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A cult cult that has increased nearly 4 online religions from South Korea targeting Japanese people
If you write the contents roughly
The Protestant churches in South Korea are characterized by active missionary activities, but the number of believers has decreased significantly in many churches because the new corona has made it impossible to carry out missionary activities freely.
Online religious solicitation for Japanese people Korona-ka has stopped people from coming and going.Various online activities to make up for that ... → Continue reading
Korea World Times
Korea World Times was established with the aim of deepening the understanding of the history and culture of the Korean Peninsula.We will disseminate information mainly through this Internet medium, and provide content with explanations on the North Korean issue from a historical background and a geopolitical point of view.In particular, we deliver the latest Korean Peninsula news, North Korean reference materials, North Korean travel, South Korea, North-South relations, and other information on the Korean Peninsula centered on North Korea.
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|キ リ ス ト 教|
|Before religious reform|
|Religious reform era|
|After the era of religious reform|
|Interdenominationalism / Others|
Protestant(British: protestant) IsReformationStarting with exerciseCatholic church(OrWestern church), Especially (in a broad sense)EvangelicalismIs the philosophyキ リ ス ト 教Religious denominationsPoint to.Catholic church in Japan (old religion)[Annotation 1]), "ProtestantAlso known as "Shinkyo".These denominationsナ ザ レ の イ エ スTheキ リ ス トReligion to believe as (Savior)Is.Believe that Jesus Christ was crucified and resurrected to preach the gospel of the kingdom of God and save sinful humans. "God the father'And "the son Christ"When"Holy spiritBelieve as the only god (Trinity, Trinity).
Roman Catholic Church,Orthodox churchThere is no single organization in the world like, but there are many denominations due to the variety of Bible interpretations,Nicene-Constantinopolis BeliefsThe denominations that do not deviate from are generally called "Protestant denominations".As the main denominationLutheran Church,Reformed Church,Anglican,Baptist Church,Methodist church,Seventh-day Adventist Church,Holiness Church,Pentecostal churchand so on.
The generic name Protestant is that its bearers protest against the Catholic Church (Luo: prōtestārī, Protester Lee).. "Protestant" is a general term for the relevant denominations, and there is no denominational federation that controls the entire Protestantism.During the formation of denominations in the Middle Agesstate religionBecause the converted Catholic church did not recognize religious freedompopeInside, contrary to centralismSplitEven for the Protestant denominationsheresyIt was decided to take measures as.As a result, many denominations have used new means of conflict and war against the Catholic Church's response.systemI built a typical church.Also, the Protestant churches that established new orthodox standards hereticized those that violated their official standards of faith.[Annotation 2].
DoctrineThe Apostles' Creed, which is the center of the church, is set to be almost the same as the Catholic church that became the mother.In addition to that, there are three major principles as unique principles.[Annotation 3]Is also set.As a criterion for determining whether it is pagan or heretical,BibleThe whole is from GodinspirationOn the premise that it will be taken as the word of God written in response to三位一体The doctrine of Jesus is established, the faith of Jesus' resurrection is established, the faith of the Atonement through the death of Jesus in Nazareth is established, the Lord JesusOld TestamentIt is stipulated that the belief that it is the Christ of Christ has been established.
1524/, A radicalist against the backdrop of German farmers' dissatisfactionThomas MüntzerThe armed peasants led by the uprising, the Lutheran princes clashed violently against it, causing many sacrifices.German Peasant WarBroke out.1529/Lutheran princes and citiesHoly Roman EmpireemperorKarl ICalling for religious reformProtest letter(Protestatio) ”was sent.Therefore, this faction is "Protesters(Protestant) ”has come to be called.
Luther et al.baptismとSacramentOther churchesSacramentExcludeBibleGo back toEvangelicalismAnd in the Western Church, almost until thenLatinWas only done inceremony,BibleTheGermanWe have made significant reforms such asFor this reason, the Lutheran faction gradually came from northern Germany.GermanyIt spread to the whole, and its followers increased.LutherSola fideIt is well known as a person who advocated the doctrine.Lutheran sola fide in particularCatholic church OfCouncil of TrentIt was excluded due to such reasons.As a result, he established a separate denomination.
Religious struggles were also associated with political power struggles, and the civil war in the German region continued for 30 years.The end of the civil warAugsburg Peace of Augsburg(1555/) Will guarantee the status of religious freedom for Protestants as well as for the Catholic Church.Lutheranism spread to the north,Denmark-Sweden-NorwayIt became the state religion.
At the timeEuropean continentWas Spanish territoryThe Netherlands17 states OfAntwerpWas the center of economy and trade, but in 1566Flanders(CurrentBenelux3 countries andFranceNorthern)Protestant religious reformBegins in the NetherlandsHabsburg, SpainSeeking independence fromEighty years warAnd accompanying thisThirty years warWas fought[Annotation 4].
SwitzerlandThe religious reform movement took place at about the same time as the German reform.Catholic priestUlrich ZwingliDevelops the doctrines of "Sola Scriptura" and "Sola Fide Only" from his disciplesInfant baptismDenies and allows rebaptismAnabaptistOccurs and laterReformed ChurchWill be excluded from (Westminster Synod).Also, ZwingliSacrament theoryWill be in conflict with the Lutheran faction.
After a civil war,Jean CalvinAppeared, he inherited Zwingli and became the leader of religious reform in Switzerland.Calvin is a new church organizationPresbyterian polityWas advocated.Calvinist churches on the continentReformed ChurchCalledJohn Knox OfEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euAn English Calvinist church viaPresbyterian churchIt is called (then advanced to the United States).Calvin advocated a double predestination, inherited by the Calvinists,CalvinismAlso called.The predestination, like the Lutheran, is subject to exclusion at the Council of Trent.The Calvinists want to save society from the turmoilReligiousとPolitics,(I.e.とCountryIt is advocated to clearly classify the functions.Also, for the religious life of the general public, secular occupationcalling(Of GodVocation), And preached that life is simple and austere, etc., and this is during the nascent period.資本主義It is said that it fits in with the spirit of.CalvinismIs in the westFrance- Netherlands-United Kingdom-AmericaSpread to.later,Dutch Reformed ChurchTherefore, he argued that this idea from Calvinism was unscriptural, and opposed the Calvinist predestination.Jacobus ArminiusAnd by his successors the Remonstrants (Arminian) Appears.1610/,ReformistExcludes the Arminian faction as a heretic at the Synod of Dort.This Arminian idea later became (General Baptists OfBaptist),MethodistIt will be inherited by the Wesley faction.Currently, the basic ideas of theology of each cult tend to be divided into two poles, Calvin and Arminius.
16st centuryAt the endAnglican ChurchInsidePuritanと 呼 ば れ るReformed ChurchPeople have emerged seeking reform in the direction of.Calvinism in England was influenced by John Knox's Scotland, but more radical reform movements have emerged from the National Church to illegally build churches.They are called separatists.Puritans and separatists, especially the AnglicanSupervision systemAgainstCongregationInsisted.The separatists also belong to the false church, even for the Puritan who aspire to reform the church from the inside without separating from the national church.Mutual sacred banquetWas rejecting.The idea of the British separatists is said to have started with Robert Browne.This was eventually the pastor of the Mother ChurchJohn SmythInherited by (John Smyth).Smyth influenced Thomas Helwys, the founder of the General Baptist sect, as a teacher.However, the doctrinal debate has not yet been settled on how much Smyth, who was thinking of merging with the Waterland Mennonites at the time, had a specific impact on Helwis.Dozens of people who have left the non-separable congregational church, which was founded by Rev. Henry Jacob, a former Anglican priest, in search of a more separatist church, have rebaptized the Patecular Baptists. go(I.e.It is said that it started with the establishment of a new facility.
17th centuryAge of DiscoveryIt was the end of the game, but in the NetherlandsbusinessmanWas in 1609North AmericaDiscoveredColonyStarted to build, in the same yearEdoAlso started trading.In EdoPolitical circumstancesWithout missionary workDutch studiesWas to be spread,British-Ran WarIn the UK and NetherlandsIs in AsiaGore,Macau,Hong Kong,Batavia,Perfume IslandsIn Spain, Portugal, etc., which had been dominant until thenCatholicIt came to eliminate the power of.
18st century, BritishOxford UniversityAt the innerJohn Wesley,George WhitefieldThe movement, which began with a group led by Britain, spread throughout the UKMethodistIt came to spread under the name.And this movement went to AmericaFirst Great AwakeningHowever, when the Revolutionary War began, he returned to Britain.1784/There are 25 Methodist Charters that recognize the remaining Methodist missionaries in the United States as supervisory churches.1845/, U.S. Partical Baptists disagree on slavery and foreign missionary policyNorthern Baptist Alliance(CurrentAmerican Baptist Churches)WhenSouthern Baptist FederationDivide into.Around this time, a similar division occurs in the American Methodist Church, but the division ends soon.19st centuryThe Holiness faction emerges from the late American Methodist lineage, and the Pentecostal faction emerges based on this.Furthermore, the Pentecostal movement by the Pentecostal denomination extends to other denominations and is known as the Holy Spirit denomination.also,CharismaticOriginates from the Pentecostalism,WCCBy joining the group, he is excluded from the Pentecostalists who oppose ecumenism.
19st centuryAs the Second Coming Movement became more active, several Second Coming denominations split and organized from here.Among themEllen WhiteThey were active, not on Sunday, but on the day Jesus was keeping at that time.SaturdayThe fact that it was, and the SDA (Saturday, which is also the Old Testament) as a worship daySeventh-day Adventist Church) Has appeared.With the view that this church is classified as ProtestantNew Christian religionThere are both views that fall into.
Friedrich SchleiermacherModern theology starting fromLiberal theology,Bible Higher CriticismAgainst the penetration of Protestant churches in BritainEvangelical Alliance The1846/Confessed the standard of evangelical belief consisting of nine articles.Also in the United Kingdom and the United States in the early 9th centuryChristian fundamentalismExercise has taken place. In the middle of the 20th century1948/With a focus on liberal Protestantism and Roman CatholicismEcumenical exerciseOrganizationWorld Church CouncilWas established, but against itEvangelical AllianceAs a founding member1951/ToWorld Evangelical AllianceWas formed.Rise after World War IIEvangelicalAgainst the ecumenical movement1974/,First International Congress on World EvangelismHeldLausanne PledgeWas announced.And the evangelicalsNeo-evangelicalismAlso calledEvangelismAnd emphasize the evangelicalism of religious reform.Evangelicals practice personal missionary work,Billy GrahamExpanded evangelism through large-scale evangelism activities, etc.Westminster Theological School,Fuller Theological Seminary,Whiton College,Christianity TodayBecame more influential.
List of denominations
- Lutheran Church (Lutheran Church[Annotation 5]）
- Reformed Church (Reformed churches)
- Fundamental Reformation(Religious reform radical) (Radical Reformation)
- Amish(Aman school)
- (Church of the Brethren)
- Hutterites(Hutterite) (Hutterites)
- Mennonites (Mennonites)
- (African Independent Churches) (AICs)
- Anglican Church
- United Episcopal Church
- Salvation Army
- Wesley faction (Wesleyanism)
- as well as the
- Other denominations
Number of followers
As of 2013, there are about 23 billion Christian believers in the world and about 5 million Protestant believers..
Inglehart-Welsel Cultural Map
Inglehart-Welsel Cultural MapClassified in Protestant EuropeNordic countries(Sweden,Denmark,Finland,Norway,アイス ランド), Netherlands,Germany,SwitzerlandIt is,History,culture,社会Have a lot in common in terms of.personal自由,Individualism,Democracy,SecularでrationalIt is characterized by an emphasis on social order, and is positioned as an approximate ethnic group that clearly ranks higher than tradition, religion, and loyalty to the nation.Estonia is also classified as Protestant Europe, but on the Inglehart-Welsel Cultural Map, it is rather in the category of Catholic Europe..
キ リ ス ト 教徒Is a country that makes up the majority of the population and has more Protestants than other Christian denominations.Germany,Sweden,Finland,Norway,Denmark,アイス ランド,エストニア,United Kingdom,Kenya,ガーナ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,シエラレオネ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Zambia,Zimbabwe,ボツワナ,Namibia,Eswatini,Republic of South Africa,Australia,New Zealand,パ ュ ュ ニ ニ,Fiji,トンガ,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,バヌアツ,The United States of America,JamaicaAnd so on.However, it is the birthplace of religious reform.GermanyIs almost in competition with Catholicism.ChugokuThe percentage of Christians in the population is about 5%, but in terms of absolute numbers, it is high, of which Protestants account for more than 8%.The percentage of Christian population is 3%, which is relatively high in Asia. South KoreaOf these, more than 6% are Protestant.Nearly half of the Christians in Japan are said to be Protestant, about 90..
Differences between evangelicals and ecumenicals
The evangelical view of the Bible is full of inspiration.
The ecumenical Protestant view of the Bible can be broadly divided into two types.
- Neo-orthodoxy is a partial inspiration.
- The liberal faction is a negative inspiration.
Religious denomination that there is no heresy
Heretic provisions of Protestant factions
The criteria for defining "heresy" are deviations from the basic beliefs such as the Nicene Creed, the Nicene-Constantinopolis, the Chalcedonian, and the Apostles' Creed, which can be shared by many denominations.
Differences from other denominations
"Protestant" is the whole of the denominations and is like a representative or leader of the whole Protestant (Catholic churchInpope,Orthodox churchInPatriarch) Or, there is no cult coalition that controls the entire Protestantism.In addition, the formation of each denomination itself arose from the separation and withdrawal from the first unified Protestantism, and it was not something that was divided into multiple denominations, but was the earliest Protestantism.Anabaptist,Lutheran,Calvin School,Zwingli factionAlthough they were influenced by each other, they were established completely separately, and there was no unified Protestantism from the beginning.Therefore, the aboveAnglicanIncluding such things, "whether it is Protestant or not" is ambiguous, and it is also the result of the birth of denominations and denominations that are difficult to draw.See the system section of this section for the establishment of each.
In contrast, the Catholic Church is central to all churches that belong to it.Roman Pope(Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Is linked.Orthodox churchIs basically divided into multiple denominations by country or region, but the same doctrineDedicationShare and mutuallyFull communionIt exists as a coalition that maintains relationships andIstanbul OfPatriarchate of ConstantinoupoliIs called the Patriarchate of the whole land, and although it is honorary, it is treated as the head and head of the Orthodox Church.[Annotation 6]..In that sense, there is no denomination named "Protestant" in the same meaning and usage as the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
The word "Protestant" is in volume 66BibleIt is used for Christianity that shares a different canon, with a denomination of people who use the same canon as a denomination.[Annotation 7]The sect that usesDenomination[Annotation 8]May be distinguished as (sect).
Protestants are of the same denominationReligious corporationThe cult as is often further divided.For example, the sameLutheran ChurchThere are cases where corporations such as "○○ Lutheran Church", "△△ Lutheran ~ Church", and "○○ Lutheran XX Church" are separated even if they are self-defined as a denomination. In some cases, there is no interaction.This is due to the fact that immigrants and missions have different bodies, and that the interpretation of the doctrine causes division.The opposite pattern isThe Christian Church of JapanAnd so on, different denominations are one interdenominational denomination[Annotation 9] It may belong to.
In addition, Lutheran ChurchToConventThere is a small amount of system, but there are not a few differences between Protestant denominations, such as the absence of a monastic system in other Protestant denominations.
20st centuryA protestant-centered Christian church unity movement that took place in Japan.
State church and free church
The principle of Cuius regio, eius religio (the religion of the lord is your religion) does not apply outside Europe, and in Asian regions, etc.GodlinessBecame the driving force of evangelism.National churchThe church independent ofFree churchIt is called (free church).
Jointly by multiple Protestant denominationsUnited churchEspecially the movement to make20st centuryIt has become popular. United Church of Canada, North Indian Church(Church of North India),Church of South India(Church of South India),China Christian CouncilAnd so on.
Protestant refers mainly to denominations separated from the Catholic church and further separated from it.Orthodox churchIncludingEastern ChurchDoes not refer to a denomination separated fromAncient riteEtc. are not called Protestant).
Anglican(Anglican Church) Is separated from the Catholic Church and influenced by Protestant doctrine, while the Catholic Church's beliefs, priesthood system,ceremonyThere is a history of taking over such things.So he made the Anglican ProtestantSortThe Anglican Church also stipulates that it "belongs to Protestantism as a church born as a result of religious reform."On the other hand, since it inherits the Catholic tradition, it is also positioned as a "middle way church" and a "bridge church"..British royal familyThen, those who succeed to the throne and have Protestant faith, and those who have Orthodox faith, after succession to the throne,Scottish National ChurchIn this case, the Anglican is considered to be included in Protestantism.
Whether or not to call the Anglican Church, which is self-identified as Protestant as mentioned above, even if it is a denomination separated from Catholicism, is divided by each denomination and individual congregation.It is also a denomination separated from Catholicism.Old Catholic ChurchWhat is the Anglicanism that recognizes Protestantism?Full communionDespite the relationship, he calls himself Catholic and is not included in Protestantism.In this way, there are some denominations and denominations that are difficult to delineate whether they are Protestant or not.
Although it is a very rare example, it is a Protestant tradition but adopts the Orthodox deity.Evangelical Orthodox ChurchThere is also a denomination called.This is because the denominations that were originally evangelical Protestants eventually adopted the Orthodox sacred rites, and the origin was not the Orthodox Church but the Catholic Separation Group (EvangelicalVia) Protestant.Many churches of this denomination eventually joined the Orthodox churches in some areas, and the number of their own Protestant denominations is now decreasing.
System schematic diagram
View in sociology
Protestantism and modern society
There is a view that the modernization of Europe, which is the subject of research and debate in sociology, was strongly supported by the Protestant revolution, especially in its early days.
The most famous theory isMax Weberby"The ethics of protestantism and the spirit of capitalism』It was developed inPuritanIn a nation where ascetic Puritanism predominates,WorkerIs reasonablyEfficiency,ProductivityImprovementIt has been pointed out that he had a tendency to pursue.According to Weber, in Protestant doctrine, that is, the profession given to him.callingPoverty is the eternal destruction of God by Calvin's predestination (double predestination) and Luther's idea.omenOn the other hand,This worldProtestant believers, especially ascetic Puritanists, are devoted to their work to escape the fear that they may have been determined to be destroyed, as success in God was taken as a testament to God's blessing. Unrelentingly (Weber uses the German word "while cramping" here) I am one of those who can be saved by God by driving inProofTheConfirmI triedpsychologicalThere is.In addition, the social psychologistErich FrommAlso, in Chapter 3 "Freedom in the Age of Religious Reform" in Escape from Freedom, using Weber's theory, he analyzed that such psychology is authoritarian, similar to fascism. It is the view that authoritarian elements were already contained in paleo-Protestantism.
In addition, Daniel BellIs資本主義 OfcultureContradiction ”, like thisRationalismSpirit, along with the movement of modernism in artModern societyHow it should beProvisionIt is assumed that it was the main factor.also,1960/After the generation消费Of modernism linked to society影響Expanding power, modern derived from ProtestantismRationalismAlso diagnosed as threatening.Because of this rationalismInstitute for Economics and PeaceObjectively calculated using the data ofPositive Peace IndexNow, except for Estonia in the Baltic StatesInglehart Welzel Cultural MapCountries classified as Protestant Europe in:Nordic countries(Sweden,Denmark,Finland,Norway,アイス ランド),Switzerland, Netherlands,Germany, And it turns out that Australia and New Zealand, which are as close to Protestant Europe as possible, are in the top 13 countries along with Japan..
There is another theory that deals with different aspects of the relationship between Protestantism and modern times, and it is also widely known.Go to church and listen to sermons with other religious people,HymnIn contrast to Catholics who practiced their faith by singing, Protestants initially emphasized individual reading of the Bible.Reading is an individual-centered activity compared to group rituals, and some commentators call it peculiar to modern society.IndividualismThink in connection with.
Events allegedly influenced by Protestants
- In the German Peasants' War of 1525, princes who followed Luther's recommendations subdued the peasants and killed 10 peasants.For more information on thisGerman Peasant WarSee.
- The 1562 Huguenot War is a civil war between French Catholics and Protestants for nearly 40 years.For more information on thisHuguenot WarSee.
- Settlement in the Americas by European countries.For more information on thisBritish colonization of the Americas,and,French colonization of the AmericasSee.
- Protestant rebellion in the Eighty Years War.For more information on thisEighty years warSee.
- Germany Thirty Years War.It broke out in the wake of a Protestant rebellion in Bohemia (Bemen).For more information on thisThirty years warSee.
- Indian War.A general term for the war of conquest of Indians by white settlers in the United States.For more information on thisIndian WarSee.
- King Philip's War. War between white settlers and Indian tribes in New England from June 1675 to August of the following year[Annotation 10]..For more information on thisKing Philip the WarSee.
- Taiping Rebellion. From 1851 to 1864.FamilyFailed three timesHong Xiuquan Qing DynastyA rebellion that fought with overthrow.For more information on thisTaiping Heaven RebellionSee.
Protestant and prominent person
|[How to use footnotes]|
- 注 釈
- ^ However, the Catholic Church itself has never called itself "old religion", and it is a name that is not used at all in the Catholic Church.
- ^ Due to the establishment of such a sect, some denominations were born that could coexist with the expression of the universal doctrine that Jesus preached in Nazareth and the guidelines for conflict and war.
- ^ What is justified before Godaction,Festivalnot"Religious FaithThere are "only", the Bible is the word of God, "only the Bible" whose religious life is based on the revelation of the Bible, and "the priesthood of all who" that all baptized believers are priests. (Iwanami Christian Dictionary P994 Item of Protestantism Yoshikatsu Kawanago)
- ^ Later, in 1648Westphalia ConventionAnd accompanying thisPeace of Westphalia(English edition）BySouthern NetherlandsOther than the seven northern statesFederal Republic ofEstablished as, and againSwitzerlandAlso became independent.
- ^ "Lutheran" is Luther'sStage Germanreading
- ^ It does not have the highest authority of ecclesiastical politics like the Roman Curia.
- ^ The difference in this case isThe Old TestamentRegarding, the Catholic sideSeptuagintCompliant withLatinWhile it depends on the Bible, the Protestant sideJewish warLater canonizedHebrew bibleSome of the documents contained in the former have been removed from the canonized Hebrew Bible, with the only difference being based onDeuterocanonical ScriptureIs included or not included in the Old Testament.
- ^ However,Japanese OfDenominationThe word is originally a Buddhist term and is rarely used in Christianity.
- ^ The Christian Church of JapanIs an interdenominational sect formed due to the political circumstances of Japan, but in the postwar reorganizationEvangelicalThe church of the system that is said to belong does not belongMainline ProtestantIs recognized as a cult of.
- ^ Since then, the Puritan and the indigenous people have been in complete conflict.Iwanami Christian Dictionary P1035
- ^ "Christianity" "Dictionary of Religious Studies"University of Tokyo Press, 1973, 146 pages.
- ^ a b "Christianity""Daijisen] Augmented / New Edition,Shogakukan, 1998, First Edition, p. 714. "キ リ ス ト 教Digital Daijisen, Shogakukan,Koto bank.
- ^ "Father" (Onchichi <New Joint Bible"The Gospel According to John』3:35>).
- ^ "Son" (Miko <New Interconfessional Translation Bible "Gospel of John" 3:35>), "God the Child".
- ^ Protestant (Dictionary.com)
- ^ Iwanami Christian Dictionary P90 Heretical Item Takashi Kizuka
- ^ Fujio Ikado"Aspects of the cult In the case of Christianity"Iwanami Shoten1997/
- ^ "History of Heresy"Kyobunkan1997/
- ^ JG Melton Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. Garland
- ^ Susumu Uda "Modern Evangelical Theology" Life Words Company
- ^ McGrath "The Future of Christianity" Kyobunkwan
- ^ Yasuo Furuya "The Turbulent American Church" Jordan
- ^ For further information, please read Christianity #number of believersSee
- ^ a b "WVS Database". www.worldvaluessurvey.org. 2022/3/19Browse.
- ^ "WVS Database". www.worldvaluessurvey.org. 2022/3/19Browse.
- ^ "WVS Database" (English). www.worldvaluessurvey.org. 2022/3/19Browse.
- ^ [WVS wave 7 (2017-2020): Haerpfer, C., Inglehart, R., Moreno, A., Welzel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano J., M. Lagos, P. Norris, E . Ponarin & B. Puranen et al. (eds.). 2020. World Values Survey: Round Seven – Country-Pooled Datafile. Madrid, Spain & Vienna, Austria: JD Systems Institute & WVSA Secretariat. Doi.org/10.14281/18241.1 ]
- ^ a b Pew Research Institute"Christians of the World"(English edition). 2011.
- ^ Susumu Uda"Evangelical Christianity and Evangelicals"
- ^ Oyama Reihito"Agree with Christian Reconciliation" Jibiki Net Publishing
- ^ Kyoritsu Christian Institute"Mission Handbook"
- ^ Japan Evangelical Association"Japanese Evangelical School"
- ^ "The Path of Mission-Between Ecumenical and Evangelical-"Word of Life Company
- ^ Oyama Reihito"Bible doctrine"
- ^ Nobuo Watanabe"History of Asian Evangelism"Word of Life Company
- ^ Japan Evangelism Conference"Opening of Japan and 150 Years of Protestant Mission" 2009
- ^ Thomas Browne "Church and State in Scotland" Immediately Shobo
- ^ Cairns "The Complete History of Christianity"Bible book publishing society
- ^ Welcome to the United Church of Canada!
- ^ About the United Church (English)
- ^ Anglican Church in Japan Osaka Parish
- ^ Hiroshi Orihara"Recommendations for Weber Studies"Miraisha,Year 2003
- ^ "POSITIVE PEACE REPORT Analysing the factors that build, predict and sustain peace.". 2022/1/31Browse.
- ^ Louis Dumont (1993)
- "Anthropological Perspectives on Individualist Theory" by Louis Dumont, translated by Kozo Watanabe and Fusaichi Asano ISBN-4 905913-46-2 1993/
- Liberal theology
- Christian fundamentalism
- Seventh-day Adventist Church
- Hussites(Bohemian Brotherhood, Moravian Brotherhood)
- The Christian Church of Japan
- Cult Shinseikai
- Japan Jesus Christian Group
- Jesus Spirit Church
- Christian school(Mission school)
- Jurij Dalmatin
- Japan Evangelical Association
- List of Protestant denominations in Japan
- List of Japanese Protestant names