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Symposium on the theme of reorganization of public facilities and utilization of former sites in Hachioji City, Tokyo June 30 June XNUMX Venue and online ...
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We will explore new ways of citizen participation, "says Professor Aiba.
Symposium "Citizen Participation in the Metaverse Era-Big City ..." hosted by Shin Aiba Laboratory, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Minami Osawa, Hachioji City) → Continue reading
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|Individual OfLegal status|
In discussions that assume that all members are sovereigns, we see them as sovereigns (often this meaning when talking about "citizens" in modern society).The etymology of citizens iscity(Citizen and city are etymological).
Citizens are a concept similar to citizens, but the difference between the two is the society that "citizens" have as their ideal.communityRepresents a member of the political entity ofPeopleIs simply that "Country"ofCitizenshipIt is in that it represents a member who holds.Citizens and citizens may or may not be interchangeable.for example,Absolute monarchyIn the case of a nation, all the peopleSubjectAnd not a citizen (because they have been deprived of their sovereignty and independence)[Note 1]..On the other hand, "European Union citizensThere is also a form of citizenship that is not directly linked to the state, and in this case as well, it is not appropriate to paraphrase "citizen" as "national."
The translated word "citizen" isFukuzawa YukichiBy 1867 "Western affairs outside editionAnd 1875 "Outline of civilization theory』Appeared inFrancois GizoIt is believed to be the translation of burgess in the English translation of "History of European Civilization" (1828)..
- ancientRepublicCity stateFree citizens in
- The Ancient GreekΠόλις PoliceAndRepublicAncient romeInMale OfFree citizenParticipated in politics and fulfilled the community's defense obligations as a soldier.They were called "citizens" as residents of the city-state. (In Latin civitas）
Police are often divided into three types of inhabitants, with the highest ranks being suffrage citizens.Next were citizens without suffrage, and finally non-citizens.Even in the democratic Athens, for example, only adult men among free citizens had the right to vote.Also each police has someTribeOrDemos(Ward, and finallyclanIt was composed of).MeticWith (foreign residents)slaveWas not in such an organization.Citizenship was usually determined by birth.Each police worshipsGuardian deity,characteristicCeremonyAnd had a habit.
- Bourgeois, a city resident as a wealthy commerce and industry in medieval European cities
- The bourgeoisie, translated as a citizen, comes from the inhabitants of a city surrounded by walls.
- French RevolutionCitizens as political subjects after that,citoyenCitoyan
- Citouin is an abstract civic concept that excludes class.
Ancien RegimeUnder the (old system), "the first status is a priest, the second status is an aristocrat, and the third status is a citizen or a farmer", and the citizens and farmers who make up the majority of the population are neglected and suffered.A revolutionary song of the French Revolution, sung when citizens and peasants gather to overthrow the king and march all the way from southern France to the capital, Paris.CurrentFranceNational anthem of (France)But also "La Marseillaise"ofRefrainIs as follows.
- "Take the weapon Citizensよ
- Form a platoon
- Let's move on! Let's move on!
- Dirty blood
- Until we fill the ridges of our field! "
Modern French people have grown up by singing this song proudly since childhood.In this way, when the modern French hear the word "citizen", the first concept that comes to mind is "citizens (= join forces, defeat the domineering and cruel kings and royalty, and regain independence and sovereignty." , HappyRepublic”, Conducting politics that respects the human rights of all people, and showing a society that can serve as a model for people all over the world)”. [Note 2]
Citizenship (citizenship) isCivil revolutionCountry with the backgroundMultiethnic countryThen.CitizenshipSometimes used synonymously with[Source required],NormallySuffrageIt is a term that refers to the relationship between legal rights and obligations.Civil rightsSometimes called.
CitizenshipWhen used separately from, to which it belongsCountryMeans the qualification of being a citizen withinCitizenshipIs a problem in relation to other countries, while citizenship is treated as a domestic issue.When distinguishing between those who have citizenship and those who do not,SuffrageIs often distinguished by whether or not is perfect.JapanDoes not have a legislation that divides the people (citizens) depending on whether or not they have suffrage,Article 10 of the ConstitutionとNationality lawAs there is a "requirement to be a Japanese citizen", nationality and being a citizen (citizen) are inseparable.However, the term citizenship is not defined as a legal term.In the Constitution of Japan, the subject who enjoys human rights is the Japanese people,McLean caseSuch asPrecedentThen, except for the right that is understood to be intended only for Japanese citizens due to the nature of the right, it is understood that the guarantee of basic human rights is equally applicable to foreigners residing in Japan.
Also, as a metaphorical expression, the official recognition from the world is metaphorically called "citizenship", and the generalization that special or rare things are widely accepted is "Get citizenshipIt is used like this.
Cosmopolitan (world citizens, global citizens)
SinopDiogenesEnvisioned a world government that transcended the existing nation (polis).The people of the world governmentcosmopolitanIs.This idea isStore schoolIt was inherited in modern times through.Immanuel Kant TheHistoryHe discussed the idea of the World Government as the ultimate state of the world, and while acknowledging its practical impossibility, he discussed the possibility of World Citizenship Law as a practically valid law.The specific content of his World Citizens Law is that as world citizens, the current citizens of each country (meaning of the people) should be mutually granted the right to visit.
AutonomyWalled cityFrom the tradition of the city, imitations that are likened to the keys of the castle gate are often presented as a sign of friendship in Europe and the United States.
If the community is not a city, it may be called an honorary townsman, an honorary villager, an honorary ward citizen, an honorary citizen, an honorary citizen, an honorary citizen, or an honorary citizen.
Citizen participation(Mr. Shimin) means that citizens are involved in the promotion of administrative measures by expressing their opinions and making proposals regarding the administrative measures of municipalities. Generally, citizens participate in policy making and NPO activities of local governments. However, the citizens in this case are used as a group or individual of purposeful civic activities.
MunicipalitiesThe YaEnvironmental basic plan,City planning master planHearing the opinions of citizens when deciding on important measures such as, and the public offering system for municipal government proposals in administrative measures,Public comment,Public involvementWith consensus buildingPublic worksCitizen participation to reflect inOrdinanceThe number of local governments that have been institutionalized is increasing.
The nuances of words
The definition of "citizen" as the political sovereign of society varies, but is often interpreted to include the following nuances:
- Citizens are anonymousMassesNot as a part of, but as an individual who has manifested himself, he has the spirit of independence and acts autonomously.
- Public nature
- Citizens, aware that they are sovereigns in civil society, carry out their social rights and obligations and act to realize their general will.
- Citizens are not passive but active, actively working on society and participating in the situation.
- ^ It's not that subjects aren't citizensBritish subjectsUntil 1949British EmpireIt ’s a term used as a whole., The British people are generally considered to have been citizens.
- ^ In addition, although it is a citizen of a long time ago and another country,Karl MarxIs a book such as "The Declaration of the Communist Party", and the reality of Citouin after the French Revolution is bourgeois.proletariat(Lower workers) weren't in, (and his styleInterpretationBy making such an assertion, he developed his own theory while defending his new theory.Marx emphasized that the bourgeoisie (formed long after the French Revolution) had a strong economic class or status aspect, thereby making it different from the political situation of the 18th century. I tried to influence the political situation in the early 20th century.
- ^ How to read: Portites
- ^ How to read: Citoyan
- ^ How to read: Citizen
- ^ How to read: Bürger
- ^ "Types of British nationality --British subject". www.gov.uk. April 2021, 3Browse.
- ^ Nomura (Nakazawa) Mari "<Research Note> "Citizen" as a historical term: Dedicated to the late Mr. Yoichi Hayashi"Kanazawa University Faculty of Economics, Vol. 21, No. 1, Kanazawa University Faculty of Economics, January 2001, pp. 1-229," ISSN 02854368, NOT 110000140089,April 2021, 11Browse.