markShosoThe 鑰Regulatory countryIt was supposed to be a proof of governance.In addition, "chain" is also a character that means the act of "closing" from the meaning of "lock" (example: Isolation, Blockade).
Edo PeriodThe keys were rarely needed by the common people.The security at that time was relatively good, and most of the time I was careful.Heart-warming stickBecause I was closing the door.The rich man at the time locked itWarehouseThe key was something that could be easily opened by hand, which didn't make much sense of crime prevention, and most of the keys were just decorations.However, the gate was equipped with a sturdy lock.In addition, in the warehouse etc.ShutterLocks used in[Note 1]Was sometimes used[9].

Weapons demand has decreased, jobs have decreasedSwordsmithWeapon craftsmen have begun to make elaborate locks called Japanese locks.AwaLock (Tokushima),TosaLock (Kochi),InabaLock (Tottori),AkiLock (Hiroshima) Etc. are famous[10].

In modern Japan, June 6th is called "Rock Day"[2].

Key classification

Historically, keys are divided into European locks, which are unlocked with the keyhole on the front of the lock, and Asian locks, which have a keyhole on the right side of the lock and are unlocked by pressing the key.[11].

European type lock

European type locks have a structure that unlocks by rotating with a key that matches the obstacles inside the lock, which is popular mainly in the West.[11]..Also called a rotary key type lock[11].

Asian type lock

Asian type tabletsSilk roadA structure that unlocks by closing the leaf spring inside the lock, which has become popular mainly in neighboring countries.[11]..Also known as Chinese rock or Oriental rock[11].

Keys for mechanical locks


The modern mainstream lock is a cylinder lock that was born in the 19th century.[1]..Ward locks were widespread in Europe until then, but the number of different keys was limited to hundreds.[1].

A cylinder lock is a lock that is a combination of cylinders, and it opens and closes by inserting a key into it and rotating it.Inside the cylinder lock, usually to block opening and closingpinThere are multiple pins, and this pin has a structure that opens only when the unlocking lines with different constant pressing conditions match.The key to the cylinder lock pushes this pin so that all the pins open at the same time and the lock rotates.To be representativePin tumbler lockThere is.

In the United States, a pin tumbler type cylinder lock was invented and mass-produced as an industrial product.[1].

There are two types of tumbler lock keys, old and new, which are often seen.Old-fashioned keys are for keys, a few (usually 2 to 2) flatlever(Lever) To various heights depending on the shape of the key blade, and by aligning them insideboltCan be moved back and forth, and the lock is locked and unlocked.The key teeth or fittings are blunt and flat.The key to a pin tumbler lock is generally rather large and a little inconvenient to carry, but it is highly safe.

The new form of key isPin tumbler lockOr the key.When inserting vertically into the keyhole for unlocking, it cannot be inserted unless the shape of the keyhole and the groove of the blade part of the key match, and the types of keys that can be inserted into the lock are limited.When the key is inserted into the lock, the teeth (matching shape) at one end of the blade part move the pins and wafer in the cylinder up and down, and when those cuts line up on the boundary between the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder, the inner cylinder can be rotated. Can be unlocked by it[12].

Skeleton key

The skeleton key is a key with a very simple design, the shaft is cylindrical, and the tip has small flat rectangular teeth (matching shape).In addition, the head that serves as a handle is also unique, and there are flat ones that are completely plain and those that are brightly decorated.The skeleton key is designed to outsmart the locking mechanism.Ward locks and their keys are less secure and can be unlocked with a skeleton key that is the same size or smaller than the key, and skeleton keys can often unlock a large number of ward locks.Even if it was not a skeleton key, there was a possibility that any object that fits in the keyhole of the ward lock could be unlocked.

Ward locks were most widely used around the 1800s, but due to their low security capabilities, they became obsolete when more complex locks could be manufactured.Nowadays, "skeleton key" is often used to mean "matching key" rather than referring to the original type of key.Ward locks are still found in old homes and old furniture.

Abroy Key

Abroy KeyDisc tumbler lockWith the key, the blade part is shaped like a cylinder cut in half along the axis.The blade has notches at various angles, which causes the disc inside the lock to rotate to a predetermined angle.

FinlandAbroy keys are often used as the key to the front door of a house, but they are also used in various parts of the world other than Finland.pickingIs very difficult and is said to be safe[13][14][15].

Tubular key

Tubular keys (older ones are also called barrel keys) are the keys to unlock.It has a hollow cylindrical shaft, shorter than the blade part of a normal key, and its diameter is large.Recent ones have grooves of various lengths carved from the tip of the shaft to the outer surface.A pin pointing in a direction parallel to the axis fits into this groove.The protrusions on the outer surface of the cylinder are intended to prevent the key from being pushed out by the pins, and the hollow portion of the cylinder is intended to align the axis of rotation of the key.

Tubular keys cannot be duplicated with a normal key duplication machine, and duplication is somewhat difficult because a dedicated machine is required.It is often found in home alarm systems, vending machines, and bicycle locks.Generally, there are 7 or 8 pins, and computers use small ones.

Dimple key

Dimple keyIt is,Switzerland OfKABAThe key, which was first developed in the world in 1934, has dents of various depths engraved on the flat surface of the blade.Due to the huge number of key differences and a complicated structure, it is currently known as the most picking-resistant key as a physical key.Corresponding locks usually have two rows of pins that engage the two rows of indentations in the key.Generally, the same recess pattern is engraved on the back side so that it works regardless of which side is inserted as the front side.[16][17]..In Japan, the picking boom that occurred in the first half of 2000 made it popular at once due to its high security.Each manufacturer manufactures cylinders with dimple keys.Dedicated equipment is required for duplication.

Magnet key

The lock that corresponds to the magnet key is a keymagnetIs embedded and it is a mechanism used for locking and unlocking.Small magnets are lined up on the blade part, and the arrangement of the north and south poles makes it possible to rotate the cylinder by attracting and repelling the tumbler inside the lock.I don't use electricity.Thousands of combinations are possible by combining various directions and strengths of magnets.[18].

Typical locks and keys

A padlock is a lock consisting of a box-shaped body and a U-shaped metal foot "string" (crane).The strings are lifted, creating a space between one leg and the body.A chain or the like is incorporated into this space to lock it.already,Edo PeriodIt is believed to have been introduced in the early days, meaning "small" or "rare" at the time.NanjingJust named (other examples: peanut,bedbugSuch),NanjingThere is no direct relationship with.For recent Japanese products, the main bodyBrass, On the vinestainlessOr brassplating officialsteelEtc. are mainly used.Cranes to improve crime preventionHeat treatmentdo it硬度There are also things that have been enhanced.
Japanese lock
In Japan, "Japanese locks" began to be manufactured in the Middle Ages.[11]..The Japanese lock has the same characteristics as the Asian lock because the key and appearance are in the form of a European lock, but the internal structure uses a leaf spring.[11]..For Japanese locksCircle of wisdomLike a key or gorgeouslyGold leafLocks stretched, weighs a fewkilogramThere is also a lock,plumAn artistic lock with a picture on it, a lock whose keyhole cannot be found without unlocking the device, and a lock that cannot be unlocked unless multiple keys are inserted into one keyhole in order, that is, a "karakuri lock".[19]There were various locks and keys.Collect them even nowコ レ ク タ ーExists.
Berlin lock
A normal key has a key on one side, but a Berlin lock (alone: Durchsteck schlüssel,British: forced locking key) Has two keys on both sides.After unlocking, the key slips out to the other side of the door.This mechanism prevents the key from being stowed until the door is locked again from the other side.This type of lock does not allow bolting while the door is open.Germany OfBerlinKey craftsman who was in Johann Schweiger Invented1912Mass-produced by Albert Kerfin & Co.This kind of key is no longer common.However, Berlin has inherited its unique characteristics.

Keys for electronic locks

Card key

The card key is a flat rectangular plastic cardCredit card,Driver's licenseIt is the same size as a proof and contains a physical or digital signature that the lock mechanism reads and unlocks.There are several types, physically perforated,barcodeIs printed,Magnetic stripe card,Wiegand wireEmbeddedPrepaid Card(Integrated circuit(Embedded),RFIDThere is a non-contact type that uses.

Building key

Building lock

Locks for locking entrances and doors of buildings are called building locks.[3].

Construction key

A construction key is a key that can only be used during new construction of a building.[20][21][22]..In the past, it was common to not lock the building under construction because multiple contractors come and go during the construction, but young people and others enter at night with interest, and homeless people use and install it as a lodging substitute. Since there are problems in crime prevention such as entering for the purpose of stealing equipment that has been installed or installing a wiretapping device, and vandalism by a person who is not willing to construct a large building, it is required to lock it. became.

However, if a normal key (used by the owner after delivery) is lent or borrowed between vendors, or if it is duplicated and handed over, there is a risk that a duplicate key will be created in an unmanaged place.In order to prevent unauthorized entry using these combined keys after handing over to the owner, it was decided to use a different key during construction.

Construction keys are often shorter than regular keys.The lock corresponding to the construction key can be locked and unlocked with this key at the beginning, but when a normal key with the original length is inserted, the lock mechanism changes and the construction key can never be locked and unlocked.

Car key


The key to the car is the door for getting on and off and luggage,trunkLid,Glove boxAccessory case, etc.Refueling portLid,Convertible OfParking brakeLocking / unlocking of levers, turning on / off of ignition switch (accessories and main power supply),Starter motorFor energization, luggage compartmentPower windowIt has been used for operations such as.Ignition switchSteeringIn most cases, it also works with rock music.

Recent ones are generally symmetrical, and some have grooves on the surface of the blade instead of having teeth on both ends of the blade."Valet parking" depending on the modelEnglish edition) Also comes with an auxiliary key called "Valley Key" that you can leave with the staff.The valky can only open the driver's door and start the engine, and is used to temporarily leave the car to someone else.Some high-performance car volleys have the ability to reduce engine power to the extent necessary to move around the parking lot.[23]..recentlyImmobilizerThe number of automobiles equipped with is increasing.

In addition, a keyless entry system that unlocks / locks the door with a remote control has become widespread, and a hands-free system that unlocks the door just by approaching the car while carrying the key.Smart entryThere is also a system.This allows the engine to be started with just a switch operation and does not require a mechanical key.

The key to some high-tech cars istheftIt is advertised as having a preventive effect.Mercedes-BenzSo I stopped using metal pieces as a key and it was codedInfraredThe beam acts as a key by communicating with the in-vehicle computer.If the codes match, you can start the car.However, such keys are very expensive and cost as much as US $ 400 to be reissued if lost.Land rover,VolkswagenHas adopted a key called a switch blade, and when the button of the keyless entry device is pressed, the blade part of the key pops out.

Transponder key

TransponderThe key is a key for an automobile having a built-in circuit that emits a signal.When the key is inserted into the cylinder of the igniter and turned, the computer of the car sends a radio signal to the transponder circuit.The circuit does not have a battery as a power source, and operates using the received wireless signal itself as an energy source.In that circuitMicro controllerIs built in and returns the encoded signal to the in-vehicle computer.If the circuit does not respond or the sign is incorrect, the engine will not start.Since each transponder key returns a different code, it is difficult to duplicate such a key.

The owner may not be aware that such a circuit is built into the head of the transponder key.on the other hand,General MotorsThe VATS (Vehicle Anti-Theft System), which was put into practical use in the 1990s, was thought to have a transponder built into the key, but in realityResistorsWas only built in, and when the key was inserted, the resistance value was measured to confirm that it was the correct value.

Device key

Some use a key to turn on and off electrical equipment.For example, some devices used for security use a key switch that uses a key to switch between alert and release.[3].

Key management

Master key

A master key is a key that can unlock a plurality of locks.The appearance of the key itself is the same as a normal key.Each lock that can be unlocked with the master key has a corresponding key, but they cannot unlock another lock.Locks with a master key have a common second lock mechanism, which is used to unlock the master key.For examplePin tumbler lockIn the case of, each pin has two cuts, one of which is used by the normal key and the other by the master key.For more expensive locks, there are cylinders for regular keys and master keys respectively.

Larger organizations employ a more complex "Grand Master Key" system.There are multiple master keys that correspond to several locks, and grand master keys that correspond to all of them are available.Large-scale hotels and the like always have the Great Grand Master Key, which is the higher key.

In buildings that use the master key system, there is an attack method that duplicates the master key with an appropriate blank key by simply accessing one of the locks.[24].

  • Has the ability to destroy locksShotgunIs a common name that is likened to the above master key.Detail isSawed-off shotgun,M26 MASSSee.
  • An ax installed to destroy locks and doors in an emergency.

key ring

People carry the keys they need for their daily lives and are decoratedkey ringIt is often summarized by.

Other loss prevention measures

The "key" that keeps the master key in the mailbox at home isEmpty nestThere is a risk of being abused[25].

To make it easier to find the key in the bag when returning home at nightLED lightingAndSmartphoneThere are also commercially available devices that notify you when you leave (leave or drop somewhere).[26].

Key duplication

A machine that quickly duplicates flat metal keys was invented in the United States in 1917 (right).

To duplicate the key, use the original key and a blank key (key blank) that does not have teeth.viseFix it so that it is lined up with, move the teeth of the original key along the guide, and synchronize with it on the blank key side.Cutting tools or grinderIt is common to duplicate by hitting[27]..After cutting, a new keyバ リTake it.If burrs are left, the corners at the cutting point are too sharp and dangerous, and the lock mechanism may be damaged.There are various other key duplication machines, but the basic idea has not changed since the early 20th century, although the degree of automation varies.

Key duplicationHome centerOf course, you can do it at a specialized lock shop, but the correct blank key is essential.

Some keys are designed to be difficult to duplicate.Also simply Do Not Duplicate There is also a key engraved with, but it doesn't make much sense legally (in the United States).

Duplicating the key can be error-prone.In an organization having a large number of keys, the shape of the key (depth of notch, etc.) may be recorded so that the key can be duplicated only from such numerical information.

Key symbolism

The key has been a symbol of management since ancient times, and has been a symbol of power and financial power.[1].

The key is used as a symbol in various emblems, for example.Vatican CityIt is used for the national emblem.This is the first generationpopePetroIs derived from the fact that he was given the "key of heaven".JapanHowever, because of the function of closing the gate, it is thought that the key has an effect such as amulet, so the key was designed.Family crest"Key crest" is made, and in famous placesMr. DoiUsed as a replacement crest[28].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ When the door comes to the closed position, the bar falls into the hole of the sill by its own weight and is locked.In this case, when unlocking from the outside, the door is opened while the lock is hooked with the key and lifted.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Precision Engineering Society Student Editorial Committee WG0 "Unlocking Key / Locking Technology" "Precision Engineering Society Journal" January 2007 issue(Retrieved September 2020, 10)
  2. ^ a b Locking your house and bicycle, Oita Prefectural Police will carry out street activities on "Rock Day""Oita Joint Newspaper』June 2021, 6 10 pages (viewed July 23, 2021)
  3. ^ a b c d e Japan Security Equipment Association Technical Standard "Terms related to crime prevention"Japan Security Equipment Association (accessed October 2020, 10)
  4. ^ "History”. Locks.ru. April 2010, 6Browse.
  5. ^ "Yomiuri Shimbun』Evening June 2013, 6 11nd page" Beginning Thoughts "
  6. ^ Olmert, Michael (1996). Milton's Teeth and Ovid's Umbrella: Curiouser & Curiouser Adventures in History, p.224. Simon & Schuster, New York. ISBN-0 684-80164-7.
  7. ^ (World Keys and Locks 2001) p.94
  8. ^ "Shrimp lock excavated at Asuka Kyoen Pond, the oldest in Japan""Yomiuri Shimbun" February 2016, 7
  9. ^ (World Keys and Locks 2001) pp.90–91
  10. ^ (World Keys and Locks 2001) pp.99–104
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Shinya Tsubone "Problems Concerning the Introduction of Foreign Technology in Locking Tools and Brass Production during the Transitional Period of the Middle Ages" "National Museum of Japanese History Research Report Vol. 210" March 2018(National Museum of History and Folklore) Read January 2020, 10
  12. ^ Popular Science, November 1946 How Your Home Lock Works
  13. ^ "Abloy locks" from archive
  14. ^ "Abloy Locks”. Data-security-safe.com. April 2010, 6Browse.
  15. ^ "showing the angles on an Abloy key". April 2010, 6Browse.
  16. ^ "dimple key" by Barry Wels
  17. ^ DOMix Dimple key system by Han Fey 2005
  18. ^ "Magnetic Locks (PDF)”. Chubb Locks Custodial Services Ltd .. As of August 2007, 8originalMore archives.April 2007, 10Browse.
  19. ^ (World Keys and Locks 2001) p.96
  20. ^ I bought a new house and was given a key, but I'm very worried if the key remains in use during the construction period.Should I have it replaced with a new one? | Japan Lock Security Cooperative
  21. ^ Construction key is a system that protects the key under construction | Life 110
  22. ^ About keys ・ Introduction of keys | Rescue of keys
  23. ^ Gary Labb.Prevention”. Orange County Auto Theft Task Force. April 2010, 6Browse.
  24. ^ Cryptology and Physical Security: Rights Amplification in Master-Keyed Mechanical Locks
  25. ^ [Series] Discovery! Dangerous House (1st) What are the crime prevention measures that can be taken from today? How to start a "crime prevention life"My Navi News(April 2021, 7) Viewed June 8, 2021
  26. ^ [Good shopping] Key troubles Dontokoi * Immediate notification when you leave your smartphone / Lights on the bottom of your bag "Nihon Keizai Shimbun』Morning edition Saturday, 2021 Morning edition reprint" Nikkei +1 "June 2021, 6 29 pages
  27. ^ "What are Key Cutting Machines?”. Wisegeek.com. April 2010, 6Browse.
  28. ^ "Your family traced by family crest, Volume 1", page 346


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